World War One: Greece and Mesopotamia

By the summer 1918 an Allied army had been sitting in northern Greece for three years, sucking in ever greater resources in manpower, material and shipping; the legacy of the soaring vision in spring 1915 of outflanking the Western Front by marching on Vienna via the Balkans. At the beginning of 1916, after the final failure at Gallipoli and the collapse of Serbia, the Allied Commander-in-Chief at Salonika, the French General Maurice Sarrail, proceeded to construct an elaborate 70-mile long defensive perimeter round the port, in order to hold it against an expected Bulgarian offensive coming out of the mountains to the north. The attack never came; the Allied bridgehead in technically neutral Greece became, in a derisive German phrase, ‘the greatest internment camp in the world’, already containing 90,000 British and 60,000 French troops. Italians came to join the throng; two Russian brigades as well. Here the remnants of the Serbian army rallied and prepared for their revenge.

In September 1916 the Allied forces at long last launched an offensive of their own, striking into the forbiddingly wild mountains between Greece and Serbia where the Bulgarians, with a stiffening of Germans, had dug themselves in with skill. Painfully the Allies drove the enemy from crest to crest as the mud of autumn gave way to the first blizzards of winter. Finally in November, the French captured the town of Monastir, whereupon the Balkan campaign reverted to trenches for the winter. Not in till April and May 1917 did the allies try again, attacking a series of steep and naked mountain ridges that extended along Greece’s borders with Albania, Serbia, and Bulgaria. The Standard Great War tactical pattern repeated itself: breakdown communications and control in the attacking forces; slaughter of troops in the open by emplaced guns and machine guns; small gains of ground. The allied ‘ Army of the Orient’, now at its peak strength of 600,000 men, reverted to the defensive again. In June 1917 the ever-deeper Allied involvement in Greece’s internal affairs reached a climax with the enforced deposition of King Constantine in favour of his son, and the entry of Greece into the war under the pro-allied Venizelos. Militarily little further was to happen on the Greek front for another fourteen months. Malaria caused the bulk of the allied casualties. Men passed through the hospitals more than once, so that while a total of 409,000 British served at Salonika, the total sick rose to 481,000, a ratio of 1,103 hospital admissions for sickness alone per 1,000 men; a staggering figure which underlines the campaign’s waste and futility.

The Turks

In the Middle East, too, a major campaign had grown from small beginnings, eventually to swallow nearly 1,200,000 British Empire troops. In 1914 the Turkish Empire extended over the modern territories of Syria, the Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and down the red sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Turkish forces therefore menaced the Suez Canal, Britain’s imperial lifeline between the Mother Country and India, Australia and New Zealand, and Indian and Anzac units were dispatched to Egypt, a British Protectorate, in order to defend the Canal. Early in 1915 the expected Turkish offensive materialized. Twenty thousand men marched through the heart of the Sinai Desert, when Egyptians and Israelis were to clash a half century later, and sought to cross the Canal. The defenders repulsed the Turks easily in what were hardly more than skirmishes.

Nonetheless, the British remained anxious lest the Turks should return in greater strength. They therefore dug a powerful defense system behind the Canal and built up the imperial garrison in Egypt to 100,000 by the end of 1915. Conscious of their new strength, the British cautiously pushed forward across the Sinai. On 21 December 1916 El Arish, on the border of Palestine, fell. Lloyd George, who had just become War Premier,, now saw a wonderful opportunity of winning a prize that would make better headlines in 1917 than another slog on the Western Front: the capture of Jerusalem, the Holy City of three religions. In January British imperial forces Under General Sir Archibald Murray advanced into Palestine. On 24 March he attacked Gaza, garrisoned by 4,000 Turks. The plan was bold: a frontal infantry assault from the south, coupled with a cavalry sweep round the Turkish rear. The execution was muddled. By the time the infantry, after much confusion and loss, had fought its way into the city, the cavalry commander, believing the infantry had failed, had withdrawn his cordon from the Turkish rear. The Turkish reinforcements poured in, and the next day, amid more confusion, the British fell back.

Three weeks later Murray tried again, this time with a single simple frontal attack by three infantry divisions against a ridge protecting Gaza from the south. This was a complete failure that cost Murray his command.

His successor, General Sir Edmund Allenby, lately commanding the Third Army on the Western Front, fully lived up to his nickname of the “Bull” both in physique and character. A cavalry man, he now proceeded to make maximum use of his splendid Australian horsemen and of the opportunities for mobile warfare offered by the sweeping plains of southern Palestine. ON 32 October he launched the Third Battle of Gaza. Carefully planted false information together with a feint attack convinced the enemy command that main British effort would fall yet again on the coastal sector round Gaza. Instead Allenby seized Beersheba, the eastern hinge of the Turkish line, in a surprise attack, and sent his cavalry riding on for the sea across the Turkish rear. On 6 November a final Blow at the Turkish centre, between Gaza and Beersheba, brought about the collapse of the enemy defense. Allenby’s forces pushed on north through the cypress sheltered orange groves to capture the ancient port of Jaffa; then swung east to clime the twisting road through the Judaean hills to Jerusalem on their crest. After briefly fighting on the rocky hillsides round the city, the Turks fell back northwards to Nablus. On 11 December 1917 Allenby entered Jerusalem, walking on foot, and Lloyd George had his desired Christmas present to cheer up the British people after a grim year. Nevertheless Allenby’s successes had by no means knocked Turkey out of the war., let alone inflicted damage on Germany. The Campaign in Palestine had almost another year to run before it reached its final dead-end.

Turkish Mesopotamia (Iraq)

British sea-power dependent of oil from the Persian oilfields at the head of Persian Gulf at the port of Abadan and vital pipeline running inland around Azwaz demanded securing.

On 6 November 1914 the day after the Turkish declaration of war and infantry brigade group from India began to land near Basra; its mission to protect Persian oilfields and pipelines. On 21 November Basra fell, and the British pushed up stream to Al Qirnah on the Tigris. Another British force marched to the Persian town of Ahwaz and, after various skirmishes, eliminated the menace of raiding Turks and Arabs. In April 1915 a Turkish attempt to recapture Basra was beaten off.

The British had thus fully accomplished their original purpose. The Government of India ( which was responsible for the expedition) looked further, to Baghdad, the fabulous medieval city of the Caliphs, some500 miles up the Euphrates from Basra. Purely military considerations too enticed the British command to deepen their bridgehead round Basra; not least the apparent feebleness of the Turkish Army. At the end of August the British began the long march to Baghdad, with shade temperatures exceeding 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Such an adventure along a river winding through a desert demanded copious river transport and a well-organized base and supply port at Basra. The Government of India and the Indian Army, used to punitive expeditions against the Pathan, had provided neither. To all the usual drawbacks of hasty improvisation the Indian authorities added their own brand of incompetence and muddle. Despite a supple bottleneck at Basra and a desperate shortage of river craft, the field force commander, Charles Townshend, a bold general who modelled himself on the young Bonaparte, pushed rapidly on, gambling on reaching Baghdad before his precarious lines of communication starved him to a halt. On 22 November 1915 he attack the Turks entrenched in a position at Ctesiphon, some 20 miles from Baghdad. Townshend’s plan was to hold the Turks with a frontal assault while he hooked around their left flank. Unfortunately his available force was not large enough to carry out such a plan. Turkish artillery and machine guns took fearful toll of British and Indian troops advancing across ground as flat and devoid of cover as a table; Townshend’s attacking infantry lost more than half its effectives killed and wounded. Under the shadow of the great ruined Arch of Ctesiphon, all that remained of that ancient city. Townshend’s hope of reaching Baghdad finally died. He fell back into the mud built Arab town of Kut-al-Amarah, where his superiors instructed him to stand fast pending the arrival of fresh forces. Soon he and his army were cut off and under siege.

Now began the real time of horror for the British and Indian soldiers in Mesopotamia. The continued supply bottleneck at the port of Basra and the lack of river craft(Thames pleasure steamers were sent all the way to the Persian Gulf under their own steam, as part of desperate efforts at remedy) placed tight limits on the size of the relief force. Its commander, Lieutenant General Sir Fenton Aylmer, strove again and again to break through the Turkish defense and recue Townshend in Kut. The Turkish losses were equal in proportion to the number of troops engaged to the losses in any battle on the Western Front. In Mesopotamia there existed no well-organized and thoroughly equipped medical service as in France, but a Crimean style shambles, thanks to the incompetence of the Government of India and the Indian Army medical administration. Men lay with untreated, gangrenous wounds amid their own excreta on the decks of vessels making their slow way down the primitive base hospital at Basra. One eye witness describes the arrival of one of these craft: “When the Mejidieh was about three hundred yards off, it looked as if she were festooned with ropes. The stench when she was close was quite definite, and I found that what I mistook for ropes were dried stalactites of human feces. The patients were so crowed and huddled together on the ship that they could not preform the offices of nature clear of the ship….”

On 29 April 1916 the 13,000 strong garrison of Kut al-Amarah, out of food and out of hope, surrendered; a disaster to British arms that made the same kind of impact on British and world opinion as to the fall of Tobruk in the Second World War.

Now at last the muddle and hasty improvisation gave way to thorough, business like organization. Responsibility for Mesopotamia was transferred from the Government of India to the British War Office. A first class fighting soldier and military organizer, General Sir Stanley Maude, became Army Command. Civilian experts and abundant resources turned Basra into an efficient supply port. The transport system and medical services were reorganized and vastly expanded. The army in Mesopotamia grew to a ration strength of 150,000; the field force itself to 72,000.

In December 1916 Maude, outnumbering the Turks three to one in troops and with ample artillery, began a systemic advance on Baghdad. Winter rains, transforming the Mesopotamian plain into a clinging morass, did not help his march. The paradox was seen of ferocious trench warfare in the middle of an empty desert, because the need for drinking water and dependence on the Euphrates for transportation normally prevented wide turning movements. However Maude did succeed in out flanking the powerful Turkish position that had defied British attempts to relieve Kut, by marching up the other bank of the river to threaten the enemy communications. Violently attacked in front at the same time, the Turks gave way and by 24 February 1917 were in full retreat towards Baghdad. Kut al-Amarah fell once more to British hands. On the 11 March, after vain Turkish resistance, Baghdad its self was captured; another close packed and malodorous Mesopotamian slum.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: The Great War
BY: Correlli Barnett
CONTRIBUTOR: Cade Pommeraan

Advertisements

Presidential Commutations of Sentences: Obama 22 November 2016

81 Clemency Grants

Lawrence Daro Adams
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute 500 grams or more of cocaine, aiding and abetting
District/Date:
Southern District of Texas; July 20, 2001
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $5,000 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Tyrone Allen
Offense:
Aiding and abetting possession with intent to distribute more than 50 grams of cocaine base
District/Date:
Western District of Texas; March 25, 2003
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Anthony Arthur
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute at least 50 grams of “crack cocaine”
District/Date:
Western District of Texas; August 3, 2005
Sentence:
210 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $1,000 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Lisa Woods Ball
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute more than 500 grams of methamphetamine
District/Date:
Western District of Virginia; March 3, 2009
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 188 months’ imprisonment.

Curtis A. Beasley
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute five grams or more but less than 50 grams of crack cocaine; possession with intent to distribute five grams or more of crack cocaine
District/Date:
District of South Carolina; August 16, 2004
Sentence:
408 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Efrem Berry
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute a detectable amount of cocaine; possession with intent to distribute less than 50 kilograms of marijuana; possession with intent to distribute a detectable amount of 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, aka MDMA
District/Date:
Middle District of Georgia; November 9, 2006
Sentence:
235 months’ imprisonment; six years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 151 months’ imprisonment.

Albert Betemit
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute in excess of five kilograms of powder cocaine and 50 grams of cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute cocaine (three counts); distribution of cocaine; possession with intent to distribute in excess of 50 grams of cocaine base (two counts); distribution in excess of 50 grams of cocaine base (two counts); unlawful use of a communication facility
District/Date:
Eastern District of Virginia; September 25, 1996
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; four years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 300 months’ imprisonment.

Carroll Edgar Blevins, Jr.
Offense:
1. Distribution of methamphetamine (two counts)

2. Supervised release violation (possession of a firearm by a convicted felon (two counts))
District/Date:
1. Western District of Virginia; November 3, 2006

2. Western District of Virginia; November 3, 2006
Sentence:
1. 188 months’ imprisonment; six years’ supervised release

2. 51 months’ imprisonment (consecutive); one year’s supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Kerwin Blount
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute cocaine and cocaine base
District/Date:
District of Connecticut; May 18, 2000
Sentence:
292 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Tramiere Broughton
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute cocaine base (“crack”)
District/Date:
Southern District of Iowa; October 3, 2002
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Thomas Brown
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute at least five kilograms of cocaine
District/Date:
Southern District of Florida; October 24, 1989
Sentence:
Life imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2017.

Christopher Carlton Bryson
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and to possess with intent to distribute heroin and marijuana, each a schedule I controlled substance, and cocaine and cocaine base (“crack”), each a schedule II controlled substance; money laundering
District/Date:
Southern District of Iowa; February 9, 2001
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Earl Cain
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine base
District/Date:
District of Massachusetts; February 15, 2001
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Christopher Michael Calloway
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute cocaine base; possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
Eastern District of Virginia; June 9, 2008
Sentence:
181 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (June 18, 2007); amended to 180 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Jermaine Lewis Carter
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute at least 50 grams of cocaine base
District/Date:
Southern District of Iowa; April 24, 2009
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 180 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Jimmy Carter, Jr.
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute cocaine hydrochloride (two counts); possession of cocaine hydrochloride; possession with intent to distribute cocaine base
District/Date:
Middle District of Alabama; September 23, 2003
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 240 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Mark Clifton
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possession with intent to distribute cocaine base (crack); possession with intent to distribute cocaine base (crack) and aiding and abetting
District/Date:
Eastern District of North Carolina; May 28, 1997
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release; $7,500 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, and unpaid balance of $7,500 fine remitted, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Dewayne Damper
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute “crack” cocaine base
District/Date:
Southern District of Mississippi; May 12, 2004
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release; $4,500 fine (April 20, 1999); amended to 360 months’ imprisonment; six years’ supervised release; $4,500 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Johnny Davis
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribution of five kilograms or more of cocaine and 50 grams or more of cocaine base, commonly known as crack cocaine
District/Date:
District of South Carolina; February 4, 2004
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Roy Edward Detreville, Jr.
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of crack cocaine
District/Date:
Middle District of Florida; February 8, 2005
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Luis Diaz
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute heroin, and conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine hydrochloride
District/Date:
Middle District of Florida; July 1, 2015
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (July 25, 1996); amended to 360 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

William Henry Dudley
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of a mixture and substance containing cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of a mixture and substance containing cocaine base; possession of a firearm by a convicted felon
District/Date:
Northern District of Florida; April 27, 2006
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release; $1,000 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Reginald Leon Edwards
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base; possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
Western District of Virginia; October 22, 2008
Sentence:
181 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $400 fine (August 3, 2007); amended to 180 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Timothy John Ehrmann
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine and ecstasy; aiding and abetting to distribute ecstasy (two counts); aiding and abetting to distribute methamphetamine (three counts); possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine
District/Date:
District of Minnesota; September 12, 2016
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (March 5, 2004); amended to 292 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 228 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

P.W. Ferguson
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribution of 50 grams or more of cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute and distribution of a quantity of cocaine base, aiding and abetting
District/Date:
District of South Carolina; May 31, 2007
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Darryl D. Fields
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute 50 grams or more of crack cocaine
District/Date:
Northern District of Iowa; June 8, 2009
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Timothy Fields
Offense:
Conspiracy; possession with intent to distribute controlled substance, aiding and abetting (three counts); use and carry firearm during drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
Northern District of Texas; February 16, 1994
Sentence:
Life plus 60 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 465 months’ imprisonment.

Tyris Ford
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute cocaine base (“crack”); distribution of cocaine base (“crack”) or possession with intent to distribute cocaine base (“crack”); carrying a firearm during a drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
Eastern District of Pennsylvania; January 5, 2001
Sentence:
300 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Eric Cornell Foster
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute five kilograms or more of cocaine
District/Date:
Eastern District of Michigan; December 11, 2007
Sentence:
Life imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 175 months’ imprisonment.

Osvaldo Richard Gonzalez
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine; possession of firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking offense
District/Date:
Southern District of Iowa; September 7, 2007
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Jamere Ireadus Hall
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute cocaine and cocaine base; felon in possession of firearm
District/Date:
District of Maryland; August 1, 2005
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 210 months’ imprisonment.

Avery Hardy
Offense:
Possession with the intent to distribute more than 50 grams of crack cocaine
District/Date:
Middle District of Georgia; January 12, 2006
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Donikki Hardy
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute crack cocaine
District/Date:
District of South Carolina; February 5, 2014
Sentence:
480 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (November 26, 2002); amended to 300 months’ imprisonment (October 28, 2008); amended to 299 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

William Crawford Hardy, III
Offense:
Distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base
District/Date:
Western District of Virginia; February 7, 2006
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Robert Jeffrey Harris
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base
District/Date:
Northern District of Florida; December 12, 2006
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 210 months’ imprisonment.

Jeff Hendricks
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and to distribute more than 500 grams of methamphetamine; conspiracy to possess a List I chemical to manufacture methamphetamine
District/Date:
Northern District of Texas; April 1, 2016
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (May 9, 2002); amended to 324 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Warren Lavell Jackson
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute cocaine
District/Date:
Southern District of Florida; March 7, 2000
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 300 months’ imprisonment.

Timothy Johnson
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribution of cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute cocaine base; using and carrying a firearm during and in relation to a drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
District of South Carolina; February 28, 2006
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Paul Kinney
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with the intent to distribute in excess of 500 grams of methamphetamine
District/Date:
Eastern District of Missouri; December 19, 2014
Sentence:
235 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (April 19, 2006); amended to 210 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Daniel Lee Larsen
Offense:
Possession of methamphetamine with intent to distribute; conspiracy or attempt to manufacture methamphetamine (two counts); establishment of a manufacture operation; possession of a listed chemical (two counts); possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking offense
District/Date:
District of Utah; January 7, 2002
Sentence:
384 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $2,000 restitution
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 270 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Darrius Lewis
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute cocaine base
District/Date:
Southern District of Mississippi; May 20, 2005
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; three years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 188 months’ imprisonment.

Robert Lum
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute in excess of 50 grams of methamphetamine
District/Date:
District of Hawaii; November 28, 2005
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Karliss Lyttle
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute more than 50 grams of cocaine base; distribution of less than five grams of cocaine base (two counts)
District/Date:
Southern District of Illinois; April 22, 2004
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release; $500 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Ryan W. Magro
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute a controlled substance
District/Date:
District of Massachusetts; May 22, 2007
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; three years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Orlando Keith McCord
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute five grams or more of cocaine base
District/Date:
Eastern District of Michigan; April 19, 2007
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Donna Sue McDaniel
Offense:
Distribution of 219.6 grams of methamphetamine
District/Date:
Northern District of Texas; September 27, 1996
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

John E. McNeill
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute 100 grams or more of phencyclidine, commonly known as PCP; conspiracy to distribute 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine, commonly known as PCP
District/Date:
District of Kansas; February 23, 2004
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Frantz Michel
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and to distribute heroin, cocaine, and cocaine base
District/Date:
Eastern District of Virginia; November 2, 2015
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (January 31, 2003); amended to 300 months’ imprisonment (November 1, 2011); amended to 235 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Vernard Mitchell
Offense:
Unlawful possession of a firearm and ammunition by a person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year; unlawful possession with intent to distribute five grams or more of cocaine base; unlawful possession with intent to distribute heroin; unlawful possession with intent to distribute cannabis
District/Date:
District of Columbia; March 30, 2007
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 210 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Robert L. Moffitt
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess and distribute cocaine base; distribution of cocaine base; maintaining a drug-involved premises (two counts)
District/Date:
Northern District of Texas; January 12, 2012
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; six years’ supervised release (April 10, 2006); amended to 292 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 180 months’ imprisonment.

Ward Everette Mohler
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribution of methamphetamine; distribution of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (three counts); carry firearm during drug trafficking (two counts); possession of firearm by a convicted felon (two counts); distribution of methamphetamine (nine counts)
District/Date:
Western District of Virginia; March 18, 2016
Sentence:
469 months’ imprisonment; three years’ supervised release (April 23, 1992); amended to 436 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on December 22, 2016.

Michael Toriano Morris
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and distribute cocaine and cocaine base
District/Date:
Western District of North Carolina; November 23, 2015
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release (August 19, 2004); amended to 292 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Jerry Lee Mutchler
Offense:
Conspiracy to manufacture and distribute methamphetamine
District/Date:
Southern District of Iowa; February 4, 2005
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Victor Robert Nava, Sr.
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine and marijuana; distribution of marijuana; possession of methamphetamine with intent to distribute; distribution of hydrocodone; possession of morphine with intent to distribute; possession of codeine with intent to distribute
District/Date:
District of Montana; May 22, 2002
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 270 months’ imprisonment.

Cathy Lea Neal
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute 500 grams or more of methamphetamine mixture and 50 grams or more of actual (pure) methamphetamine
District/Date:
Northern District of Iowa; September 24, 2009
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on May 21, 2017.

Jose Otero
Offense:
Possession of cocaine with intent to distribute
District/Date:
District of Massachusetts; June 29, 2006
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Tilman Rufus Partin
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute cocaine; possession with intent to distribute cocaine, aiding and abetting
District/Date:
Eastern District of Kentucky; October 10, 1997
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 324 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Mario A. Powell
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute 50 grams or more of “crack” cocaine
District/Date:
Western District of Missouri; April 16, 2009
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Roosevelt Terence Jerome Rayford
Offense:
Conspiracy to manufacture, distribute, possess, or dispense cocaine base (crack) or marijuana
District/Date:
Eastern District of Texas; April 29, 2004
Sentence:
326 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $2,000 fine (July 1, 2003); amended to 300 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 188 months’ imprisonment.

Eddie James Reed
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base; possession with intent to distribute five grams or more of cocaine base
District/Date:
Middle District of Georgia; February 28, 2008
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Jose Rodriguez
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute more than one kilogram of heroin and more than 50 grams of cocaine base
District/Date:
District of New Jersey; August 28, 2015
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $10,000 fine (April 27, 2006); amended to 235 months’ imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017 and unpaid balance of the $10,000 fine remitted.

Cynthia Valdez Shank
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and to distribute more than five kilograms of powder cocaine, 50 grams of cocaine base, and/or 1,000 kilograms of marijuana; possession with intent to distribute five kilograms or more of cocaine; possession with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base (crack cocaine); possession with intent to distribute 40 pounds of marijuana
District/Date:
Western District of Michigan; February 29, 2008
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release; $10,000 fine
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017, and unpaid balance of the $10,000 fine remitted.

Artis Sherman
Offense:
Conspiracy in the possession with intent to distribute more than 50 grams of crack cocaine
District/Date:
Western District of Texas; November 30, 2007
Sentence:
300 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Carnell Smith
Offense:
1. Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute mixtures containing cocaine

2. Possession of a prohibited object by a prison inmate; February 11, 2001
District/Date:
1. Northern District of Illinois; January 5, 2012

2. Eastern District of Arkansas
Sentence:
1. 262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release

2. Seven months’ imprisonment (consecutive)
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Marco Strickland
Offense:
Attempted possession with intent to distribute a controlled substance
District/Date:
Eastern District of Michigan; October 24, 2007
Sentence:
Life imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to 168 months’ imprisonment.

Tony Taylor
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of cocaine base (crack); distribution and possession with intent to distribute more than five grams of cocaine base (crack) (five counts); distribution and possession with intent to distribute more than 50 grams of cocaine base (crack)
District/Date:
Eastern District of North Carolina; December 4, 2007
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 293 months’ imprisonment.

Deborah Theeler
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute 500 grams or more of methamphetamine mixture and 50 grams or more of actual (pure) methamphetamine following two prior felony convictions
District/Date:
Northern District of Iowa; September 18, 2007
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Damarlon Cenaka Thomas
Offense:
Distribution of five grams or more of cocaine base
District/Date:
Eastern District of Michigan; November 20, 2008
Sentence:
230 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Dexter Bert Tyson
Offense:
Conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute a mixture containing cocaine base and a mixture containing cocaine; possession with intent to distribute a mixture containing cocaine base and cocaine, aiding and abetting; possession with intent to distribute a mixture containing cocaine, aiding and abetting (two counts); possession of a firearm with an obliterated serial number in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime, aiding and abetting; possession of a firearm with an obliterated serial number, aiding and abetting, felon in possession of a firearm; felon in possession of ammunition
District/Date:
District of Maryland; January 13, 2006
Sentence:
Life plus 60 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 300 months’ imprisonment.

Lavan Maurice Walker
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute a detectable amount of heroin (two counts); possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime; possession of a firearm by a convicted felon
District/Date:
Southern District of Florida; March 9, 2004
Sentence:
420 months’ imprisonment; six years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Jamie Warfield
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute cocaine base (two counts); possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime
District/Date:
Eastern District of Missouri; July 20, 2005
Sentence:
180 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on May 21, 2017

Lamar Webster
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute methamphetamine; possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine; money laundering conspiracy; money laundering
District/Date:
District of Montana; April 17, 2009
Sentence:
Life imprisonment
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 240 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Sterling Kenneth Westberry
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine and cocaine base
District/Date:
Northern District of Florida; September 15, 1998
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Travis L. Wilken
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute five grams or more of actual methamphetamine
District/Date:
District of Utah; February 2, 2006
Sentence:
235 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on November 22, 2018, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Derrick Maurice Williams
Offense:
Possessed with intent to distribute cocaine base (crack)
District/Date:
Middle District of North Carolina; November 2, 2000
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; five years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on May 21, 2017.

Jacobi Lamont Williams
Offense:
Distributed cocaine base (crack)
District/Date:
Middle District of North Carolina; August 24, 2006
Sentence:
262 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 188 months’ imprisonment, conditioned upon enrollment in residential drug treatment.

Nelson Williams
Offense:
Possession with intent to distribute cocaine base (two counts); distribution of cocaine base; possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime; possession of a firearm by a convicted felon
District/Date:
Eastern District of Louisiana; July 21, 2004
Sentence:
240 months’ imprisonment; eight years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to expire on March 22, 2017.

Darvell D. York
Offense:
Delivery of a controlled substance
District/Date:
Northern District of Illinois; January 8, 2007
Sentence:
360 months’ imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 240 months’ imprisonment.

Myron Young
Offense:
Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine base
District/Date:
Western District of Kentucky; July 20, 2010
Sentence:
Life imprisonment; 10 years’ supervised release
Terms of grant:
Prison sentence commuted to a term of 240 months’ imprisonment.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: United States Department of Justice
CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall

World War One: The Last Campaigns

Meuse-Argonne, 26 September – 11 November 1918. At the end of August Marshal Foch had submitted plane to the national commanders for a final offensive along the entire Western Front, with the objective of driving the enemy out of France before winter and ending the war in the spring of 1919. The basis for his optimism was the success of Allied attacks all along the front in August. Furthermore, he pointed out, the Allies already had active operations in progress between the Moselle and Meuse, the Oise and Aisne, and on the Somme and Lys Rivers. Foch acknowledged that the Germans could stave off immediate defeat by an orderly evacuation combined with destruction of materiel and communications. Therefore the overall aim of the fall offensive would be to prevent a step-by-step enemy retirement. As Foch anticipated, the Germans eventually contributed to the success of his strategy. Their High Command could not bring itself to sacrifice the huge stores collected behind the front lines, and so delayed the withdrawal of its armies.

Foch’s great offensive, planned to begin in the last week of September, called for a gigantic pincers movement with the objective of capturing Aulnoye and Mézières, the two key junctions in the lateral rail system behind the German front. Lose of either of these junctions would hamper seriously the German withdrawal. Despite grumbling from the English that they lacked the necessary manpower, a chiefly British army was assigned the teak of driving toward Aulnoye. The A.E.F. was designated for the southern arm of the pincers, the thrust on Mézières. Simultaneously the Belgian-French-British army group in Flanders would drive toward Ghent, and the French armies in the Oise-Aisne region would exert pressure all along their front to lend support to the pincers attack.

Pershing decided to strike his heaviest blow in a zone about 20 miles wide between the Heights of the Meuse on the east and the western edge of the high, rough, and densely wooded Argonne Forest. This is difficult terrain, broken by a central north-south ridge that dominates the valleys of the Meuse and Aire Rivers. Three heavily fortified places-Montfaucon, Cunel, and Barricourt-as well as numerous strong points barred the way to penetration of the elaborate German defenses in depth that extended behind the entire front. This fortified system consisted of three main defense lines backed up by a fourth line less well-constructed. Pershing hoped to launch an attack with enough momentum to drive through these lines into the open area beyond, where his troops could then strike at the exposed German flanks and, in a coordinated drive with the French Fourth Army coming up on the left, could cut the Sedan- Mézières railroad.

The task of assembling troops in the concentration area between Verdun and the Argonne was complicated by the fact that many American unite were currently engaged in the St. Mihiel battle. Some 600,000 Americans had to be moved into the Argonne sector while 220,000 French moved out. Responsibility for solving this tricky logistical problem fell to Col. George C. Marshall, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), First Army. In the ten-day period after St. Mihiel the necessary troop movements were accomplished, but many untried divisions had to be placed in the vanguard of the attacking forces.

On the 20-mile Meuse-Argonne front where the main American attack was to be made, Pershing disposed three corps side by side, each with three divisions in line and one in corps reserve. In the center was the V Corps (from right to left the 79th, 37th, and 91st Divisions with the 32d in reserve), which would strike the decisive blow. On the right was the III Corps (from right to left the 33d, 80th, and 4th Divisions with the 3d in reserve), which would move up the west aide of the Meuse. On the left was the I Corps (from right to left the 35th, 28th, and 77th Divisions with the 92d in reserve), which would advance parallel to the French Fourth Army on its left. Eastward across the Meuse the American front extended in direct line some 60 miles; this sector was held by two French Corps (IV and II Colonial) and the American IV Corps in the St. Mihiel sector. Pershing had available to support his offensive nearly 4000 guns, two-thirds manned by American artillerymen; 190 light French tanks, mostly with American personnel; and some 820 aircraft, 600 of them flown by Americans.

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive falls into three phases. During the initial phase (26 September-3-October) the First Army advanced through most of the southern Meuse-Argonne region, captured enemy strong points, seized the first two German defense lines, and then stalled before the third line. Failure of tank support, a difficult supply situation, and the inexperience of American troops all contributed to checking its advance.

In the second phase (4-31 October) the First Army, after the inexperienced divisions had been replaced by veteran units, slowly ground its way through the third German line. The enemy was forced to throw in reserves, drawn from other parts of the front, thus aiding the Allied advances elsewhere. In the face of a stubborn defense, American gains were limited and casualties were severe, especially as a result of the newly devised enemy tactic of attacking frontline troops with airplanes. First Army air unite retaliated with bombing raids which broke up German preparations for counterattacks. By the end of October the enemy had been cleared from the Argonne and First Army troops were through the German main positions. Two notable incidents of this phase of the campaign were the fight of the “Lost Battalion” of the 77th Division (2-7 October), and the feat of Corp. (later Sgt.) Alvin C. York, who single-handedly killed 15 Germans and captured 132 on 8 October.

In mid-October the organization of the Second Army was completed, at Toul in the St. Mihiel sector, to provide means for better control of the lengthening American front and solutions of the diverse tactical problems that it presented. Pershing assumed command of the new army group thus formed.

Before the third and final phase (1-11 November) of the offensive got under way, many of the exhausted divisions of the First Army were replaced, roads were built or repaired, supply was improved, and most Allied units serving with the A.E.F. were withdrawn. On 1 November First Army units began the assault of the now strengthened German fourth line of defense. Penetration was rapid and spectacular. The V Corps in the center advanced about six miles the first day, compelling the German units west of the Meuse to withdraw hurriedly. On 4 November the III Corps forced a crossing of the Meuse and advanced northeast toward Montmédy. Elements of the V Corps occupied the heights opposite Sedan on 7 November, thus finally accomplishing the First Army’s chief mission-denial of the Sedan- Mézières railroad to the Germans. Marshal Foch, at this juncture, shifted the First Army left boundary eastward so that the French Fourth Army might capture Sedan, which had fallen to the Prussians in 1870. American units were closing up along the Mouse and, east of the river, were advancing toward Montmédy, Briny, and Metz, when hostilities ended on 11 November.

General Pershing authorized the results of the Meuse-Argonne Campaign, the greatest battle in American history up to that time, in his Final Report: “Between September 26 and November 11, 22 American and 4 French divisions, on the front extending from southeast of Verdun to the Argonne Forest, had engaged and decisively beaten 47 different German divisions, representing 25 percent of the enemy’s entire divisional strength on the western front.

 The First Army suffered a loss of about 117,000 in killed and wounded. It captured 26,000 prisoners, 847 cannon, 3,000 machineguns, and large quantities of material.” More than 1,200,000 Americans had taken part in the 47-day campaign.

Vittorio Veneto, 24 October – 4 November 1918. Late in the war, Americans participated on a limited scale in campaigns in Italy. The 332d Regiment with attached hospital troops was sent from the A.E.F. to the Italian Front in July 1918 for the morale effect which it was hoped that the sight of Americana would have on the Italians. This force of about 1,200 men took part in the last great Italian offensive against the Austrians, the Battle of Vittorio Veneto.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: United States Army Center of Military History
CONTRIBUTOR: Cade Pommeraan