Nuremberg 1945-46; International Military Tribunal for War Criminals (Part 1)

I have referenced the International Military Tribunal of Major War Criminals Trials at Nuremberg Germany during 1945-46 in several articles. But just what was the IMTWCT and how did it come about and for what reason? I will attempt to answer these questions, as it requires an in-depth review there will be a series of articles. Hopefully some are as interested in these proceeding as I am. First I shall present the persons involved in the proceedings and their function.

The Tribunal was established by the London Agreement of August 8 1945, refereeing to the Moscow Declaration of 30 October 1943, calling for the persecution for German atrocities in occupied Europe; thus came about the creation of the, Charter of the International Military Tribunal, with the signatory Governments of the; United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland, The United States, provisional Government of the French Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. At the end of the Second World War the victor nations under the Charter of the United Nations decided that those responsible for the carnage resulting from the devastation of that conflict should be held accountable for their part in the actions which resulted in the deaths of millions of human beings.

The first session was held in Berlin, Germany 18 October 1945; chaired by GENERAL NIKITCHENKO U.S.S.R., the first preliminary hearings began on 14 November 1945 which took place for 3 days (14-15 & 17) Chaired by Lord Justices Geoffery Lawrence (UK) as President, with the charge to outline the charges and procedural protocols for the trials. To detail the defendants to be prosecuted and the charges levied against them. Also to review the defense motions before trial.

Tribunal Participants:
INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERNIRELAND, and THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
-against –
HERMANN WILHELM GORING, RUDOLF HESS, JOACHIM VON RIBBENTROP, ROBERT LEY, WILHELM KEITEL; ERNST KALTENBRUNNER, ALFRED ROSENBERG, HANS FRANK, WILHELM FRICK, JULIUS STREICHER, WALTER FUNK, HJALMAR SCI-IACHT, GUSTAV KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH, KARL DONITZ, ERICH RAEDER, BALDUR VON SCHIRACH, FRITZ SAUCKEL, ALFRED JODL, MARTIN BORMANN, FRANZ VON PAPEN, ARTHUR SEYSS-INQUART, ALBERT SPEER, CONSTANTIN VON NEURATH, and HANS FRITZSCHE, Individually and as Members of Any of the Following Groups or Organizations to which They Respectively Belonged,
Namely:
DIE REICHSREGIERUNG (REICH CABINET); DAS KORPS DER POLITISCHEN LEITER DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (LEADERSHIP CORPS OF THE NAZI PARTY); DIE SCHUTZSTAFFELN DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (commonly known as the “SS”) and including DER SICHERHEITSDIENST (commonly known as the “SD”); DIE GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI (SECRET STATE POLICE, commonly known as the “GESTAPO”); DIE STURMARTEILUNGEN DER NSDAP (commonly known as the “SA”); and the GENERAL STAFF and HIGH COMMAND of the GERMAN ARMED FORCES, all as defined in Appendix B of the Indictment, Defendants.

MEMBERS AND ALTERNATE MEMBERS OF THE TRIBUNAL
LORD JUSTICE GEOFFREY LAWRENCE, Member for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, [President]
MR. JUSTICE BIRKETT, Alternate Member
MR. FRANCIS BIDDLE, Member for the United States of America
JUDGE JOHN J. PARKER, Alternate Member
M. LE PROFESSEUR DONNEDIEU DE VABRES, Member for the French Republic
M. LE CONSEILLER R. FALCO, Alternate Member
MAJOR GENERAL I. T. NIKITCHENKO, Member for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
LIEUTENANT COLONE, L A. F. VOLCHKOV, Alternate Member

OFFICIALS OF THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT
BRIGADIER GENERAL WM. L. MITCHELL: General Secretary (from 6 November 1945 to 24 June 1946)
COLONEL JOHN E. RAY: General Secretary (from 24 June 1946)
MR. HAROLD B. WILLEY: General Secretary (to 6 November 1946) American Secretary (to 11 July 1946)
MR. WALTER GILKYSON: American Secretary (from 16 July 1946)
MR. IAN D. McILWRAITH: British Secretary
MAJOR A. POLTORAK: Soviet Secretary
MR. A. MARTIN-HAVARD: French Secretary
COLONEL CHARLES W. MAYS: Marshal (to 26 June 1946)
LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES R. GIFFORD: Marshal (from 26 June 1946)
COLONEL LEON DOSTERT: Chief of Interpreters (Prom the Office of U.S. Chief (to 17 April 1946) of Counsel)
COMMANDER ALFRED STEER, U.S.N.R.: Chief of Interpreters ((From the Office of U.S. Chief (from 18 April 1946) of Counsel))
MAJOR JACK L. BAILEY: Administrative Section
CAPTAIN D. P. SULLIVAN: Witness Notification and Procurement
LIEUTENANT COLONEL A. M. S. NEAVE, B.A.O.R.: Applications and Motions Sections ( B.A.O.R. –British Army of the Rhine)
LIEUTENANT COMMANDER ALBERT E. SCHRADER, U.S.N.R.: Defendants Information Center
MR. BERNARD REYMON: Custodian of Documents and Records
LIEUTENANT COLONEL LAWRENCE D. EGBERT: Editor of the Record
CAPTAIN SIGMUND ROTH: Director of Printing

PROSECUTION COUNSEL: United States of America
CHIEF OF COUNSEL: Mr. Justice Robert H. Jackson
EXECUTIVE TRIAL COUNSEL:
Colonel Robert G. Storey
Mr. Thomas J. Dodd
ASSOCIATE TRIAL COUNSEL:
Mr. Sidney S. Aldermen
Brigadier General Telford Taylor
Colonel John Harlan Amen
Mr. Ralph G. Albrecht
ASSISTANT TRIAL COUNSEL:
Colonel Leonard Wheeler, Jr.
Lieutenant Colonel William H, Baldwin
Lieutenant Colonel Smith W. Brockhart, Jr.
Commander James Britt Donovan, U.S.N.R.
Major Frank B. Wallis
Major William F. Walsh
Major Warren F. Farr
Captain Samuel Harris
Captain Drexel A. Sprecher
Lieutenant Commander Whitney R. Harris, U.S.N.R.
Lieutenant Thomas F. Lambert, Jr., U.S.N.R.
Lieutenant Henry K. Atherton
Lieutenant Brady 0. Bryson, U.S.N.R.
Lieutenant (j. g.) Bernard D. Meltzer, U.S.N.R
Dr. Robert M. Kempner
Mr. Walter W. Brudno
Only those members of the Persecution Counsel who spoke before the Tribunal are listed.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
CHIEF PROSECUTOR: H. M. Attorney-General, Sir Hartley Shawcross, K.C., M.P.
DEPUTY CHIEF PROSECUTOR: The Rt. Hon. Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, P.C., K.C., M.P.
LEADING COUNSEL: Mr. G. D. Roberts, K.C., O.B.E.
JUNIOR COUNSEL:
Lieutenant Colonel J. M. G. Griffith-Jones, MC., Barrister-at-Law
Colonel H. J. Phillimore, O.B.E., Barrister-at-Law
Major F. Elwyn Jones, M.P., Barrister-at-Law
Major J. Harcourt Barrington, Barrister-at-Law

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
CHIEF PROSECUTOR: General R. A. Radenko
DEPUTY CHIEF PROSECUTOR: Colonel Y. V. Pokrovsky
ASSISTANT PROSECUTORS:
L. R. Shenin: State Counsellor of Justice of the 2nd Class,
M. Y. Raginsky: State Counsellor of Justice of the 2nd Class,
N. D. Zorya: State Counsellor of Justice of the 3rd Class,
L. N. Smirnov: Chief Counsellor of Justice,
Colonel D. S. Jiasev
Lieutenant Colonel J. A. Ozol
Captain V. V. Kuchin

French Republic
CHIEF PROSECUTOR:
M. François de Menthon
M. Auguste Champetier de Ribes
DEPUTY CHIEF PROSECUTORS.
M. Charles Dubost
M. Edgar Faurc
ASSISTANT PROSECUTORS (Chiefs of Sections):
M. Pierre Mounier
M. Charles Gerthoffer
M. Delphin Debenest
ASSISTANT PROSECUTORS:
M. Jacques B. Herzog
M. Henry Delpech
M. Serge Fuster
M. Constant Quatre
M. Henri Monneray

DEFENDANTS AND INDIVIDUAL DEFENDANTS COUNSEL

GÖRING, HERMANN WILHELM—— Dr. Otto Stahmer
HESS, RUDOLF——– Dr. Günther von Rohrscheidt (to 6 February 1946) / Dr. Alfred Seidl (from 6 February 1946)
VON RIBBENTROP, JOACHIM—– Dr. Fritz Sauter (to 5 January 1946) / Dr. Martin Horn (from 5 January 1946)
LEY, ROBERT———25 October 1945; Committed suicide before trial dates, was never tried.
KEITEL, WILHELM——– Dr. Otto Nelte
KALTENBRUNNER, ERNST——– Dr. Kurt Kauffmann
ROSENBERG, ALFRED———- Dr. Alfred Thoma
FRANK, HANS———- Dr. Alfred Seidl
FRICK, WILHELM——- Dr. Otto Pannenbecker
STREICHER, JULIUS—– Dr. Hanns Marx
FUNK, WALTER—— Dr. Fritz Sauter
SCHACHT, HJALMAR——- Dr. Rudolf Dix, Professor Dr. Herbert Kraus, Associate
DÖNITZ, KARL——– Flottnrichter Otto Kranzbuehler
RAEDER, ERICH—— Dr. Walter Siemers
VON SCHIRACH, BALDUR—— Dr. Fritz Sauter
SAUCKEL, FRITZ——- Dr. Robert Servatius
JODL, ALFRED——— Professor DR. Franz Exner, Professor Dr. Hermann Jahreiss, Associate
BORMANN, MARTIN—–( tried in absentia) Dr. Friedrich Bergold
VON PAPEN, FRANZ—— Dr. Egon Kubuschok
SEYSS-INQUART, ARTHUR———- Dr. Gustav Steinbauer
SPEER, ALBERT————– Dr. Hans Flächsner
VON NEURATH, CONSTANTIN——– Dr. Otto Freiherr von Lüdinghausen
FRITZSCHE, HANS————- Dr. Heinz Fritz, Dr. Alfred Schilf, Associate
KRUPP VON BOFILEN UND HALBACH, GUSTAV—- Not tried due to health reasons

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal; Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 – 1 October 1946 (LOC)
CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall

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