Nuremberg 1945-46: IMTMWC; COUNT THREE (Western Countries)

The following presentation is Count Three from the International Military Tribunal of Major War Criminals, dealing with the western countries in occupied Europe.

Read by; M. PIERRE MOUNIER (Assistant Prosecutor for the French Republic):

COUNT THREE-WAR CRIMES. Charter, Article 6, especially 6 (b)

VIII. Statement of the Offense.

All the defendants committed War Crimes between 1 September 1939 and 8 May 1945, in Germany and in all those countries and territories occupied by the German Armed Forces since 1 September 1939, and in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Italy, and on the High Seas.

All the defendants, acting in concert with others, formulated and executed a Common Plan or Conspiracy to commit War Crimes as defined in Article 6 (b) of the Charter. This plan involved, among other things, the practice of “total war” including methods of combat and of military occupation in direct conflict with the laws and customs of war, and the perpetration of crimes committed on the field of battle during encounters with enemy armies, against prisoners of war, and in occupied territories against the civilian population of such territories.

The said War Crimes were committed by the defendants and by other persons for whose acts the defendants are responsible (under Article 6 of the Charter) as such other persons when committing the said War Crimes performed their acts in execution of a Common Plan and Conspiracy to commit the said War Crimes, in the formulation and execution of which plan and conspiracy all the defendants participated as leaders, organizers, instigators, and accomplices.

These methods and crimes constituted violations of international conventions, of internal penal laws, and of the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal law of all civilized nations, and were involved in and part of a systematic course of conduct.

(A) Murder and ill-treatment’ of civilian populations of or in occupied territory and on the High Seas. Throughout the period of their occupation of territories overrun by their armed forces, the defendants, for the purpose of systematically terrorizing the inhabitants, ill-treated civilians, imprisoned them without legal process, tortured, and murdered them.

The murders and ill-treatment were carried out by divers means, such as shooting, hanging, gassing, starvation, gross overcrowding, systematic undernutrition, systematic imposition of labor tasks beyond the strength of those ordered to carry them out, inadequate provision of surgical and medical services, kicking’s, beatings, brutality and torture of all kinds, including the use of hot irons and pulling out of fingernails and the performance of experiments by means of operations and otherwise on living human subjects. In some occupied territories the defendants interfered with religious services, persecuted members of the clergy and monastic orders, and expropriated church property. They conducted deliberate and systematic genocide; viz., the extermination of racial and national groups, against the civilian population of certain occupied territories in order to destroy particular races and classes of people, and national, racial, or religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles, and Gypsies.

Civilians were systematically subjected to tortures of all kinds, with the object of obtaining information. Civilians of occupied countries were subjected systematically to “protective arrests”, that is to say they were arrested and imprisoned without any trial and any of the ordinary protections of the law, and they were imprisoned under the most unhealthy and inhumane conditions.

In the concentration camps were many prisoners who were classified “Nacht und Nebel”. These were entirely cut off from the world and were allowed neither to receive nor to send letters. They disappeared without trace and no announcement of their fate was ever made by the German authorities.

Such crimes and ill-treatment are contrary to international conventions, in particular to Article 46 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 5 (b) of the Charter.

The following particulars and all the particulars appearing later in this Count are set out herein by way of example only, are not exclusive of other particular cases, and are stated without prejudice to the right of the Prosecution to adduce evidence of other cases of murder and ill-treatment of civilians.

1. In France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Channel Islands, (hereinafter called the “Western Countries”), and in that part of Germany which lies west of a Line drawn due north and south through the center of Berlin (hereinafter called “Western Germany”).

Such murder and ill-treatment took place in concentration camps and similar establishments set up by the defendants, and particularly in the concentration camps set up at Belsen, Euchenwald, Dachau, Breendonck, Grini, Natzweiler, Ravensbrück, Vught, and Amersfoort, and in numerous cities, towns, and villages, including Oradour sur Glane, Trondheim, and Oslo.

Crimes committed in France or against French citizens took the following forms:

Arbitrary arrests were carried out under political or racial pretexts; they were either individual or collective; notably in Paris (round-up of the 18th Arrondissement by the Field Gendarmerie, round-up of the Jewish population of the 11th Arrondissement in August 1941, round-up in July 1942); at Clermont-Ferrand (round-up of professors and students of the University of Strasbourg, which had been evacuated to Clermont-Ferrand, on 25 November 1943); at Lyons; at Marseilles (round-up of 40,000 persons in January 1943); at Grenoble (round-up of 24 December 1943); at Cluny (round-up on 24 December 1943); at Figeac (round-up in May 1944); at Saint Pol de Léon (round-up in July 1944); at Locmin6 (round-up on 3 July 1944); at Eysieux (round-up in May 1944); and at Meaux-Moussey (round-up in September 1944). These arrests were followed by brutal treatment and tortures carried out by the most diverse methods, such as immersion in icy water, asphyxiation, torture of the limbs, and the use of instruments of torture, such as the iron helmet and electric current, and practiced in all the prisons of France, notably in Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, Rennes, Metz, Clermont-Ferrand, Toulouse, Nice, Grenoble, Annecy, Arras, Béthune, Lille, Loos, Valenciennes, Nancy, Troyes, and Caen, and in the torture chambers fitted up at the Gestapo centers.

In the concentration camps, the health regime and the labor regime were such that the rate of mortality (alleged to be from natural causes) attained enormous proportions, for instance:

1. Out of a convoy of 250 French women deported from Compiegne to Auschwitz in January 1943, 180 had died of exhaustion at the end of 4 months.

2. 143 Frenchmen died of exhaustion between 23 March and 6 May 1943 in Block 8 at Dachau.

3. 1,797 Frenchmen died of exhaustion between 21 November 1943 and 15 March 1945 in the block at Dora.

4. 465 Frenchmen died of general debility in November 1944 at Dora.

5. 22,761 deportees died of exhaustion at Buchenwald between 1 January 1943 and 15 April 1945.

6. 11,560 detainees died of exhaustion at Dachau Camp (most of them in Block 30 reserved for the sick and the infirm) between 1 January and 15 April 1945.

7. 780 priests died of exhaustion at Mauthausen.

8. Out of 2,200 Frenchmen registered at Flossenburg Camp, 1,600 died from supposedly natural causes.

Methods used for the work of extermination in concentration camps were:

Bad treatment, pseudo-scientific experiments (sterilization of women at Auschwitz and at Ravensbrück, study of the evolution of cancer of the womb at Auschwitz, of typhus at Buchenwald, anatomical research at Natzweiler, heart injections at Buchenwald, bone grafting and muscular excisions at Ravensbrück, (et cetera), and by gas chambers, gas wagons, and crematory ovens. Of 228,000 French political and racial deportees in concentration camps, only 28,000 survived.

In France also systematic extermination was practised, notably at Asq on 1 April 1944, at Colpo on 22 July 1944, at Buzet sur Tarn on 6 July 1944 and on 17 August 1944, at Pluvignier on 8 July 1944, at Rennes on 8 June 1944, at Grenoble on 8 July 1944, at Saint Flour on 10 June 1944, at Ruisnes on 10 June 1944, at Nimes, at Tulle, and at Nice, where, in July 1944, the victims of torture were exposed to the population, and at Oradour sur Glane where the entire village population was shot or burned alive in the church. The many charnel pits give proof of anonymous massacres.

Most notable of these are the charnel pits of Paris (Cascade du Bois de Boulogne), Lyons, Saint Genis-Laval, Besancon, Petit Saint Bernard, Aulnat, Caen, Port Louis, Charleval, Fontainebleau, Boucome, Gabaudet, Lhermitage Lorges, Morlaas, Bordelongue, Signe. In the course of a premeditated campaign of terrorism, initiated in Denmark by the Germans in the latter part of 1943, 600 Danish subjects were murdered and, in addition, throughout the German occupation of Denmark large numbers of Danish subjects were subjected to torture and ill-treatment of all sorts. In addition, approximately five hundred Danish subjects were murdered, by torture and otherwise, in German prisons and concentration camps.

In Belgium, between 1940 and 1944, torture by various means, but identical in each place, was carried out at Brussels, Liége, Mons, Ghent, Namur, Antwerp, Tournai, Arlon, Charleroi, and Dinant.

At Vught, in Holland, when the camp was evacuated, about four hundred persons were shot.

In Luxembourg, during the German occupation, 500 persons were murdered and, in addition, another 521 were illegally executed, by order; of such special tribunals as the so-called “Sondergericht”. Many more persons in Luxembourg were subjected to torture and ill-treatment by the Gestapo. At least 4,000 Luxembourg nationals were imprisoned during the period of German occupation, and of these at least 400 were murdered.

Between March 1944 and April 1945, in Italy, at least 7,500 men, women, and children, ranging in years from infancy to extreme old age were murdered by the German soldiery at Civitella, in the Ardeatine Caves in Rome, and at other places.

(B) Deportation, for slave labor and for other purposes, of the civilian populations of and in occupied territories.

During the whole period of the occupation by Germany of both the Western and the Eastern Countries, it was the policy of the German Government and of the German High Command to deport able-bodied citizens from such occupied countries to Germany and to other occupied countries to force them to work on fortifications, in factories, and in other tasks connected with the German war effort.

In pursuance of such policy there were mass deportations from all the Western and Eastern Countries for such purposes during the whole period of the occupation.

These deportations were contrary to the international conventions, in particular to Article 46 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars of deportations, by way of example only and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

1. From the Western Countries:

From France the following “deportations” of persons for political and racial reasons took place each of which consisted of fromn1,500 to 2,500 deportees: 1940, 3 transports; 1941, 14 transports; 1942, 104 transports; 1943, 257 transports; 1944, 326 transports.

These deportees were subjected to the most barbarous conditions of overcrowding; they were provided with wholly insufficient clothing and were given little’ or no food for several days.

The conditions of transport were such that many deportees died in the course of the voyage, for example:

In one of the wagons of the train which left Compiegne for Buchenwald, on the 17th of September 1943, 80 men died out of 130.

On 4 June 1944, 484 bodies were taken out of a train at Sarrebourg.

In a train which left Compiegne on 2 July 1944 for Dachau, more than 600 dead were found on arrival, i.e. one-third of the total number.

In a train which left Compiggne on 16th of January 1944 for Buchenwald, more than 100 persons were confined in each wagon, the dead and the wounded being heaped in the last wagon during the voyage.

In April 1945, of 12,000 internees evacuated from Buchenwald 4,000 only were still alive when the marching column arrived near Regensburg.

During the German occupation of Denmark, 5,200 Danish subjects were deported to Germany and there imprisoned in concentration camps and other places.

In 1942 and thereafter, 6,000 nationals of Luxembourg were deported from their country under deplorable conditions and many of them perished.

From Belgium, between 1940 and 1944, at least 190,000 civilians were deported to Germany and used as slave labor. Such deportees were subjected to ill-treatment and many of them were compelled to work in armament factories.

From Holland, between 1940 and 1944, nearly half a million civilians were deported to Germany and to other occupied countries.

(C) Murder and ill-treatment of prisoners of war, and of other members of the armed forces of the countries with whom Germany was at war, and of persons on the High Seas.

The defendants ill-treated and murdered prisoners of war by denying them suitable food, shelter, clothing, and medical care and other attention; by forcing them to labor in inhumane conditions; by humiliating them, torturing them, and by killing them. The German Government and the German High Command imprisoned prisoners of war in various concentration camps, where they were killed or subjected to inhuman treatment by the various methods set forth in Paragraph VIII (A).

Members of the armed forces of the countries with whom Germany was at war were frequently murdered while in the act of surrendering.

These murders and ill-treatment were contrary to international conventions, particularly Articles 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, and to Articles 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the Prisoners of War Convention, Geneva, 1929, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

In the Western Countries:

French officers who escaped from Oflag X C were handed over to the Gestapo and disappeared; others were murdered by their guards; others sent to concentration camps and exterminated. Among others, the men of Stalag VI C were sent to Buchenwald.

Frequently prisoners captured on the Western Front were obliged to march to the camps until they completely collapsed. Some of them walked more than 600 kilometers with hardly any food; they marched on for 48 hours running, without being fed; among them a certain number died of exhaustion or of hunger; stragglers were systematically murdered.

The same crimes were committed in 1943, 1944, and 1945, when the occupants of the camps were withdrawn before the Allied advance, particularly during the withdrawal of the prisoners from Sagan on February 8th, 1945.

Bodily punishments were inflicted upon non-commissioned officers and cadets who refused to work. On December 24th, 1943, three French non-commissioned officers were murdered for that motive in Stalag IV A. Much ill-treatment was inflicted without motive on other ranks; stabbing with bayonets, striking with rifle-butts, and whipping; in Stalag XX B the sick themselves were beaten many times by sentries; in Stalag III B and Stalag III C worn-out prisoners were murdered or grievously wounded. In military jails, in Graudenz for instance, in reprisal camps, as in Rava-Ruska, the food was so insufficient that the men lost more than 15 kilograms in a few weeks. In May 1942, one loaf of bread only was distributed in Rava-Ruska to each group of 35 men.

Orders were given to transfer French officers in chains to the camp of Mauthausen after they had tried to escape. At their arrival in camp they were murdered, either by shooting or by gas, and their bodies destroyed in the crematorium.

American prisoners, officers and men, were murdered in Normandy during the summer of 1944 and in the Ardennes in December 1944. American prisoners were starved, beaten, and mutilated in various ways in numerous Stalags in Germany or in the occupied countries, particularly in 1943, 1944, and 1945.

(D) Killing of hostages.

Throughout the territories occupied by the German Armed Forces in the course of waging their aggressive wars, the defendants adopted and put into effect on a wide scale the practice of taking and killing hostages from the civilian population. These acts were contrary to international conventions, particularly Article 50 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars, by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

In the Western Countries:

In France hostages were executed either individually or collectively; these executions took place in all the big cities of France, among others in Paris, Bordeaux, and Nantes, as well as at Chateau-briant.

In Holland many hundreds of hostages were shot at the following among- other places: Rotterdam, Apeldoorn, Amsterdam, Benshop, and Haarlem.

In Belgium many hundreds of hostages were shot during the period 1940 to 1944.

M. CHARLES GERTHOFFER (Assistant Prosecutor for the French Republic) [Continuing the reading of the Indictment]:

(E) Plunder of public and private property.

The defendants ruthlessly exploited the people and the material resources of the countries they occupied, in order to strengthen the Nazi war machine, to depopulate and impoverish the rest of Europe, to enrich themselves and their adherents, and to promote German economic supremacy over Europe.

The defendants engaged in the following acts and practices, among others:

1. They degraded the standard of life of the people of occupied countries and caused starvation by stripping occupied countries of foodstuffs for removal to Germany.

2. They seized raw materials and industrial machinery in all of the occupied countries, removed them to Germany and used them in the interest of the German war effort and the German economy.

3. In all the occupied countries, in varying degrees, they confiscated businesses, plants, and other property.

4. In an attempt to give color of legality to illegal acquisitions of property, they forced owners of property to go through the forms of “voluntary” and “legal” transfers.

5. They established comprehensive controls over the economies of all of the occupied countries and directed their resources, their production, and their labor in the interests of the German war economy, depriving the local populations of the products of essential industries.

6. By a variety of financial mechanisms, they despoiled all of the occupied countries of essential commodities and accumulated wealth, debased the local currency systems and disrupted the local economies. They financed extensive purchases in occupied countries through clearing arrangements by which they exacted loans from the occupied countries. They imposed occupation levies, exacted financial contributions, and issued occupation currency, far in excess of occupation costs. They used these excess funds to finance the purchase of business properties and supplies in the occupied countries.

7. They abrogated the rights of the local populations in the occupied portions of the U.S.S.R. and in Poland and in other countries to develop or manage agricultural and industrial properties, and reserved this area for exclusive settlement, development, and ownership by Germans and their so-called racial brethren.

8. In further development of their plan of criminal exploitation, they destroyed industrial cities, cultural monuments, scientific institutions, and property of all types in the occupied territories to eliminate the possibility of competition with Germany.

9. From their program of terror, slavery, spoliation, and organized outrage, the Nazi conspirators created an instrument for the personal profit and aggrandizement of themselves and their adherents. They secured for themselves and their adherents:

(a) Positions in administration of business involving power, influence, and lucrative prerequisites;

(b) The use of cheap forced labor;

(c) The acquisition on advantageous terms of foreign properties, raw materials, and business interests;

(d) The basis for the industrial supremacy of Germany.

These acts were contrary to international conventions, particularly Articles 46 to 56 inclusive of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars, by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

1. Western Countries:

There was plundered from the Western Countries from 1940 to 1944, works of art, artistic objects, pictures, plastics, furniture, textiles, antique pieces, and similar articles of enormous value to the number of 21,903.

In France statistics show the following:

Removal of raw materials:

Coal, 63,000,000 tons; electric energy, 20,976 Mkwh; petrol and fuel, 1,943,750 tons; iron ore, 74,848,000 tons; siderurgical products, 3,822,000 tons; bauxite, 1,211,800 tons; cement, 5,984,000 tons; Lime, 1,888,000 tons; quarry products 25,872,000 tons; and various other products to a total value of 79,961,423,000 francs.

Removal of industrial equipment: total-9,759,861,000 francs, of which 2,626,479,000 francs of machine tools.

Removal of agricultural produce: total-126,655,852,000 francs; i.e. for the principal products:

Wheat, 2,947,337 tons; oats, 2,354,080 tons; milk, 790,000 hectolitres, (concentrated and in powder, 460,000 hectolitres); butter, 76,000 tons; cheese, 49,000 tons; potatoes, 725,975 tons; various vegetables, 575,000 tons; wine, 7,647,000 hectolitres; champagne, 87,000,000 bottles; beer 3,821,520 hectolitres; various kinds of alcohol, 1,830,000 hectolitres.

Removal of manufactured products to a total of 184,640,0000,000 francs.

Plundering: Francs 257,020,024,000 from private enterprise, Francs 55,000,100,000 from the State.

Financial exploitation: From June 1940 to September 1944 the French Treasury was compelled to pay to Germany .631,866,000,000 francs.

Looting and destruction of works of art: The museums of Nantes,

Nancy, Old-Marseilles were looted.

Private collections of great value were stolen. In this way, Raphaels, Vermeers, Van Dycks, and works of Rubens, Holbein, Rembrandt, Watteau, Boucher disappeared. Germany compelled France to deliver up “The Mystic Lamb” by Van Eyck, which Belgium had entrusted to her.

In Norway and other occupied countries decrees were made by which the property of many civilians, societies, et cetera, was confiscated.

An immense amount of property of every kind was plundered from France, Belgium, Norway, Holland, and Luxembourg.

As a result of the economic plundering of Belgium between 1940 and 1944 the damage suffered amounted to 175 billions’ of Belgian francs.

(F) The exaction of collective penalties.

The Germans pursued a systematic policy of inflicting, in all the occupied countries, collective penalties, pecuniary and otherwise, upon the population for acts of individuals for which it could not be regarded as collectively responsible; this was done at many places, including Oslo, Stavanger, Trondheim, and Rogaland.

Similar instances occurred in France, among others in Dijon, Nantes, and as regards the Jewish population in the occupied territories.

The total amount of fines imposed on French communities adds up to 1,157,179,484 francs made up as follows: A fine on the Jewish population,’ 1,000,000,000; various fines, 157,179,484.

These acts violated Article 50, Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

(G) Wanton destruction of cities, towns, and villages, and devastation not justified by military necessity.

The defendants wantonly destroyed cities, towns, and villages, and committed other acts of devastation without military justification or necessity. These acts violated Articles 46 and 50 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars, by way of example only and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

1. Western Countries:

In March 1941 part of Lofoten in Norway was destroyed.

In April 1942 the town of Telerag in Norway was destroyed. Entire villages were destroyed in France, among others, Oradour sur Glane, Saint Nizier in Gascogne, La Mure, Vassieu, La Chappelle en Vercors. The town of Saint Dié was burnt down and destroyed. The Old Port District of Marseilles was dynamited in the beginning of 1943 and resorts along the Atlantic and the Mediterranean coasts, particularly the town of Sanary, were demolished.

In Holland there was most widespread and extensive destruction, not justified by military necessity, including the destruction of harbors, locks, dykes, and bridges; immense devastation was also caused by inundations which equally were not justified by military necessity.

(H) Conscription of civilian labor.

Throughout the occupied territories the defendants conscripted and forced the inhabitants to labor and requisitioned their services for purposes other than meeting the needs of the armies of occupation and to an extent far out of proportion to the resources of the countries involved. All the civilians so conscripted were forced to work for the German war effort. Civilians were required to register and many of those who registered were forced to join the Todt Organization and the Speer Legion, both of which were semi-military organizations involving some military training. These acts violated Articles 46 and 52 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

Particulars, by way of example only and without prejudice to the production of evidence of other cases, are as follows:

1. Western Countries:

In France, from 1942 to 1944, 963,813 persons were compelled to work in Germany and 737,000 to work in France for the German Army.

In Luxembourg, in 1944 alone, 2,500 men and 500 girls were conscripted for forced labor.

(I) Forcing civilians of occupied territories to swear allegiance to a hostile power.

Civilians who joined the Speer Legion, as set forth in Paragraph

(H) were required, under threat of depriving them of food, money, and identity papers, to swear a solemn oath acknowledging unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of Germany, which was to them a hostile power.

In Lorraine, civil servants were obliged, in order to retain their positions, to sign a declaration by which they acknowledged the “return of their country to the Reich”, pledged themselves to obey without reservation the orders of their chiefs and put themselves “at the active service of the Führer and of National Socialist greater Germany.”

A similar pledge was imposed on Alsatian civil servants, by threat of deportation or internment.

These acts violated Article 45 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of international law, and Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

(J) Germanization of occupied territories.

In certain occupied territories purportedly annexed to Germany the defendants methodically and pursuant to plan endeavoured to assimilate those territories politically, culturally, socially, and economically into the German Reich. They endeavoured to obliterate the former national character of these territories. In pursuance of these plans, the defendants forcibly deported inhabitants who were predominantly non-German and replaced them by thousands of German colonists.

Their plan included economic domination, physical conquest, installation of puppet governments, purported de jure annexation and enforced conscription into the German Armed Forces.

This was carried out in most of the occupied countries especially in Norway, France (particularly in the Departments of Upper Rhine, Lower Rhine, Moselle, Ardennes, Aisne, Nord, Meurthe and Moselle), in Luxembourg, the Soviet Union, Denmark, Belgium, and Holland.

In France in the Departments of Aisne, Nord, Meurthe and Moselle, and especially in that of the Ardennes, rural properties were confiscated by a German state organization which tried to work them under German management.

The landowners of these holdings were dispossessed and turned into agricultural laborers. In the Departments of Upper Rhine, Lower Rhine, and Moselle the methods of Germanization were those of annexation followed by conscription.

1. From the month of August 1940 officials who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Reich were expelled. On September 21st the expulsion and deportation of population began, and on November 22d, 1940 more than 70,000 Lorrainers or Alsatians were driven into the south zone of France. From July 31, 1941 onwards, more than 100,000 persons were deported into the eastern regions of the Reich or to Poland. All the property of the deportees or expelled persons was confiscated. At the same time, 80,000 Germans coming from the Saar or from Westphalia were installed in Lorraine and 2,000 farms belonging to French people were transferred to Germans.

2. From 2 January 1942 all the young people of the Departments of Upper Rhine and Lower Rhine, aged from 10 to 18 years, were incorporated in the Hitler Youth. The same measures were taken in the Moselle from 4 August 1942. From 1940 all the French schools were closed, their staffs expelled, and the German school system was introduced in the three departments.

3. On the 28th of September 1940 an order applicable to the Department of the Moselle ordained the Germanization of all the surnames and Christian names which were French in form. The same measure was taken on the 15th January 1943 in the Departments of Upper Rhine and Lower Rhine.

4. Two orders of the 23rd and 24th August 1942 imposed by force German nationality on French citizens.

5. On the 8th May 1941 for Upper Rhine and Lower Rhine, and on the 23rd April 1941 for the Moselle, orders were promulgated enforcing compulsory labor service on all French citizens of either sex aged from 17 to 25 years. From the 1st January 1942 for young men, and from the 26th January 1942 for young women, national labor service was effectively organized in the Moselle.

This measure came into force on the 27th August 1942 in Upper Rhine and Lower Rhine, but for young men only. The classes of 1940, 1941, 1942 were called up.

6. These contingents were drafted into the Wehrmacht on the expiration of their time in the labor service.

On the 19th August 1942 an order instituted compulsory military service in the Moselle, and on the 25th August 1942 the contingents of 1940 to 1944 were called up in the three Departments.

Conscription was enforced by the German authorities in conformity with the provisions of German legislation. The first induction board took place on the 3rd September 1942. Later, in the Upper Rhine and Lower Rhine new levies were effected everywhere of the contingents from 1928 to 1939 inclusive. The French men who refused to obey these laws were considered as deserters and their families were deported, while their property was confiscated.

These acts violated Articles 43, 46, 55, and 56 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and Article 6 (b) of the Charter.

IX. Individual, Group and Organization Responsibility for the Crimes Stated in Count Three.

Reference is hereby made to Appendix A of this Indictment for a statement of the responsibility of the individual defendants for the charge set forth in Count Three of the Indictment. Reference is hereby made to Appendix B of this Indictment for a statement of the responsibility of the groups and organizations named herein as criminal groups and organizations for the crime set forth in this part three of the Indictment.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

REFERENCE: International Tribunal of Major War Criminals (LOC)
CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall

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This Day In History: WWI Nurse Edith Cavell Executed for Aiding Allied Soldiers (1915)

Edith Cavell

Edith Louisa Cavell (/ˈkævəl/; 4 December 1865 – 12 October 1915) was a British nurse and patriot. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from all sides without distinction and in helping some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during World War I, for which she was arrested. She was subsequently court-martialled, found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. Despite international pressure for mercy, she was shot by a German firing squad. Her execution received worldwide condemnation and extensive press coverage.

 

She is well known for her statement that “patriotism is not enough”. Her strong Anglican beliefs propelled her to help all those who needed it, both German and Allied soldiers. She was quoted as saying, “I can’t stop while there are lives to be saved.”[1] 12 October is appointed for her commemoration in the Anglican church, although this is not a “saint’s feast day” in the traditional sense.

Edith Cavell, who was 49 at the time of her execution, was already notable as a pioneer of modern nursing in Belgium.

Early life and career
Edith Cavell was born on 4 December 1865[2] in Swardeston, a village near Norwich, where her father, the Reverend Frederick Cavell, was vicar for 45 years.[3] She was the eldest of four children and was taught to always share with the less fortunate, despite her family’s meagre earnings.[2] After a period as a governess, including for a family in Brussels 1900–1905, she trained as a nurse at the London Hospital under Matron Eva Luckes. In 1907, Cavell was recruited by Dr Antoine Depage to be matron of a newly established nursing school by the name of L’École Belge d’Infirmières Diplômées on the Rue de la Culture in Brussels.[1] By 1910, “Miss Cavell “felt that the profession of nursing had gained sufficient foothold in Belgium to warrant the publishing of a professional journal,” and therefore launched the nursing journal, L’infirmière”.[1] A year later, she was a training nurse for three hospitals, 24 schools, and 13 kindergartens in Belgium.[4]

When World War I broke out, she was visiting her widowed mother in Norfolk in the East of England. She returned to Brussels where her clinic and nursing school were taken over by the Red Cross.[5]

World War I and execution
In November 1914, after the German occupation of Brussels, Cavell began sheltering British soldiers and funnelling them out of occupied Belgium to the neutral Holland.[5] Wounded and derelict British and French soldiers and Belgians and French of military age were hidden from the Germans and provided with false papers by Prince Reginald de Croy at his château of Bellignie near Mons. From there, they were conducted by various guides to the houses of Cavell, Louis Séverin and others in Brussels, and furnished by them with money to reach the Dutch frontier and with guides obtained through Phillipe Baucq.[6] This placed Cavell in violation of German military law.[7][8] German authorities became increasingly suspicious of the nurse’s actions, which were backed up by her outspokenness.[7]

She was arrested on 3 August 1915 and charged with harbouring Allied soldiers. She had been betrayed by Gaston Quien, who was later convicted by a French court as a collaborator.[9][10] She was held in St Gilles prison for 10 weeks, the last two in solitary confinement.[7] She made three depositions to the German police, 8, 18 August, and 22, admitting that she had been instrumental in conveying about 60 British and 15 French derelict soldiers and about 100 French and Belgians of military age to the frontier and had sheltered most of them in her house.[6]

In her court-martial she was prosecuted for aiding British and French soldiers, in addition to young Belgian men, to cross the border and enter Britain. She admitted her guilt when she signed a statement the day before the trial, thus reaffirming the crime in the presence of all other prisoners and lawyers present in the court at the beginning of the trial. Cavell gave the German prosecution a much stronger case against her when she declared that the soldiers she had helped escape thanked her in writing when arriving safely in Britain. This admission proved hard to ignore because it not only confirmed that Cavell had helped the soldiers navigate the Dutch frontier, but it also established that she helped them escape to a country at war with Germany.[11]

As the case stood, the sentence according to German military law was death. Paragraph 58 of the German Military Code says: “Will be sentenced to death for treason any person who, with the intention of helping the hostile Power, or of causing harm to the German or allied troops, is guilty of one of the crimes of paragraph 90 of the German Penal Code.”[11] The case referred to in the above-mentioned paragraph 90 consists of “Conducting soldiers to the enemy.”[11] Additionally, the penalties according to paragraph 160 of the German Code, in case of war, apply to foreigners as well as Germans.

Furthermore, this application of the German law was supported by the First Geneva Convention. While the Convention ordinarily guarantees protection of medical personnel, that protection is forfeit if it is used as cover for any belligerent action. This forfeiture is expressed in article 7 of the 1906 version of the Convention, which was the version in force at the time.[3] Surprisingly from a modern perspective, little was made of the war crime status of her actions; as discussed below, the German authorities instead justified prosecution merely on the basis of the German law and the interests of the German state.

The British government said they could do nothing to help her. Sir Horace Rowland of the Foreign Office said, “I am afraid that it is likely to go hard with Miss Cavell; I am afraid we are powerless.”[12] Lord Robert Cecil, Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, said, “Any representation by us”, he advised, “will do her more harm than good.”[12] The United States, however, had not yet joined the war and was in a position to apply diplomatic pressure. Hugh S. Gibson, First Secretary of the U.S. legation at Brussels, made clear to the German government that executing Cavell would further harm Germany’s already damaged reputation. Later, he wrote:

“We reminded [German civil governor Baron von der Lancken] of the burning of Louvain and the sinking of the Lusitania, and told him that this murder would rank with those two affairs and would stir all civilised countries with horror and disgust. Count Harrach broke in at this with the rather irrelevant remark that he would rather see Miss Cavell shot than have harm come to the humblest German soldier, and his only regret was that they had not “three or four old English women to shoot.”[13]

Baron von der Lancken is known to have stated that Cavell should be pardoned because of her complete honesty and because she had helped save so many lives, German as well as Allied. However, General von Sauberzweig, the military governor of Brussels, ordered that “in the interests of the State” the implementation of the death penalty against Baucq and Cavell should be immediate,[6] denying higher authorities an opportunity to consider clemency.[14][15] Cavell was defended by lawyer Sadi Kirschen from Brussels. Of the 27 put on trial, five were condemned to death: Cavell, Baucq (an architect in his thirties), Louise Thuliez, Séverin and Countess Jeanne de Belleville. Of the five sentenced to death, only Cavell and Baucq were executed; the other three were reprieved.[6]

Cavell was not arrested for espionage, as many were led to believe, but for treason.[16] She had in fact been recruited by the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), although she turned away from her espionage duties in order to help Allied soldiers escape.[17]

When in custody, Cavell was questioned in French, but the session was minuted in German. This gave the interrogator the opportunity to misinterpret her answers. Although she may have been misrepresented, she made no attempt to defend herself. Cavell was provided with a defender approved by the German military governor. A previous defender, who was chosen for Cavell by her assistant, Elizabeth Wilkins,[7] was ultimately rejected by the governor.[15]

The night before her execution, she told the Reverend Stirling Gahan, the Anglican chaplain who had been allowed to see her and to give her Holy Communion, “Patriotism is not enough, I must have no hatred or bitterness towards anyone.”[18] These words are inscribed on her statue in St Martin’s Place, near Trafalgar Square in London. Her final words to the German Lutheran prison chaplain, Paul Le Seur, were recorded as, “Ask Father Gahan to tell my loved ones later on that my soul, as I believe, is safe, and that I am glad to die for my country.”[citation needed]

From his sick bed Brand Whitlock, the U.S. minister to Belgium, wrote a personal note on Cavell’s behalf to Moritz von Bissing, the governor general of Belgium. Hugh Gibson; Maitre G. de Leval, the legal adviser to the United States legation; and Rodrigo Saavedra y Vinent, 2nd Marques de Villalobar, the Spanish minister, formed a midnight deputation of appeal for mercy or at least postponement of sentence.[19] Despite these efforts, on 11 October, Baron von der Lancken allowed the execution to proceed.[8] Sixteen men, forming two firing squads, carried out the sentence pronounced on her and on four Belgian men[4] at Tir National[7] shooting range[20] in Schaerbeek, at 7:00 am on 12 October 1915. There are conflicting reports of the details of Cavell’s execution. However, according to the eyewitness account of the Reverend Le Seur, who attended Cavell in her final hours, eight soldiers fired at Cavell while the other eight executed Philippe Baucq.[16]

There is also a dispute over the sentencing imposed under the German Military Code. Supposedly, the death penalty relevant to the offence committed by Cavell was not officially declared until a few hours after her death.[21]

On instructions from the Spanish minister, Belgian women immediately buried her body next to St. Gilles Prison.[8] After the War, her body was taken back to Britain for a memorial service at Westminster Abbey and then transferred to Norwich, to be laid to rest at Life’s Green.[5]

Role in World War I propaganda
In the months and years following Cavell’s death, countless newspaper articles, pamphlets, images, and books publicised her story. She became an iconic propaganda figure for military recruitment in Britain, and to help increase favourable sentiment towards the Allies in the United States. She was a popular icon because of her sex, her nursing profession, and her apparently heroic approach to death.[21] Her execution was represented as an act of German barbarism and moral depravity.

News reports shortly following Cavell’s execution were found to be only true in part.[7] Even the American Journal of Nursing repeated the fictional account of Cavell’s execution in which she fainted and fell because of her refusal to wear a blindfold in front of the firing squad.[7] Allegedly, while she lay unconscious, the German commanding officer shot her dead with a revolver.[8] Numerous accounts like these stimulated international outrage and general anti-German sentiments.

Along with the invasion of Belgium, and the sinking of the Lusitania, Cavell’s execution was widely publicised in both Britain and North America by Wellington House, the British War Propaganda Bureau.[22]

Because of the British government’s decision to use Cavell’s story as propaganda, she became the most prominent British female casualty of World War I.[23] The combination of heroic appeal and a resonant atrocity-story narrative made Cavell’s case one of the most effective in British propaganda of World War I,[22] as well as a factor in enduring post-war anti-German sentiment.

German response
Unlike the rest of the world, the German government thought that they had acted fairly towards Cavell. In a letter, the German Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Arthur Zimmermann, stated:

It was a pity that Miss Cavell had to be executed, but it was necessary. She was judged justly. We hope it will not be necessary to have any more executions.[24]
Their laws do not make distinctions between sexes, the only exception to this rule being that according to legal customs, women in a “delicate” (probably this means “pregnant”) condition could not be executed;[24] Cavell was not considered delicate. From the Germans’ perspective, had they released Cavell, there would have been an influx of women partaking in acts against Germany because the women knew they would not be severely punished. It was up to the responsible men to follow their legal duty to Germany and ignore the world’s condemnation.[24]

The German government also believed that all of the convicted people were thoroughly aware of the nature of their acts. The court paid particular attention to this point, releasing several accused persons because there was doubt as to whether the accused knew that their actions were punishable.[24] The condemned, on the other hand, knew full well what they were doing and the punishment for committing their crimes because “numerous public proclamations had pointed out the fact that aiding enemies’ armies was punishable with death.”[24]

Two representations of Edith Cavell
Before the First World War, Cavell was not well known outside nursing circles.[7] This allowed the creation of two different depictions of her in British propaganda, which ignored anything that did not fit this image, including the suggestion that Cavell, during her interrogation, had given information that incriminated others. In November 1915, the British Foreign Office issued a denial that Cavell had implicated anyone else in her testimony.

One image commonly represented was of Cavell as an innocent victim of a ruthless and dishonourable enemy.[15] This view depicted her as innocent of espionage, and was most commonly used in various forms of British propaganda, such as postcards and newspaper illustrations during the war.[15] Her story was presented in the British press as a means of fuelling a desire for revenge on the battlefield.[15] These images implied that men must enlist in the armed forces immediately in order to stop the murder of innocent British females.

The second representation of Cavell during World War I described her as a serious, reserved, brave, and patriotic woman who devoted her life to nursing and died to save others. This portrayal has been illustrated in numerous biographical sources, from personal first-hand experiences of the Red Cross nurse. Pastor Le Seur, the German army chaplain, recalled at the time of her execution, “I do not believe that Miss Cavell wanted to be a martyr…but she was ready to die for her country… Miss Cavell was a very brave woman and a faithful Christian”.[7] Another account from British chaplain, the Reverend Mr Gahan, remembers Cavell’s words, “I have no fear or shrinking; I have seen death so often it is not strange, or fearful to me!”[8] In this interpretation, her stoicism was seen as remarkable for a woman, and brought her even greater renown than a man in similar circumstances would have received.[15]

Burial and memorials
Cavell’s remains were returned to Britain after the war and a state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey. On 19 May 1919, her body was reburied at the east side of Norwich Cathedral; a graveside service is still held each October.[25] The railway van that conveyed her remains from Dover to London is kept as a memorial on the Kent and East Sussex Railway and is usually open to view at Bodiam railway station.

Following Cavell’s death, many memorials were created around the world to remember her. One of the first was the one unveiled in October 1918 by Queen Alexandra on the grounds of Norwich Cathedral, near a home for nurses which also bore her name.[citation needed]

In the calendar of the Church of England the day appointed for the commemoration of Edith Cavell is 12 October.[26] This is a memorial in her honour rather than formal canonisation.

Other honours include:
Memorials:
a stone memorial, including a statue of Cavell by George Frampton unveiled in 1920, adjacent to Trafalgar Square in London, UK[27][28]
a stone memorial in Paris, one of two statues that Adolf Hitler ordered destroyed on his 1940 visit (the other being that of Charles Mangin)[29][30]
a memorial in Peterborough Cathedral,[31] Peterborough, UK
a memorial by Henry Alfred Pegram outside Norwich Cathedral, UK
a marble and stone memorial near The Shrine in Melbourne, Australia
an inscription on a war memorial, naming the 35 people executed by the German army in a place called Tir national on the Schaerbeek municipality
a dedication on the war memorial on the grounds of Sacred Trinity Church, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK
Monument to Edith Cavell and Marie Depage in Brussels, Belgium, by Paul Du Bois.
a stone memorial statue by Canadian sculptor R. Tait McKenzie in the garden behind the Red Cross National (U.S.) Headquarters, 1730 E Street, NW Washington, DC, USA, in the block south of the Corcoran Gallery of Art and north of the Daughters of the American Revolution building.

Medical and Nursing facilities named in her honour::
Edith Cavell Surgery in Streatham, London
Edith Cavell Hospital, in Peterborough, England, UK, where she received part of her education
the Edith Cavell Hospital in the Brussels borough of Uccle (Ukkel), Belgium
Sanatorium Edith Cavell, Obourg, Belgium
a wing of Homerton Hospital, Hackney, London, UK
a wing of Toronto Western Hospital, Canada
Cavell Building, Quinte Children’s Treatment Centre, Belleville, Ontario, Canada
University of East Anglia, Norwich, named its School of Nursing Sciences building the Edith Cavell Building (ECB),[32] when it opened in 2006
Edith Cavell Regional School of Nursing, in Belleville, Ontario, Canada
Edith Cavell Care Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada,[33]
a ward in the Whittington Hospital in Archway, London
a building at the Medical School, University of Queensland, Australia
The Edith Cavell Home, Hospital, and Village (a retirement village) in Sumner, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Cavell Gardens Care Home, Vancouver, Canada; the site was Edith Cavell Hospital from 1955 to 2000

Streets:
Cavell Road, Billericay, Essex, England, UK
Cavell Road, Norwich, England, UK
Cavell Road, Dudley, West Midlands (formerly Worcestershire), England, UK[34]
Edith Cavell Drive Steeple Bumpstead, England, UK
Cavell Avenue, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA
Cavell Street (formerly known as Bedford Street), running next to the London Hospital in Whitechapel, London, where Cavell trained
Cavell Street, West Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Cavell Street, Dunedin, New Zealand
Cavell Street, Reefton, New Zealand
Nurse Cavell Lane, Paparoa, Northland, New Zealand
Rue Edith Cavell / Edith Cavellstraat, a street in Uccle/Ukkel, Brussels, Belgium
Edith Cavellstraat, a street in Ostend/Oostende, Belgium
Rue Edith Cavell, Vitry-sur-Seine, France
Avenue Edith-Cavell, in Nice, France
Rue Miss Cavell, Arques, France
Rue Edith Cavell, Le Havre, France
Rua Edith Cavell, a street in Lisbon, Portugal
Cavell Drive in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Cavell Drive in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England, UK
Cavell Avenue in Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Cavell Avenue in Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada
Edith Cavell Boulevard, a road in Port Stanley, Ontario, Canada
Cavell Avenue, in Trenton, New Jersey, USA
Cavell Street, Westland, Michigan, USA
Edith Cavell Street in Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa
Edith Cavell Street in Port Louis, Mauritius
Cavell Avenue in The Danforth neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Avenue Miss Cavell, St-Maur-Des-Fosses, France
Cavell Way, Pendleton, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK
Cavell Way, Maidenbower, Crawley, West Sussex, England, UK
Cavell Walk, Stevenage, England, UK
Edith Cavell Way, Shooters Hill, London, UK
Edith Cavell Court, Kingston upon Hull, England, UK
Cavell Close, Woodbeck, Nottinghamshire, England, UK (This has been demolished)
Edith Cavell Bridge, Queenstown, New Zealand]

Schools:
Cavell Primary School, Norwich, England, UK
Edith Cavell School, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
Edith Cavell Elementary School, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Edith Cavell Lower School in Bedford, UK
Edith Cavell Elementary School, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
a middle school in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, which closed in 1987
an elementary school in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, which was later renamed to S.F. Howe
Wymondham College in Norfolk, UK, has a boarding block named after her
Cavell House, dark blue house at Jersey College for Girls
Cavell House, green house at Queen Mary School, Mumbai, India
Edith Cavell House, green house at Barnes School, Deolali, India
Cavell House, the fourth, blue house of St Aidan’s Anglican Girls’ School, Brisbane, Australia
Cavell House, blue house at Sheringham High School, Norfolk, England, UK
Cavell House, Northlands School (founded 1920), Olivos, Argentina
Cavell House, green house at Pratt Memorial School, Kolkata, India
Cavell House, red house at Cliff Park Junior School, Gorleston.

Other:
Cavell Gardens, Inverness, Scotland, UK
Cavell Park, a playground in Northeast Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States[35]
Mount Edith Cavell, a peak in Alberta, in the Canadian Rockies, named for her in 1931[36]
Cavell Corona, a geological feature on Venus
Edith Cavell Bridge at Arthur’s Point, near Queenstown, New Zealand[37]
The Edith Cavell Trust was established by the New South Wales Nurses’ Association which provides scholarships to nurses in New South Wales, Australia
The Edith Cavell Nursing Scholarship Fund, a philanthropy of the Dallas County Medical Society Alliance Foundation providing scholarships to exceptional nursing students in Dallas, Texas, USA, and the surrounding area
Cavell House, a guest house in Clevedon, Somerset, UK, where she spent some of her childhood
Miss Edith Cavell, a variety of rose first bred in 1917 is named after her.[38]
YWCA Camp Cavell in Lexington, Michigan, USA
Edith became a popular name for French and Belgian girls after her execution. The French chanteuse Édith Piaf, born two months after Cavell was executed, was the best known of these
Radio Cavell 1350am. Broadcasting to the staff and patients on The Royal Oldham Hospital Charity Radio
The Edith Cavell public house, Tombland, Norwich, England, UK[39]
The Nurse Cavell Van is the prototype passenger luggage van that transported her remains from Dover to London during her repatriation.[40]
a car park in Peterborough’s Queensgate shopping centre (until November 2011 when it was renamed as a colour)[41]
Edith Cavell Chapter of the Daughters of the British Empire in Houston, Texas, United States

In popular culture
The song “Que Sera” on the album Silent June by O’Hooley & Tidow was inspired by the execution of Edith Cavell.[42][43] The song “Amy Quartermaine” by Manning from the 2011 album Margaret’s Children is also based on the life of Edith Cavell.

The 1939 US film Nurse Edith Cavell starring Anna Neagle and George Sanders. The film is a remake of Herbert Wilcox’s 1928 silent film Dawn with Sybil Thorndike. Wilcox was married to Anna Neagle when he remade the story as Nurse Edith Cavell.

In the second episode of the 1980 television series To Serve Them All My Days, Edith Cavell is mentioned in a speech to the school’s Officers’ Training Corps.

 

See also

  • Mata Hari a Dutch dancer and courtesan executed by the French in 1917, on charges of spying for Germany.
  • Gabrielle Petit a Belgian nurse executed by the German army for spying for Britain in 1916.
  • Andrée de Jongh a Belgian nurse who in World War II helped POWs escape, being inspired by Edith Cavell.

References

Notes
  1. a b c Judson, Helen (July 1941). “Edith Cavell”. TheAmerican Journal of Nursing871.
  2. a b Unger, Abraham. Edith Cavell. HistoryNet.com,12 June 2006. Web. 7 February 2011
  3. ^ Hoehling, A. A. (April 1955), “The Story of EdithCavell”; The American Journal of Nursing, p. 1320
  4. a b Clowes, P. (1996). A Fanatical Sense of DutyDrove Nurse Edith Cavell to Harbor Allied SoldiersBehind German Lines. Military History, 18-21
  5. a b c Great Britain Heroes-#2: The execution of EdithCavell. (2007). British Heritage , 63-64
  6. a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg Cavell, Edith“. Encyclopædia Britannica(12th ed.). 1922.
  7. a b c d e f g h i Hoehling, A. (1957). “The Story ofEdith Cavell”; The American Journal of Nursing1320-1322
  8. a b c d e Scovil, E. R. (November 1915). “An HeroicNurse”; The American Journal of Nursing118-120
  9. ^ The Mount Washington News 23 February 1934
  10. ^ Palm Beach Daily News 10 March 1936
  11. a b c Leval, Maitre G. Maitre G. de Leval on the Execution of Edith Cavell 12 October 1915http://www.firstworldwar.com. 8 February 2011.
  12. a b Norton-Taylor, Richard (11 October 2005). “How British Diplomats Failed Edith Cavell”TheGuardianRetrieved 5 March 2013.
  13. ^ Gibson, Hugh S. (1917). Journal From OurLegation in BelgiumGrosset & Dunlap.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Journal From Our Legation In Belgium, by Hugh Gibson. Retrieved 3 May 2013
  14. ^ Scovil, Elisabeth (November 1915), “An HeroicNurse”; The American Journal of Nursing, p. 120
  15. a b c d e f Hughes, Anne-Marie Claire (2005). “War,Gender & National Mourning: The Significance of theDeath and Commemoration of Edith Cavell in Britain”;European Review of History425-444
  16. a b Book Review (1958). The American Journal ofNursing940
  17. ^ Rankin, Nicholas “A genius for deception, howcunning helped the British win two world wars.” OxfordUniversity Press, 2008, pages 36-37. Rankin cites thepublished statement of M. R. D. Foothistorian andWW2 British intelligence officer, as to Cavell’s having been part of SIS or MI6ISBN 978-0-19–538704-9.
  18. ^ Account by the Reverend H. Stirling Gahan
  19. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Henri F. Klein (1920). “Cavell, Edith“. In Rines,George Edwin. Encyclopedia Americana.
  20. ^ Tir national
  21. a b M.M.R. (1941). Book Review – Edith CavellTheAmerican Journal of Nursing871
  22. a b Peterson 1939, p. 61
  23. ^ Hughes 2005, p. 425
  24. a b c d e Zimmermann, Arthur. Arthur Zimmermannon the Execution of Edith Cavell. 12 October 1915http://www.firstworldwar.com. Web. 8 Feb 2011.
  25. ^ “Nurse Edith Cavell”Norwich CathedralRetrieved2010-02-21.
  26. ^ The Church of England “Daily Media Briefing”
  27. ^ Newsreel of monument: Nurse Cavell Memorial 1920 at British Pathé.
  28. ^ Reuter’s, ed. (18 March 1920), “Statue of Edith Cavell: Unveiled on Tuesday by Queen Alexandra”The Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW) 33 (9837),retrieved 4 March 2013
  29. ^ Newsreel of monument: WPA Film Library, segment 55654-1
  30. ^ Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1994). No Ordinary Time:Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front inWorld War IISimon & Schuster.ISBN 9780671642402.relevant quotation from blogWhat Do I Know (8 March 2012).
  31. ^ Roll-of-honour.com
  32. ^ Comm.uea.ac.uk
  33. ^ Chantellegroup.com
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ Minneapolisparks.org
  36. ^ Find a Grave “Edith Cavell”
  37. ^
  38. ^ Plant: Miss Edith Cavell (polyantha, De Ruiter, 1917)
  39. ^ The Edith Cavell Retrieved 2 March 2010
  40. ^ Kesr.org.uk
  41. ^ [2] BBC News
  42. ^ Belinda O’Hooley says that “Que Sera” seeks toportray “the horrors of war from a woman’sperspective” and “explores the feelings, sounds andsenses that Edith Cavell may have felt as she stoodbefore a firing squad”.“O’Hooley & Tidow”.Gayleeds.com. 2010Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  43. ^ “O’Hooley & Tidow: unconventional and experimental folk” (2). Musos magazine. February2011Retrieved 11 June 2011.
Bibliography
  • The Daily News & Leader“The Death of Edith Cavell” London: H.C. & L., Ltd., 1915.
  • Hill, William Thomson. The Martyrdom of Nurse Cavell: The Life Story of the Victim of Germany’s Most Barbarous Crime.London: Hutchinson & Co., 1915.
  • Hoehling, A.A. “The Story of Edith Cavell”: The American Journal of Nursing57.10 (April 1955).
  • Hughes, Anne-Marie Claire. “War, Gender and National Mourning: The Significance of the Death and Commemoration ofEdith Cavell in Britain”: European Review of History12.3 (November 2005) 425-444. EBSCOhost. 5 November 2007.
  • Judson, Helen. “Edith Cavell”: The American Journal of Nursing41.7 (July 1941).
  • Lasswell, Harold. Propaganda Technique in World War ILondon: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 1927.
  • Marquis, Alice Goldfarb. “Words as Weapons: Propaganda in Britain and Germany During the First World War”; Journal ofContemporary History13.3 (July 1978) 467-498. JSTOR. 5 November 2007.
  • Peterson, H. C. Propaganda for War: The Campaign against American Neutrality, 1914-1917Norman: University ofOklahoma Press, 1939.
  • Rankin, Nicholas. “A genius for deception, how cunning helped the British win two world wars.” Oxford University Press,2008. ISBN 978-0-19-538704-9.
  • Roberts, Mary. “A Whisper of Eternity” and “The Mystery of Edith Cavell” by A.A. Hoehling. 58.7 (July 1958).
  • Carl Eric Bechhofer Roberts and C.S. Forester. “Nurse Cavell, a Play in 3 Acts”, John Lane The Bodley Head (1933)
  • Sarolea, Charles. The Murder of Nurse CavellLondon: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1915.
  • Scovil, Elisabeth Robinson. “An Heroic Nurse”; The American Journal of Nursing16.2 (November 1915).
Further reading
  • Edith Cavell, by Diana Souhami, Publisher: Quercus, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84916-359-0
  • Transnational Outrage: the Death and Commemoration of Edith Cavell, by Katie Pickles, Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan,2007, ISBN 1-4039-8607-X
  • The Edith Cavell Nurse from Massachusetts—The War Letters of Alice Fitzgerald, an American Nurse Serving in the BritishExpeditionary Force, Boulogne-The   Trial, And Death of Nurse Edith Cavell by Alice L. Fitzgerald, E. Lymon Cabot(July 2006), Publisher: Diggory Press, ISBN 1-84685-202-1
  • Journal from our Legation in Belgium by Hugh Gibson, Doubleday & Page, New York, 1917.
  • Edith Cavell by Sally Grant, David Yaxley and Robert Yaxley (illustrators), Publisher: The Larks Press (May 1995) ISBN 0-948400-28-5
  • whisper of eternity;: The mystery of Edith Cavell by A. A Hoehling, Publisher: T. Yoseloff (1957), ASIN B0007DUAIC
  • Friend Within the Gates: The Story of Nurse Edith Cavell, by Elizabeth Grey, Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Co (June 1971),ISBN 0-395-06786-3
  • The Story of Edith Cavell, by Iris Vinton, Publisher: Grosset & Dunlap (1959), ASIN B0007DY2FE
  • Dawn;: A biographical novel of Edith Cavell, by Reginald Cheyne Berkeley, Publisher: Sears (1928), ASIN B00085XCEI
  • Edith Cavell, by Rowland Ryder, Publisher: Hamilton (1975), ISBN 0-241-89173-6
  • Edith Cavell: Nurse, Spy, Heroine, by Leeuwen, Published: G. P. Putnams Sons (1968), ASIN B000J6G6OY
  • Edith Cavell, heroic nurse, by Juliette Elkon Hamelecourt, Publisher: J. Messner (1956), ASIN B0007ETGGI
  • The Secret Task of Nurse Cavell: A Story about Edith Cavell, by Jan Johnson, Publisher: Harper San Francisco (1979),ISBN 0-03-041661-2
  • noble woman: The life story of Edith Cavell, by Ernest Protheroe, Publisher: C.H. Kelly; 3rd ed edition (1918),ASIN B0008AH3RU
  • With Edith Cavell in Belgium, by Jacqueline Van Til, Publisher: H.W. Bridges (1922), ASIN B00088GV84
  • Ready to Die: The Story of Edith Cavell (Faith in Action Series), by Brian Peachment, Publisher: Canterbury Press, ISBN 0-08-024189-1
  • In memoriam: Edith Cavell, by William S. Murphy, Publisher: Stoneham (1916), ASIN B0008BTZ5C
  • The case of Edith Cavell: A study of the rights of non-combatants, by James M. Beck, Publisher: G.P. Putnam’s Sons,ASIN B00087OKN8
  • The secret trial: An unhistorical charade suggested by the life and death of Edith Cavell, by Richard Heron Ward,ASIN B0007JC7Q4
  • The Dutiful Edith Cavell, by Noel Boston, Publisher: Norwich Cathedral (1955), ASIN B0007JR6U6
  • The Meaning of a Memory: The Case of Edith Cavell and the Lusitania in Post-World War I Belgium” by Peter vanAlfen, ANS Magazine 5.1 (Spring 2006).

Nuremberg 1945-46: IMTMWC; Count Two

The following is a presentation of the Count Two at the indictments of the International Military Tribunal of the Major War Criminals.

Read by SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: United Kingdom
COUNT TWO —–CRIMES AGAINST PEACE
Charter, Article 6 (a)
V. Statement of the Offense.
All the defendants with divers other persons, during a period of years preceding 8 May 1945, participated in the planning, preparation, initiation, and waging of wars of aggression, which were also wars in violation of international treaties, agreements, and assurances.
VI. Particulars of the Wars Planned, Prepared, Initiated, and Waged.
(A) The wars referred to in the statement of offense in this Count Two of the Indictment and the dates of their initiation were the following: against Poland, 1September 1939; against the United Kingdom and France, 3 September 1939; against Denmark and Norway, 9 April 1940; against Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, 10 May 1940; against Yugoslavia and Greece, 6 April 1941; against the U.S.S.R., 22 June 1941; and against the United States of America, 11 December 1941
(B) Reference is hereby made to Count One of the Indictment for the allegations charging that these wars were wars of aggression on the part of the defendants.
(C) Reference is hereby made to Appendix C annexed to this Indictment for a statement of particulars of the charges of violations of international treaties, agreements, and assurances caused by the defendants in the course of planning, preparing, and initiating these wars.
VII. Individual, Group and Organization Responsibility for the Offense Stated in Count Two.
Reference is hereby made to Appendix A of this Indictment for a statement of the responsibility of the individual defendants for the offense set forth in this Count Two of the Indictment. Reference is hereby made to Appendix B of this Indictment for a statement of the responsibility of the groups and organizations named herein as criminal groups and organizations for the offense set forth in this Count Two of the Indictment.
That finishes, Mr. President, Count Two of the Indictment.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

REFERENCE: International Military Tribunal of War Criminals (LOC)
CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall