Napoleonic Wars: Road to Brienne; January 27-28

Early on the 27th January 1814, Victor attacked St-Dizier. A few shots were fired, and then General Lanskoi with a handful of Prussians disappeared. At 10:00 O’clock in the morning Napoleon rode to St-Dizier to the plaudits of the inhabitants. But he had used a sledgehammer to crush an egg and now all knew that he himself was once more in the field. However, he heard that Blücher had arrived at Brienne. There might yet be time. He moved swiftly after his quarry.

At Brienne Colonel Müffling, serving on Blücher’s staff as Quartermaster-General, was comfortably lodged in the chậteau that overlooked the town. Of his duties he wrote, ‘I had to prepare everything relating to the great operations, quarters, encampments, marches, partial and general actions…all reports arriving by day or night of the enemies’ movements and all dispositions of deserters and prisoners or spies were immediately communicated to me. The propositions for movements and dispositions for combats and battles emanated from me. I laid them before General Gneisenau…and when he approved my plans we went to the Field Marshal [Blücher] to whom again I had to state the measures proposed, map in hand…The Field Marshal never made any difficulties when the proposals were for an advance or an attack. But at any suggestion of a withdrawal he was apt to become angry.’ Müffling possessed and unerring strategical and tactical sense, at least according to his memoirs published some 30 years later, but sometimes he had difficulty in convincing his slower-witted superiors. He had crossed the Rhine on 1 January 1814 with Blücher’s Army of Silesia, which with the Army of Bohemia formed the Grand Army of the Allies under the supreme command of the Austria General Prince Karl Philipp of Schwarzenberg. At Frankfurt, after Napoleon had rejected their terms, the Allied Sovereigns drew up their plan of campaign. Initially Schwarzenberg with his army, some 200,000 strong, was to hook through Switzerland skirting the headwaters of the Rhine, thrust west through the Belfort Gap between Vosges and Jura Mountains and debouch onto the Plateau of Langres. Once his army was concentrated there the sovereigns would discuss the next step. Blücher with his Army of Silesia on the Middle Rhine was to wait until the Army of Bohemia had entered France, then force a crossing subsequently guard its right flank.

While Schwarzenberg departed on his complicated and circuitous journey, Blücher remained watching the ice flows on the Rhine and chafing at the delay. The Rulers of the Allied powers competed to load him with decorations. The old Field Marshal, now 71 years of age, combined the vitality of a man half his years with the tongue of a bargee. Of his decorations he exclaimed ungratefully, ‘ I look like and old coach horse with all this stuff and up to date it has brought me nothing.’

On New Years Day 1814, against negligible opposition he swept over the icy Rhine, crossing simultaneously at Mannheim, Koblenz and Kaub, scattering some weak French detachments before him. By 12 January he had completed the investment of Mainz and was blockading French garrisons at Metz, Saarlouis, Landau, Thionville and Luxemburg. On that day he wrote to Schwarzenberg, ‘I can give battle with 74,000 men or on the 19th in front of Metz with 90,000.’ Marmont watching the Rhine with 10,000 men fell back. On the 14th Blücher wrote, ’So we are off to Paris. Unless we do something foolish we shall carry all before us.’ And again, ‘My 50,000 Russians will follow me to the end of the earth and my own men are unsurpassed in bravery.’ The Allied army, with army corps composed of varying nationalities, was and integrated European Army such as the world has seldom seen. As often happens in such circumstances, the various allies seemed to dislike each other rather more than they did the French.

Schwarzenberg, after establishing his base at Basle, made his way carefully to the Plateau of Langres, but the impatient Blücher rush on to Nancy leaving much of his army behind him blockading the frontier fortresses. The Austrian general writing to his wife complained, ‘Without placing and considerable force to guard the road from Chậlons to Nancy they [Blücher and Gneisenau] rush on like mad bulls to Brienne. Regardless of their rear and flanks they do nothing but plan fine parties they are going to enjoy in the Palais Royal.’ Schwarzenberg had reason to voice his displeasure. He had started a stately and ponderous advance up the valleys of the Aube and the Marne, but the irrepressible Prussian, instead of protecting his right flank, had cut in ahead of him and now spearheaded an advance to which the Austrian had only agreed with extreme reluctance. Now, owing to his impetuosity, Blücher was in danger of becoming isolated.

However, as Blücher, Gneisenau and Müffling enjoyed the delights of the château at Brienne, the disapproval of their commander troubled them not at all. Their troops were almost entirely Russian and consisted of Sacken’s Corps and Olsufiev’s detachment, also 5,000 men and 24 guns from Langeron’s large corps that was still blockading fortresses near the Rhine. Blücher placed Sacken at Lesmont, some six miles to the north-west, to guard the bridge over the Aude, and quartered Olsufiev in Brienne itself. He left a small detachment at St-Dizier to safeguard the route to Nancy and the east and put another in Arcis-sur-Aude, 18 Miles to the west, to secure its important bridge on the main road to Paris.


SOURCE: NAPOLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15; BY James Lawford
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins


Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar: Heabani Resolves to Return To Erech [Part 12]; Assyrian

As Zaidu sadly turns and rides away,
The hermit from his cave comes forth to pray:
“Alas! hath all these wilds their charms here lost?
And is my breast with wild ambition tost?
My lonely cot I look upon with shame;
Again I long to seek the fields of fame,
Where luxury my remaining years
May crown, and happiness may find–or tears;
‘Tis true! I should have welcomed the “bar-ru;”[1]
But he hath since returned to Subartu.”[2]
His harp he took from its dust-covered case,
And kissed its carved and well-remembered face;
And tuning it, he glanced toward the wood,
And sang his farewell ode to solitude:

Farewell, ye mountains, woods and trees–
My heart doth long again for joy;
I love your wilds and mossy leas,
But oh, your solitude doth cloy!

I love to see the “bur-khi-is”[3]
Sweep stately o’er the mossy rocks;
And “tsabi”[4] in a wild like this,
Hear the tattoo of red woodchucks.

I love the cries of “lig-bar-ri”[5]
The “nes-i”[6] calling for their prey;
And leaping of the “na-a-li”[7]
That fly in wildest fear away.

I love the “bu-hir-tser-i”[8] all,
“Khar-sa-a-nii sa-qu-u-tu;”[9]
Hear “cu-uts-tsi”[10] with thunder roll
Across the skies within my view.

I love to see the “ca-ca-bi”[11]
Peep through the pine-trees o’er my home,
And watch the wild “tu-ra-a-khi”[12]
And “arme”[13] welcome, to me come.

Farewell! ye solitudes, farewell!
I will not moulder rotting lie
With no one’s lips to wish me well;
O give me immortality!

But what is fame? A bubble blown
Upon the breeze, that bursts its shell,
And all our brightest hopes are flown,
And leaves our solitude a hell.

The holy minstrel bows his head in woe,
And sweeps the harpstrings with a movement slow;
Then lifts his eyes toward the setting sun,
His evening invocation thus begun:

[14]O Samas! to the lifting of my hands
Show favor! unto me thy servant turn!
What man before thy blessed Light withstands?
O thou! what mortal thine own words can learn?
And who can rival them inviolate?
[15]Among the gods no equal thou hast found.
In Heaven who of all the gods is great?
O thou alone! art great through Heaven’s bound!

On earth what man is great? alas! no one,
For thou alone art great! through earth’s vast bounds.
When wide thy awful voice in Heaven resounds,
The gods fall prostrate to our Holy One;
When on the earth thy voice afar resounds,
The genii[16] bow to thee and kiss the dust.
In thee, O Samas! do I put my trust,
For thy great love and mercy wide abounds!

O my Creator, God, thy watchfulness
O’er me, oh may it never cease!
Keep thou the opening of my lips! the fleece
Of purest snow be my soul’s daily dress.
Guard thou my hands! O Samas, Lord of Light!
And ever keep my life and heart aright!

[Footnote 1: “Bar-ru,” an army officer]—[Footnote 2: “Su-bar-tu,” Syria]—[Footnote 3: “Bur-khi-is,” antelopes]—[Footnote 4: “Tsabi,” gazelles]—[Footnote 5: “Lig-bar-ri,” hyenas]—[Footnote 6: “Nes-i,” lions]—[Footnote 7: “Na-a-li,” spotted stags]—[Footnote 8: “Bu-hir-tser-i,” beasts of the field]—[Footnote 9: “Khar-sa-a-nu sa-qu-u-tu,” forests thick]—[Footnote 10: “Cu-uts-tsi,” storms.]—[Footnote 11: “Ca-ca-bi,” stars.]—[Footnote 12: “Tu-ra-a-khi,” deer.]—[Footnote 13: “Arme,” wild goats.]—[Footnote 14: This prayer is made up from Assyrian fragments now in the British Museum.]—[Footnote 15: See “Records of the Past,” vol. iii. p. 136.]—[Footnote 16: “Genii,” spirits.]


SOURCE: Babylonian and Assyrian Literature (1901)[Alcove 1, Tablet 2, Column 6]Translated by Leonidas Le Cenci Hamilton, M.A.

World War Two: Fall of Austria & Czechoslovakia 1938: The Planning

I recently made reference in comparison of the Ukraine crisis to the Munich concession’s that Britain and France  gave to Adolph Hitler allowing him to implement the destruction of the government of Czechoslovakia in 1938. I am sure some are wondering how I came to the comparison, one of the greatest sources of information to the events of those years can be found in the trial documents and in the words of their own testimony, of those who perpetrated the deeds. These occurred at the war trails in Nurnberg 1945-46, to which I now defer. We see the world events as happening today, but we must keep in mind that the events that unfold are not spontaneous, but well thought out and planned.

Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal Nuremberg

14 NOVEMBER 1945 – 1 OCTOBER 1946

VOLUME I: Official Text in the English Language: Official Documents International Military Tribunal

(Details are the following)


COUNT ONE-THE COMMON PLAN OR CONSPIRACY: (Charter, Article 6, especially 6 (a))

  1. Particulars of the Nature and Development of the Common Plan or Conspiracy


  1. Aggressive action against Austria and Czechoslovakia.

(a) The 1936-1938 phase of the plan: planning for the assault on Austria and Czechoslovakia.

The Nazi conspirators next entered upon the specific planning for the acquisition of Austria and Czechoslovakia, realizing it would be necessary, for military reasons, first to seize Austria before assaulting Czechoslovakia. On 21 May 1935, in a speech to the Reichstag, Hitler stated that: “Germany neither intends nor wishes to interfere in the internal affairs of Austria, to annex Austria, or to conclude an Anschluss.” On 1 May 1936, within two months after the reoccupation of the Rhineland, Hitler stated: “The lie goes forth again that Germany tomorrow or the day after will fall upon Austria or Czechoslovakia.” Thereafter, the Nazi conspirators caused a treaty to be entered into between Austria and Germany on 11 July 1936, Article 1 of which stated that “The German Government recognizes the full sovereignty of the Federated State of Austria in the spirit of the pronouncements of the German Führer and Chancellor of 21 May 1935.” Meanwhile, plans for aggression in violation of that treaty were being made. By the autumn of 1937, all noteworthy opposition within the Reich had been crushed. Military preparation for the Austrian action was virtually concluded.

An influential group of the Nazi conspirators met with Hitler on 5 November 1937, to review the situation. It was reaffirmed that Nazi Germany must have “Lebensraum” in central Europe. It was recognized that such conquest would probably meet resistance which would have to be crushed by force and that their decision might lead to a general war, but this prospect was discounted as a risk worth taking. There emerged from this meeting three possible plans for the conquest of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Which of the three was to be used was to depend upon the developments in the political and military, situation in Europe. It was contemplated that the conquest of Austria and Czechoslovakia would, through compulsory emigration of 2,000,000 persons from Czechoslovakia and 1,000,000 persons from Austria, provide additional food to the Reich for 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 people, strengthen it militarily by providing shorter and better frontiers, and make possible the constituting of new armies up to about twelve divisions. Thus, the aim of the plan against Austria and Czechoslovakia was conceived of not as an end in itself but as a preparatory measure toward the next aggressive steps in the Nazi conspiracy.

(b) The execution of the plan to invade Austria: November 1937 to March 1938.

Hitler, on 8 February 1938, called Chancellor Schuschnigg to a conference at Berchtesgaden. At the meeting of 12 February 1938, under threat of invasion, Schuschnigg yielded a promise of amnesty to imprisoned Nazis and appointment of Nazis to ministerial posts. He agreed to remain silent until Hitler’s 20 February speech in which Austria’s independence was to be reaffirmed, but Hitler in his speech, instead of affirming Austrian independence, declared himself protector of all Germans. Meanwhile, underground activities of Nazis in Austria increased. Schuschnigg, on 9 March 1938, announced a plebiscite on the question of Austrian independence.

On 11 March Hitler sent an ultimatum, demanding that the plebiscite be called off or that Germany would invade Austria. Later the same day a second ultimatum threatened invasion unless Schuschnigg should resign in three hours. Schuschnigg resigned. The Defendant SEYSS-INQUAT, who was appointed-Chancellor, immediately invited Hitler to send German troops into Austria to “preserve order”. The invasion began on 12 March 1938.

On 13 March, Hitler by proclamation assumed office as Chief of State of Austria and took command of its armed forces. By a law of the same date Austria was annexed to Germany.

(c) The execution of the plan to invade Czechoslovakia: April 1938 to March 1939.

    1. Simultaneously with their annexation of Austria the Nazi conspirators gave false assurances to the Czechoslovak Government that they would not attack that country. But within a month they met to plan specific ways and means of attacking Czechoslovakia, and to revise, in the Light of the acquisition of Austria, the previous plans for aggression against Czechoslovakia.
    2. On 21 April 1938, the Nazi conspirators met and prepared to launch an attack on Czechoslovakia not later than 1 October 1938. They planned specifically to create an “incident” to “justify” the attack. They decided to launch a military attack only after a period of diplomatic squabbling which, growing more serious, would lead to the excuse for war, or, in the alternative, to unleash a Lightning attack as a result of an “incident” of their own creation. Consideration was given to assassinating the German Ambassador at Prague to create the requisite incident. From and after 21 April 1938, the Nazi conspirators caused to be prepared detailed and precise military plans designed to carry out such an attack at any opportune moment and calculated to overcome all Czechoslovak resistance within four days, thus presenting the world with a fait accompli, and so forestalling outside resistance. Throughout the months of May, June, July, August, and September, these plans were made more specific and detailed, and by 3 September 1938, it was decided that all troops were to be ready for action on 28 September 1938.
    3. Throughout this same period, the Nazi conspirators were agitating the minorities question in Czechoslovakia, and particularly in the Sudetenland, leading to a diplomatic crisis in August and September 1938. After the Nazi conspirators threatened war the United Kingdom and France concluded a pact with Germany and Italy at Munich on 29 September 1938, involving the cession of the Sudetenland by Czechoslovakia to Germany. Czechoslovakia was required to acquiesce. On 1 October 1938, German troops occupied the Sudetenland.
    4. On 15 March 1939, contrary to the provisions of the Munich Pact itself, the Nazi conspirators caused the completion of their plan by seizing and occupying the major part of Czechoslovakia not ceded to Germany by the Munich Pact.


SOURCE: Trial of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal Nurnberg 1945-46 (LOC)

World News Headlines: 11-30-2018

Germany (DW)Angela Merkel to miss start of G20 summit after plane’s technical difficulties; A plane carrying the German chancellor had to turn around and land in Cologne after only an hour in the air due to a technical difficulty. The plane has experienced several issues in the past few months.

(DW)Angela Merkel sidesteps military aid to Ukraine; German Chancellor Angela Merkel has condemned Russia for seizing three Ukrainian ships in the Sea of Azov. But she failed to offer any military support to Ukraine or further economic sanctions against Russia. Angela Merkel has reiterated Germany’s support for Ukraine in the ongoing standoff between Russia and Ukraine over three ships seized on Sunday, though she did not threaten any further action against Russia, either in terms of military aid or sanctions. Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko took to Germany’s Bild newspaper to ask Merkel to send navy ships to the Sea of Azov “to provide security,” and accused Russia of wanting “nothing less than to occupy the sea.” Speaking at the third German-Ukrainian Economic Forum on Thursday, the German chancellor did not offer any direct answer to Poroshenko’s request. Instead, the chancellor reaffirmed Germany’s commitment to Ukraine, and put the blame for the current crisis squarely on Russian President Vladimir Putin. She pointed out that Russia and Ukraine agreed a shipping treaty in 2003 that grants both countries full use of the Kerch Strait leading into the Sea of Azov, although both sides also have rights of inspection in the waters. A bridge that Russia built to the annexed Crimean Peninsula has impeded the free movement of ships, Merkel said.
“Since this bridge was opened in May this year, shipping conditions have worsened,” the chancellor complained. “Of course I want the facts of what happened to be put on the table, that the soldiers are set free, and that their confessions aren’t forced out of them, as we saw on TV now.”

(DW) Germany detects new cyberattack targeting politicians, military; The Russian hacker group “Snake” has reportedly hacked email accounts of several German officials. The cyberattack was detected nearly a year after the group allegedly accessed Germany’s government network.German security officials discovered fresh cyberattacks on the email inboxes belonging to several members of German parliament, the German military and several embassies, news magazine Der Spiegel reported on Thursday. The report said Germany’s domestic security service, BfV, discovered the attacks on November 14.

(DW) German police raid Deutsche Bank over suspected money laundering; A money laundering probe stemming from the “Panama Papers” has led police to Deutsche Bank, according to authorities. Prosecutors believe the bank helped clients “transfer money from criminal activities” to tax havens. Federal police on Thursday raided the Frankfurt offices of Deutsche Bank. The Frankfurt prosecutor’s office said the raids stemmed from an investigation into suspected money laundering at the German bank. About 170 law enforcement agents took part in the operation. The investigation revolves around multiple Deutsche Bank employees, including two believed to still be working at the financial institution. Deutsche Bank said it was “fully cooperating” with authorities. “The case is related to the Panama Papers,” a spokesperson said.According to prosecutors, Deutsche Bank is suspected of helping some 900 customers set up offshore shell companies in tax havens to “transfer money from criminal activities.” They said some €311 million ($354 million) are believed to have been laundered, citing information gleaned from the so-called Panama Papers. Markus Meinzer, financial secrecy director at the Tax Justice Network, told DW he was “surprised that German officials would finally take action” on information garnered from the Panama Papers. “It has been two years that they’ve been analyzing these files,” Meinzer said. “We have seen in other situations that German prosecutors took very long to take action” against tax avoidance schemes and financial crimes. The Panama Papers data leak comprised some 11.5 million documents, which were leaked anonymously to German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung in 2015. At least 28 German entities were identified in the leak, according to reports at the time, including Deutsche Bank.

(DW) Amazon investigated for ‘abuse’ by German antitrust authorities; After logging “numerous” complaints from sellers on Amazon’s marketplace, Germany’s competition watchdog is now taking aim at the e-commerce giant. It’s the latest blow to Amazon, which already faces a similar EU probe.Germany’s competition watchdog, the Bundeskartellamt, launched an investigation on Thursday into alleged “abuse” by e-commerce giant Amazon. Citing “numerous complaints” from third-party sellers on Amazon’s German website,, the Bundeskartellamt said it would be looking into whether the company was exploiting its market dominance to obstruct competition. “Its double role as the largest retailer and largest marketplace has the potential to hinder other sellers on its platform,” the authority’s president, Andreas Mundt, said in a statement. The list of complaints against the US giant is long — with the German watchdog saying it would look into complaints of delayed or withheld payments and blocked accounts. The probe will also look into the site’s product rating system as well as the company’s shipping conditions.

(DW) France rejects German wish for EU seat at UN Security Council; The French Foreign Ministry has said “non merci” to a suggestion by Germany’s finance minister to turn France’s UN Security Council seat into a joint EU one. An attempt to sweeten the deal didn’t work.France pushed backed Thursday against a proposal by German Olaf Scholz, also the vice chancellor, to turn the French seat at the UN Security Council into a join EU seat. “When defending our national positions, we take all European positions into consideration,” the French Foreign Ministry said in a statement. “We actively participate, together with Germany and all other member states, in the coordination of the EU’s position.” France said it was open to reforming and expanding the Council, however, “in order to allow Germany, as well as Japan, Brazil, India and two African countries, to become permanent members.” France currently holds one of the Security Council’s five permanent seats, alongside the US, Russia, China and the UK. Germany was elected this year as a non-permanent member for 2019-2021. Permanent members have veto power while non-members do not. As a bloc, the EU currently has permanent observer status without voting rights at the UN.

France (France24) Macron to meet Saudi crown prince despite Khashoggi uproar; French President Emmanuel Macron will meet with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman on the sidelines of a G20 meeting in Argentina in what would be a first meeting with a Western leader since the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. “I’ve always been very clear about the issue of Saudi Arabia and I will inevitably have the opportunity to discuss it with the Saudi crown prince on the sidelines of the G20,” Macron told a news conference with his Argentine counterpart.

(France24) Trump cancels Putin meeting over Ukraine crisis; U.S. President Donald Trump on Thursday abruptly canceled a planned meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Argentina, registering his disapproval of Russia’s treatment of Ukraine and casting new uncertainty over U.S.-Russian ties. Trump said he pulled out due to tensions over Russian forces opening fire on Ukrainian navy boats and then seizing them and their crew on Sunday near Crimea, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014.

(France24) Security headache as Yellow Vest protesters vow to march on Champs-Élysées; Yellow Vest protesters are calling for a large rally on the Champs-Élysées avenue in Paris on December 1, despite the government’s attempt to defuse their anger by offering to meet some of the movement’s self-declared representatives. French police is considering the possibility of completely shutting down the famous Champs-Élysées avenue in Paris on Saturday December 1 as Yellow Vest protesters called for another rally in this iconic district, Le Parisien newspaper reported on Thursday. This plan would mobilise a large number of police forces because there are several side streets leading to the 1.91 kilometres avenue. It would also deal a hard blow to some 110 shops that would lose a key pre-Christmas weekend of shopping.

Japan (NHK) Macron planning talks with Abe; French President Emmanuel Macron is coordinating to meet Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to discuss the Nissan-Renault business alliance during the upcoming G20 summit in Argentina. Macron’s office told NHK on Thursday that he aims to schedule his meeting with Abe during the G20 meetings on Friday and Saturday. French newspaper Les Echos says Macron wants to discuss the alliance following the arrest of former Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn in Japan. Ghosn is the chairman and CEO of Renault. The French government is Renault’s top shareholder and wants Renault’s tie-up with Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors to continue and strengthen. But Renault and Nissan reportedly have different views on how to continue the relationship. Les Echos says Macron and Abe will likely try to calm the situation regarding the alliance.

(NHK) China manufacturing data unexpectedly drops; In China, manufacturing growth fell for the fourth straight month in November. The Purchasing Managers’ Index fell to 50, just on the mark that separates growth from contraction. That’s down two-tenths of a point from October, and the lowest level in more than 2 years. The figure was also below market expectations. Some analysts say US tariffs on Chinese goods are weighing on the economy. Growth in the services industry also weakened. The non-manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index fell to 53.4, down half a point from October. The services sector accounts for more than half of China’s economy.

(NHK) Deutsche Bank money laundering raid; German prosecutors have raided the headquarters of Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt. They suspect it was involved in money laundering through so-called overseas tax havens. The prosecutors say the raid is based on their analysis of a massive leak of documents known as the Panama Papers. The documents released by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, or ICIJ, shed light on offshore financial transactions by the world’s rich and famous. Deutsche Bank allegedly helped clients set up offshore companies in tax havens to covertly handle the proceeds of illegal activity. Prosecutors say that in 2016 alone, over 900 customers used a Deutsche Bank subsidiary registered in the British Virgin Islands. It processed a volume of 311 million euros, or about 354 million dollars. Joerg Eigendorf, Global Head of Communications, Deutsche Bank said: “We thought that we had provided to the authorities all the relevant information regarding Panama Papers. Of course, we will now cooperate closely with the prosecutors here in Frankfurt am Main in Germany.” Deutsche Bank shares were down more than 3 percent on Thursday. They have lost half their value since the start of this year.

(NHK) IOC to hold talks with 2 Koreas early next year; The president of the International Olympic Committee says he will hold talks with the National Olympic Committees and the governments of North and South Korea early next year. Thomas Bach disclosed this in Tokyo at the general assembly of the 206-member Association of National Olympic Committees. The 2-day meeting ended on Thursday. Bach indicated that he will accelerate talks with the 2 Koreas on the formation of joint teams for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Bach referred to the first-ever joint women’s ice hockey team formed by the 2 Koreas for the PyeongChang Winter Olympics in February. Bach quoted South Korean President Moon Jae-in as saying that the IOC had opened the door to peace talks on the Korean Peninsula. He also quoted North Korean leader Kim Jong Un as saying that the Olympic Games shifted the momentum of inter-Korean relations and this can be attributed to the IOC’s efforts. Officials from the National Olympic Committees of the 2 Koreas also attended the meeting in Tokyo. A South Korean official told NHK that they held talks with North Korea’s sports minister Kim Il Guk multiple times on the sidelines of the meeting and proposed fielding more unified teams for the Tokyo Games. The minister is also the chairman of North Korea’s National Olympic Committee.

(NHK) India’s new eye in the sky; India on Thursday launched a surveillance satellite loaded with high-definition cameras. The Indian Space Research Organization, or ISRO, launched the rocket from its space center in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. The satellite, along with 30 smaller “co-passenger” satellites, successfully entered orbit at an altitude of 636 kilometers. Organization chairman K Sivan praised his team for the project, saying they are giving “an excellent space asset to India.” Observers say the satellite may be used to keep an eye on the Indian Ocean, where China is increasing its activity, and areas along the country’s border with China. Last year, when the Indian and Chinese militaries were in a standoff for more than 2 months in a mountainous region near their border, China deployed 14 ships to the Indian Ocean to demonstrate its military presence.

(NHK) Fed: Rate hike ‘warranted soon’; The minutes of a meeting of the US Federal Reserve earlier this month show that almost all officials expect an additional interest rate hike next month. But some expressed caution about the pace of future hikes.



Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar: Expedition of Zaidu in Search of the Seer [Part 11]; Assyrian

Prince Zaidu on his steed now hastes away,
Upon the plains he travelled all that day;
Next morn the Za-Gabri he slow ascends,
Along the mountain sides the horseman wends
Beneath the Eri-ni,[1] and cliffs, and sees
The plains and mountains o’er the misty trees
From the wild summit, and old Khar-sak glow
Above them all with its twin crests of snow.

He plunges in the wild to seek the cave;
Three days unceasing sought young Zaidu brave,
And now at last within the glen he rode,
And near approached Heabani’s wild abode.
At last he sees the seer before his home,
And with his monster[2] now toward him come,
That walked subdued beside the hermit seer,
Thus they upon the rocks above appear.

“Why art thou here in warrior’s array?”
The hermit cries. “I know thee not! away!”

“O holy seer, ’tis Zaidu, from our Sar!
The king of Erech, chieftain Izdubar.”

“What seekest thou within my mountain lair?”
Heabani angry cried. “What brings thee here?”

“For thee! if true Heabani is thy name;
I seek the hermit seer of wondrous fame.
My king doth offer thee rich gifts of state,
And sent me to thee here to make thee great.”
“No empty honors do I seek, which void
Of all true happiness, all men have cloyed.
Return then to thy haunts of pleasure, pain,
For thy king’s embassy is all in vain.”

The seer returns within his lonely cave
And leaves the prince alone the beast to brave.
At last it slinks away within the gloom;
No more from their wild home doth either come,
Three days Prince Zaidu watches the dark lair,
But now his courage turns to blank despair:
The seer hath changed his mind since Samas sought
To urge him forth to leave his lonely lot.

The prince the mountain precipice now climbs,
And peers within while clinging to the limbs
Of stunted oaks, and views the mountain lair;
But all in vain his calls ring on the air.
Then mounting wearily his steed he turns
Away, and unsuccessful thus returns.

[Footnote 1: “Eri-ni,” cedar-trees.]–[Footnote 2: A carnivorous animal supposed to have been either a lion or a tiger, more probably a lion.]


SOURCE: Babylonian and Assyrian Literature, Alcove 1, Tablet 2, Column 5, Translated by Leonidas Le Cenci Hamilton, M.A.


I am sure that a great many know of this Tribunal and its historical impact on the world by the mere formation of such a body, with the support of a truly United Nations. Most are aware of the reasons for this panel’s coming into being as a result of the atrocities committed during World War Two. But as I have referenced this in many articles, I feel that some are not fully aware of the rules that empowered and governed the proceedings this judicial body worked within, or, the mandate to wit they were charged.  I now present the charter for your review.



Article 1. In pursuance of the Agreement signed on the 8th day of August 1945 by the Government of the United States of America, the Provisional-Government of the French Republic, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, there shall be established an International Military Tribunal (hereinafter called “the Tribunal”) for the just and prompt trial and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis.

Article 2. The Tribunal shall consist of four members, each with an alternate. One member and one alternate shall be appointed by each of the Signatories. The alternates shall, so far as they are able, be present at all sessions of the Tribunal. In case of illness of any member of the Tribunal or his incapacity for some other reason to fulfill his functions, his alternate shall take his place.

Article 3. Neither the Tribunal, its members nor their alternates can be challenged by the Prosecution, or by the defendants or their counsel. Each Signatory may replace its member of the Tribunal by his alternate for reasons of health or for other good reasons, except that no replacement may take place during a Trial, other than by an alternate.

Article 4.

             (a) The presence of all four members of the Tribunal or the alternate for any absent member shall be necessary to constitute the quorum.

             (b) The members of the Tribunal shall, before any trial begins, agree among themselves upon the selection from their number of a President, and the President shall hold office during that trial, or as may otherwise be agreed by a vote of not less than three members. The principle of rotation of presidency for successive trials is agreed. If, however, a session of the Tribunal takes place on the territory of one of the four signatories,’ the representative ‘of that Signatory on the Tribunal shall preside.

             (c) Save as aforesaid the Tribunal shall take decisions by a majority vote and in case the votes are evenly divided, the vote of the President shall be decisive: provided always that convictions and sentences shall only be imposed by affirmative votes of at least three members of the Tribunal.

Article 5. In case of need and depending on the number of the matters to be tried, other Tribunals may be set up; and the establishment, functions, and procedure of each Tribunal shall be identical, and shall be governed by this Charter.


Article 6. The Tribunal established by the Agreement referred to in Article 1 hereof for the trial and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis countries shall have the power to try and punish persons who, acting in the interests of the European Axis countries, whether as individuals or as members of organizations, committed any of the following crimes.

The following acts, or any of them, are crimes coming within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal for which there shall be individual responsibility:

(a) CRIMES AGAINST PEACE: namely, planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a Common Plan or Conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing;

(b) WAR CRIMES: namely, violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labor or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns, or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity;

(c) CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: namely, murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war,* or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of domestic law of the country where perpetrated. Leaders, organizers, instigators, and accomplices participating in the formulation or execution of a Common Plan or Conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing crimes are responsible for all acts performed by any persons in execution of such plan:

[* Comma substituted in place of semicolon by Protocol of 6 October 1945.]

Article 7. The official position of defendants, whether as Heads of State or responsible officials in Government departments, shall not be considered as freeing them from responsibility or mitigating punishment.

Article 8. The fact that the defendant acted pursuant to order of his Government or of a superior shall not free him from responsibility, but may be considered in mitigation of punishment if the Tribunal determine that justice so requires.

Article 9. At the trial of any individual member of any group or organization the Tribunal may declare (in connection with any act of which the individual may be convicted) that the group or organization of which the individual was a member was a criminal organization.

After receipt of the Indictment the Tribunal shall give such notice as it thinks fit that the Prosecution intends to ask the Tribunal to make such declaration and any member of the organization will be entitled to apply to the Tribunal for leave to be heard by the Tribunal upon the question of the criminal character of the organization. The Tribunal shall have power to allow or reject the application. If the application is allowed, the Tribunal may direct in what manner the applicants shall be represented and heard.

Article 10. In cases where a group or organization is declared criminal by the Tribunal, the competent national authority of any Signatory shall have the right to bring individuals to trial for membership therein before national, military, or occupation courts. In any such case the criminal nature of the group or organization is considered proved and shall not be questioned.

Article 11. Any person convicted by the Tribunal may be charged before a national, military, or occupation court, referred to in Article 10 of this Charter, with a crime other than of membership in a criminal group or organization and such court may, after convicting him, impose upon him punishment independent of and additional to the punishment imposed by the. Tribunal for participation in the criminal activities of such group or organization.

Article 12. The Tribunal shall have the right to take proceedings against a person charged with crimes set out in Article 6 of this Charter in his absence, if he has not been found or if the Tribunal, for any reason, finds it necessary, in the interests of justice, to conduct the hearing in his absence.

Article 13. The Tribunal shall draw up rules for its procedure. These rules shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Charter.


Article 14. Each Signatory shall appoint a Chief Prosecutor for the investigation of the charges against and the prosecution of major war criminals.

The Chief Prosecutors shall act as a committee for the following purposes:

(a) to agree upon a plan of the individual work of each of the Chief Prosecutors and his staff,

(b) to settle the final designation of major war criminals to be tried by the Tribunal,

(c) to approve the Indictment and the documents to be submitted therewith,

(d) to lodge the Indictment and the accompanying documents with the Tribunal,

(e) to draw up and recommend to the Tribunal for its approval draft rules of procedure, contemplated by Article 13 of this Charter. The Tribunal shall have power to accept, with or without amendments, or to reject, the rules so recommended. The Committee shall act in all the above matters by a majority vote and shall appoint a Chairman as may be convenient and in accordance with the principle of rotation: provided that if there is an equal division of vote concerning the designation of a defendant to be tried by the Tribunal, or the crimes with which he shall be charged, that proposal will be adopted which was made by the party which proposed that the particular defendant be tried, or the particular charges be preferred against him.

Article 15. The Chief Prosecutors shall individually, and acting in collaboration with one another, also undertake the following duties:

(a) investigation, collection, and production before or at the Trial of all necessary evidence,

(b) the preparation of the Indictment for approval by the Committee in accordance with paragraph (c) of Article 14 hereof,

(c) the preliminary examination of all necessary witnesses and of the defendants,

(d) to act as prosecutor at the Trial,

(e) to appoint representatives to carry out such duties as may be assigned to them,

(f) to undertake such other matters as may appear necessary to them for the purposes of the preparation for and conduct of the Trial. It is understood that no witness or defendant detained by any Signatory shall be taken out of the possession of that Signatory without its assent.


Article 16. In order to ensure fair trial for the defendants, the following procedure shall be followed:

(a) The Indictment shall include full particulars specifying in detail the charges against the defendants. A copy of the Indictment and of all the documents lodged with the Indictment, translated into a language which he understands, shall be furnished to the defendant at a reasonable time before the Trial.

(b) During any preliminary examination or trial of a defendant he shall have the right to give any explanation relevant to the charge* made against him.

(c) A preliminary examination of a defendant and his trial shall be conducted in, or translated into, a language which the defendant understands.

(d) A defendant shall have the right to conduct his own defense before the Tribunal or to have the assistance of counsel.

(e) A defendant shall have the right through himself or through his counsel to present evidence at the Trial in support of his defense, and to cross-examine any witness called by the Prosecution.


Article 17. The Tribunal shall have the power:

(a) to summon witnesses to the Trial and to require their attendance and testimony and to put questions to them,

(b) to interrogate any defendant,

(c) to require the production of documents and other evidentiary Material,

(d) to administer oaths to witnesses,

(e) to appoint officers for the carrying out of any task designated by the Tribunal including the power to have evidence taken on commission.

Article 18. The Tribunal shall:

(a) confine the Trial strictly to an expeditious hearing of the issues raised by the charges,

(b) take strict measures to prevent any action which will cause unreasonable delay, and rule out irrelevant issues and statements of any kind whatsoever,

(c) deal summarily with any contumacy, imposing appropriate punishment, including exclusion of any defendant or his counsel from some or all further proceedings, but without prejudice to the determination of the charges. .

Article 19. The Tribunal shall not be bound by technical rules of evidence. It shall adopt and apply to the greatest possible extent expeditious and non-technical procedure, and shall admit any evidence which it deems to have probative value.

Article 20. The Tribunal may require to be informed of the nature of any evidence before it is offered so that it may rule upon the relevance thereof.

Article 21. The Tribunal shall not require proof of facts of common knowledge but shall take judicial notice thereof. It shall also take judicial notice of official governmental documents and reports of the United Nations, including the acts and documents of the committees set up in the various Allied countries for the investigation of war crimes, and the records and findings of military or other Tribunals of any of the United Nations.

Article 22. The permanent seat of the Tribunal shall be in Berlin. The first meetings of the members of the Tribunal and of the Chief Prosecutors shall be held at Berlin in a place to be designated by the Control Council for Germany. The first trial shall be held at Nuremberg, and any subsequent trials shall be held at such places as the Tribunal may decide.

Article 23. One or more of the Chief Prosecutors may take part in the prosecution at each trial. The function of any Chief Prosecutor may be discharged by him personally, or by any person or persons authorized by him.

The function of counsel for a defendant may be discharged at the defendant’s request by any counsel professionally qualified to conduct cases before the Courts of his own country, or by any other person who may be specially authorized thereto by the Tribunal.

Article 24. The proceedings at the Trial shall take the following course:

(a) The Indictment shall be read in court.

(b) The Tribunal shall ask each defendant whether he pleads “guilty” or “not guilty”.

(c) The Prosecution shall make an opening statement.

(d) The Tribunal shall ask the Prosecution and the Defense what evidence (if any) they wish to submit to the Tribunal, and the Tribunal shall rule upon the admissibility of any such evidence.

(e) The witnesses for the Prosecution shall be examined and after that the witnesses for the Defense. Thereafter such rebutting evidence as may be held by, the Tribunal to be admissible shall be called by either the Prosecution or the Defense.

(f) The Tribunal may put any question to any witness and to any defendant, at any time.

(g) The Prosecution and the Defense shall interrogate and may cross-examine any witnesses and any defendant who gives testimony.

(h) The Defense shall address the Court.

(i) The Prosecution shall address the Court.

(j) Each Defendant may make a statement to the Tribunal.

(k) The Tribunal shall deliver judgment and pronounce sentence.

Article 25. All official documents shall be produced, and all court proceedings conducted, in English, French, and Russian, and in the language of the defendant. So much of the record and of the proceedings may, also be translated into the language of any country in which the Tribunal is sitting, as the Tribunal considers desirable in the interests of justice and public opinion.


Article 26. The judgment of the Tribunal as to the guilt or the innocence of any defendant shall give the reasons on which it is based, and shall be final and not subject to review.

Article 27. The Tribunal shall have the right to impose upon a defendant on conviction, death or such other punishment as shall be determined by it to be just.

Article 28. In addition to any punishment imposed by it, the Tribunal shall have the right to deprive the convicted person of any stolen property and order its delivery to the Control Council for Germany.

Article 29. In case of guilt, sentences shall be carried out in accordance with the orders of the Control Council for Germany, which may at any time reduce or otherwise alter the sentences, but may not increase the severity thereof. If the Control Council for Germany, after any defendant has been convicted and sentenced, discovers fresh evidence which, in its opinion, would found a fresh charge against him, the Council shall report accordingly to the Committee established under Article 14 hereof, for such action as they may consider proper, having regard to the interests of justice.


Article 30. The expenses of the Tribunal and of the trials shall be charged by the Signatories against the funds allotted for maintenance of the Control Council for Germany.


Whereas an Agreement and Charter regarding the Prosecution of War Criminals was signed in London on the 8th August 1945, in the English, French, and Russian languages; And whereas a discrepancy has been found to exist between the originals of Article 6, paragraph (c), of the Charter in the Russian language, on the one hand, and the originals in the English and French languages, on the other, to wit, the semicolon in Article 6, paragraph (c), of the Charter between the words “war” and “or”, as carried in the English and French texts, is a comma in the Russian text; And whereas it is desired to rectify this discrepancy:

NOW, THEREFORE, the undersigned, signatories of the said Agreement on behalf of their respective Governments, duly authorized thereto, have agreed that Article 6, paragraph (c), of the Charter in the Russian text is correct, and that the meaning and intention of the Agreement and Charter require that the said semicolon in the English text should be changed to a comma, and that the French text should be amended to read as follows:

c) LES CRIMES CONTRE L’HUMANITE: c’est i dire l’assassinat, l’extermination, la reduction en esclavage, la deportation, et tout autre acte inhumain commis contre toutes populations civiles, avant ou pendant la guerre, ou bien les persecutions pour des motifs politiques, raciapx, ou religieux, lorsque ces actes ou persecutions, qu’ils aient constitue ou non une violation du droit interne du pays ou ils ont kt6 perpetres, ont ete commis i la suite de tout crime rentrant dans la competence du Tribunal, ou en liaison avec ce crime.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Undersigned have signed the present Protocol.

DONE in quadruplicate in Berlin this 6th day of October, 1945, each in English, French, and Russian, and each text to have equal authenticity.

For the Government of the United States of America


For the Provisional Government of the French Republic


For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


For the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics



(Adopted 29 October 1945)

Rule 1. Authority to Promulgate Rules.

The present Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal for the trial of the major war criminals (hereinafter called “the Tribunal“) as established by the Charter of the Tribunal dated 8 August 1945 (hereinafter called “the Charter”) are hereby promulgated by the Tribunal in accordance with the provisions of Article 13 of the Charter.

Rule 2. Notice to Defendants and Right to Assistance of Counsel.

(a) Each individual defendant in custody shall receive not least than 30 days before trial a copy, translated into a language which he understands,

             (1) of the Indictment,

             (2) of the Charter,

             (3) of any other documents lodged with the Indictment, and

             (4) of a statement of his right to the assistance of counsel as set forth in sub-paragraph (d) of this Rule, together with a list of counsel. He shall also receive copies of such rules of procedure as may be adopted by the Tribunal from time to time.

(b) Any individual defendant not in custody shall be informed of the indictment-against him and of his right to receive the documents specified in sub-paragraph (a) above, by notice in such form and manner as the Tribunal may prescribe.

(c) With respect to any group or organization as to which the Prosecution indicates its intention to request a finding of criminality by the Tribunal notice shall be given by publication in such form and manner as the Tribunal may prescribe and such publication shall include a declaration by the Tribunal that all members of the named groups or organizations are entitled to apply to the Tribunal for leave to be heard in accordance with the provisions of Article 9 of the Charter. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to confer immunity of any kind upon such members of said groups or organizations as may appear in answer to the said declaration.

(d) Each defendant has the right to conduct his own defense or to, have the assistance of counsel. Application for particular counsel shall be filed at once with the General Secretary of the Tribunal at the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, Germany. The Tribunal will designate counsel for any defendant who fails to apply for particular counselor, where particular counsel requested is not within ten (10) days to be found or available, unless the defendant elects in writing to conduct his own defense. If a defendant has requested particular counsel who is not immediately to be found or available, such counsel or a counsel of substitute choice may, if found and available before trial, be associated with or substituted for counsel designated by the Tribunal, provided that (1)only one counsel shall be permitted to appear at the trial for any defendant, unless by special permission of the Tribunal, and (2) no delay of trial will be allowed for making such substitution or association.

Rule 3. Service of Additional Documents.

If, before the trial, the Chief Prosecutors offer amendments or additions to the Indictment, such amendments or additions, including any accompanying documents shall be lodged with the Tribunal and copies of the same, translated into a language which they each understand, shall be furnished to the defendants in custody as soon as practicable and notice given in accordance with Rule 2 (b) to those not in custody.

Rule 4. Production of Evidence for the Defense.

(a) The Defense may apply to the Tribunal for the production of witnesses or of documents by written application to the General Secretary of the Tribunal. The application shall state where the witness or document is thought to be located, together with a statement of their last known location. It shall also state the facts proposed to be proved by the witness or the document and the reasons why such facts are relevant to the Defense.

(b) If the witness or the document is not within the area controlled by the occupation authorities, the Tribunal may request the Signatory and adhering Governments to arrange for the production, if possible, of any such witnesses and any such documents as the Tribunal may deem necessary to proper presentation of the Defense.

(c) If the witness or the document is within the area controlled by the occupation authorities, the General Secretary shall, if the Tribunal is not in session, communicate the application to the Chief Prosecutors and, if they make no objection, the General Secretary shall issue a summons for the attendance of such witness or the production of such documents, informing the Tribunal of the action taken. If any Chief Prosecutor objects to the issuance of a summons, or if the Tribunal is in session, the General Secretary shall submit the application to the Tribunal, which shall decide whether are not the summons shall issue.

(d) A summons shall be served in such manner as may be provided by the appropriate occupation authority to ensure its enforcement and the General Secretary shall inform the Tribunal of the steps taken.

(e) Upon application to the General Secretary of the Tribunal, a defendant shall be furnished with a copy, translated into a language which he understands, of all documents referred to in the Indictment so far as they may be made available by the Chief Prosecutors and shall be allowed to inspect copies of any such documents as are not so available.

Rule 5. Order at the Trial.

In conformity with the provisions of Article 18 of the Charter, and the disciplinary powers therein set out, the Tribunal, acting through its President, shall provide for the maintenance of order at the Trial. Any defendant or any other person may be excluded from open sessions of the Tribunal for failure to observe and respect the directives and dignity of the Tribunal.

Rule 6 . Oaths; Witnesses.

(a) Before testifying before the Tribunal, each witness shall make such oath or declaration as is customary in his own country.

(b) Witnesses while not giving evidence shall not be present in court. The President of the Tribunal shall direct, as circumstances demand, that witnesses shall not confer among themselves before giving evidence.

Rule 7. Applications and Motions before Trial and Rulings during the Trial.

(a) All motions, applications or other requests address to the Tribunal prior to the commencement of trial shall be made in writing and filed with the General Secretary of the Tribunal at the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, Germany.

(b) Any such motion, application or other request shall be communicated by the General Secretary of the Tribunal to the Chief Prosecutors and, if they make no objection, the President of the Tribunal may make the appropriate order on behalf of the Tribunal. If any Chief Prosecutor objects, the President may call a special session of the Tribunal for the determination of the question raised.

(c) The Tribunal, acting through its President, will rule in court upon all questions arising during the trial, such as questions as to admissibility of evidence offered during the trial, recesses, and motions; and before so ruling the Tribunal may, when necessary, order the closing or clearing of the Tribunal or take any other steps which to the Tribunal seem just.

Rule 8. Secretariat of the Tribunal.

             (a) The Secretariat of the Tribunal shall be composed of a General Secretary, four Secretaries and their Assistants. The Tribunal shall appoint the General Secretary and each Member shall appoint one Secretary. The General Secretary shall appoint such clerks, interpreters, stenographers, ushers, and all such other persons as may be authorized by the Tribunal and each Secretary may appoint such assistants as may be authorized by the Member of the Tribunal by whom he was appointed.

             (b) The General Secretary, in consultation with the Secretaries, shall organize and direct the work of the Secretariat, subject to the approval of the Tribunal in the event of a disagreement by any Secretary.

             (c) The Secretariat shall receive all documents addressed to the Tribunal, maintain the records of the Tribunal, provide necessary clerical services to the Tribunal and its Members, and perform such other duties as may be designated by the Tribunal.

             (d) Communications addressed to the Tribunal shall be delivered to the General Secretary.

Rule 9. Record, Exhibits, and Documents.

             (a) A stenographic record shall be maintained of all oral proceedings. Exhibits will be suitably identified and marked with consecutive numbers. All exhibits and transcripts of the proceedings and all documents lodged with and produced to the Tribunal will be filed with the General Secretary of the Tribunal and will constitute part of the Record.

             (b) The term “official documents” as used in Article 25 of the Charter includes the Indictment, rules, written motions, orders that are reduced to writing, findings, and judgments of the Tribunal. These shall be in the English, French, Russian, and German languages. Documentary evidence or exhibits may be received in the language of the document, but a translation thereof into German shall be made available to the defendants.

             (c) All exhibits and transcripts of proceedings, all documents lodged with and produced to the Tribunal and all official acts and documents of the Tribunal may be certified by the General Secretary of the Tribunal to any Government or to any other tribunal or wherever it is appropriate that copies of such documents or representations as to such acts should be supplied upon a proper request.

Rule 10. Withdrawal of Exhibits and Documents.

In cases where original documents are submitted by the Prosecution or the Defense as evidence, and upon a showing (a) that because of historical interest or for any other reason one of the Governments signatory to the Four Power Agreement of 8 August 1945, or any other Government having received the consent of said four signatory Powers, desires to withdraw from the records of the Tribunal and preserve any particular original documents and (b) that no substantial injustice will result, the Tribunal shall permit photo-static copies of said original documents, certified by the General Secretary of the Tribunal, to be substituted for the originals in the records of the Court and shall deliver said original documents to the applicants.

Rule 11. Effective Date and Powers of Amendment and Addition.

These Rules shall take effect upon their approval by the Tribunal. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the Tribunal from, at any time, in the interest of fair and expeditious trials, departing from, amending, or adding to these Rules, either by general rules or special orders for particular cases, in such form and upon such notice as may appear just to the Tribunal.


SOURCE: Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Nurnberg 1945-46; Volume I (LOC)

Today’s Extra for November 28: 5 Cozy Ideas for Winter Self Care

5 Cozy Ideas for Winter Self Care

Winter is such a love-it-or-hate-it time of year. For some of us, winter is snowflakes, hot chocolate and cable-knit sweaters. For others, it’s dry skin, cold feet and getting up early to scrape the windshield.

Whether you’re looking forward to autumn leaves turning to frost-adorned branches or counting down the days till spring, it’s impossible to argue that winter doesn’t come with its own set of challenges. Dark winters can take their toll, physically, mentally and emotionally. Fortunately, we have some whole-body self care ideas that will help see you through


Winter might be the hardest time of year to get moving, but it’s as vital as ever. If your body starts to feel heavy and tired from a lack of exercise, try engaging in a stretching or yoga practice on a daily basis.


Winter is a wonderful opportunity to retreat inward and enter “rest and reflect” mode. If the sun going down at 5 p.m. makes you want to bundle up in pajamas and enjoy a bowl of soup on the couch, you’re not the only one. Winter was made for cozy moments like this!


Cold temperatures and dry winter air have the tendency to suck the moisture right out of our skin. Dry brushing can help remedy this by boosting circulation, stimulating the lymphatic system and removing dead skin. Follow with a coconut oil massage. It’ll feel delicious!


Whether or not you enjoy the holidays, there is something truly special about celebrating the changing seasons. Start by making your home smell more festive ━ light a beeswax candle, warm cinnamon sticks on the stove ━ or turning on a seasonal playlist.


Feel chilled to your bones? Indulge in a nourishing hot drink. We especially love this Hormone-Balancing Hot Chocolate and this Turmeric Chai Latte. Bonus points if you make one for a friend and go for a long walk outside.

Moon Phase Calendar for Wednesday – November 28th

Moon Phase Calendar

Wednesday – 28th November 2018


Current Moon Phase: Waning Gibbous
Current Zodiac Sign The Moon Is In: Leo

Moon in Leo:

You feel safe in moments when you can impress others and get praise and admiration. Yet, when you get into the spotlight, you may find yourself at a loss. Maybe you should admit your fear of criticism and your inability to accept criticism. It is very important to accept feedback and use it for improvement.


Organs influenced by Leo Moon Sign:

Organs: Heart, aorta, blood circulation, blood pressure, heart rate.

These organs are now more sensitive so provide them with extra care.

Surgical operations:

Surgical operations are recommended during the Waning Moon.
However, avoid surgeries of organs under the influence of the Moon Sign.

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 28: THE FULL MOON, CHILDBIRTH, AND MARRIAGE



Martha White
The Moon has a personal relationship with us all, and folklore has it that childbirth and even marriage are influenced by the Moon.


  • Though nobody can be sure of when a baby will be born, some Moon lore suggests that births are more likely to occur 7 days before through 7 days after a Full Moon.
  • In fact, many cultures believe that the full Moon’s pull on a woman’s amniotic fluids increases the chances of giving birth at this time.
  • Some nurses and midwives claim the new Moon is also an active time for births.
  • According to folklore, babies born the day after the full Moon enjoy success and endurance.



As the Moon regulates water, it’s an age-old belief that it also regulates the rise and fall of our emotional tides.

  • According to some lore, the full Moon is an ideal time to accept a proposal of marriage as love is amplified. This certainly does not mean that marriages that do not happen on Full Moon nights are not successful – although it could be less than auspicious to get married when there’s no Moon in the sky at all.
  • Further, the Full Moon is the best time to consummate marriage, according to the ancient Greeks, while the New Moon is the best time to drain out stale energy and belief systems.
  • The New Moon phase is also the one best for breaking up.
  • According to folklore, if a young woman sees a dove and glimpses the new Moon at the same instant, she should repeat: “Bright Moon, clear Moon, Bright and fair, Lift up your right foot, There’ll be a hair.” When she removes her shoe, she’ll find a hair the color of her future husband’s.