The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 13: NOVEMBER 2018 NIGHT SKY GUIDE



Bob Berman
Mid-November, the Moon pairs up with Saturn and Mars. Venus gets brighter. And another meteor shower heads our way. See what’s up tonight in our November 2018 Sky Watch!


by Bob Berman, as featured in The Old Farmer’s Almanac

Our astronomy editor, Bob Berman, sets you up for the best in night sky sightseeing each month, with special tips for finding bright planets and stars, eclipses, meteor showers, and other celestial objects and events.

In late autumn, after most of the leaves have fallen, the forest suddenly becomes transparent. The contours of the land leap out in 3-D, exposing all kinds of subtleties. And many of them are small, bashful—the kind of sights that require us to look up, instead of down. Above our heads, beyond the changed colors of the lingering leaves, we’ll see the night sky as it changes throughout November.


Morning Planets

  • The action switches to the predawn sky as planet Venus has transitioned out of the evening sky and into the morning sky. It’s the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon.
  • The Moon meets returning Venus on the 6th. Look towards sunrise in the eastern sky around 6 A.M.
  • Venus hovers near Virgo’s Spica from the 6th to the 12th and stands 25 degrees high by month’s end.
  • Every day, Venus gets brighter. By mid-month, Venus’ disk will be about 10% illuminated by sunshine. By the month’s end, Venus’ disk will be 25% illuminated in sunshine.

Click here for a free, printable star chart to navigate Venus and the night sky!

Evening Planets

  • On the 1st, Jupiter meets Mercury low in the west; both soon vanish.
  • Mars stands about a third of the way up the southern sky at nightfall. The red planet, having resumed its normal eastward motion against the stars, speeds from Capricornus into Aquarius. Just 12 arcseconds wide and at magnitude zero, it is dimming, losing half its width and is now too small to show useful detail in telescopes.
  • Saturn shines clear above the southwestern horizon at nightfall. The ringed planet shifts lower in the sky each night, preparing to depart the night sky soon.
  • The Moon floats left of ever-lower Saturn on the 11th.
  • The Moon and Mars pair up on November 13 to 16.


November boasts two meteor showers.

  • The Taurid meteor showers are visible between November 9 and 12. While this is a minor shower with about 5 meteors per hour, the Taurids are known for bright fireballs—a particularly bright meteor. Seeing one is quite a thrill. Even better, the Moon is now in a waning crescent phase. Rising shortly before sunrise, that means no moonlight to ruin the prime time viewing hours, centered on about 12:30 a.m. local time. See Moon rise and set times here.
  • The Leonids meteor shower peaks on the night of Saturday, November 17 and early the following morning, November 18. A modest shower, the Leonids bring about 10 meteors per hour at their peak. Due to a bright waxing gibbous Moon this year, viewers will see fewer meteors. Check your Moon phase. The best time to look is before dawn around 3 A.M. so you have to set that alarm!

See our 2018 Meteor Shower Calendar (and get ready for the biggest shower of the year in December!).


November’s Moon was called the Beaver Moon by both the Algonquin tribes and colonial Americans. The Native Americans used the monthly Moons and nature’s signs as a sort of calendar to track the seasons. Why this name? Back then, this was the month to set beaver traps before the swamps froze, to ensure a supply of warm winter furs. The November full Moon was also called the Full Frost Moon by other Native Americans.

November’s full Moon rises November 23, 12:39 A.M. EST.


This Day in History for November 13: Daredevil Sam Patch’s Final, Fatal Stunt (1829)

Daredevil Sam Patch’s Final, Fatal Stunt (1829)

Sam Patch (1799[1]November 13,1829),known as “The Yankee Leaper”, became the first famous American daredevil after successfully jumping from a raised platform into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls in 1829.


Early life

Sam Patch was born to Mayo Greenleaf Patch and Abigail McIntire and wasthe fifth child of the family that included Molly, Greenleaf, Nabby, Samuel (diedas an infant), Samuel, and Issac.[1]

Sam was raised in Pawtucket, Rhode Island[2]where he working as a child laborer spinning cotton in a mill.[3] When he not working, he entertaine
other boys by jumping off the mill dam. By his early 20s he wasworking at a mill in Paterson, New Jersey, and was jumping off ever-higherspots. He was beginning to attract crowds for his well-advertised stunts. OnSeptember 30, 1827,[2] he jumped off the 70-foot Passaic Falls in New Jersey, pleasing a large crowd that had gathered. He repeated this jump atleast two more times. On August 11, 1828 Patch jumped 100 feet at Hoboken, New Jersey. He became known in the press as “Patch the New JerseyJumper.”[2] Patch continued his career jumping from bridges, factory walls, andship’s masts.

Niagara Falls

In the fall of 1829, Patch gained fame by leaping into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls. Patch was the starattraction at an event designed to draw visitors to the falls. A 125-foot ladder was extended over the river below Goat Islandopposite the Cave of the Winds. Less than an hour before the scheduled noon jump, a chain securing the ladder to the cliffwall snapped, breaking 15 feet from the ladder. Rescheduled for 4 PM, Patch jumped on time. A boat circled near the entrypoint, but Patch did not appear. When he was finally spotted on the shore, a great roar went up from the crowd.

Bad weather and the delay in his arrival drew a disappointingly small crowd for this jump, so Patch announced he wouldrepeat the feat a second time October 17.[2] A few days later, 10,000 gathered to watch him keep his word.

Following his feat at Niagara falls, Sam Patch achieved nationwide fame. His name became a household word[4] and hisslogan “some things can be done as well as others” became a popular slang expression across the nation.


Shortly after, Patch went to Rochester, New York, to challenge the 99-foot High Falls of the Genesee River. On Friday,November 6, 1829, in front of an estimated 7,000 to 8,000 spectators,[5] Patch went out onto a rock ledge in the middle of thefalls. He first threw a pet bear cub over the falls and the cub managed to swim safely to shore. Patch then successfully jumpedafter the bear.[2]

Last jump

His first jump into the Genesee River raised a disappointing amount of money,[2] so he decided to repeat the stunt one weeklater on November 13, 1829 (Friday the 13th). This time, he increased the height of the jump to 125 feet by constructing a 25-foot stand.[2] Accounts from the 8,000 present differ on whether he actually jumped or fell, but he did not achieve his normalfeet-first vertical entry.[5] A loud impact was heard and he never surfaced. Rumors were passed that he had hidden in a caveat the base of the falls, and was enjoying all the excitement he had created. But his frozen body was found in the ice inCharlotte (Rochester) early the next spring by Silas Hudson. Local ministers and newspapers were quick to blame the crowdfor urging him to jump, and put the guilt of his death on them.[2]

He was buried in Charlotte Cemetery, near where his body was found.[6] A wooden board (now gone) was placed over hisgrave. It read: “Sam Patch – Such is Fame”.[2]


Sam’s legacy continued to build in the years following his death. He became a popular folk hero in both written poems andstories as well as the hero of a series of theatrical plays by actor Danforth Marble entitled Sam Patch the Yankee Jumper,followed by Sam Patch at Home, a London Tour of Sam Patch in Franceand Sam Patch the Jumper (1844). PresidentAndrew Jackson named his horse Sam Patch in Sam’s honor.

Sam’s legacy continues into the 21st century with media references including;

  • The band Piñataland chronicled Patch’s 1827 jump on a song titled “The Fall of Sam Patch” on their 2008 album Songsfor the Forgotten Future Vol. 2.

Literary references

“Sam Patch’s Fearsome Leap,” a tale in Grandfather Stories by Samuel Hopkins Adams, is a reconstructed first-hand account of the day of Patch’slast leap. It is not clear whether Adams based the tale on a real first-handaccount or wrote it as historical fiction.

Patch appears as a “daring moral hero” in the works of Hawthorne and Melville,[1] and also appears in the poem “Paterson” by William Carlos Williams.


  1. a b c Johnson, Paul. Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper (New York: Hilland Wang, 2003) ISBN 0-8090-8388-4.
  2. a b c d e f g h i Rosenberg-Naparsteck, Ruth (Summer 1991). “The Real Simon Pure Sam Patch” (PDF). Rochester History (RochesterPublic Library) LII (3). ISSN 0035-7413Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  3. ^ Wilson, James Grant; John Fiske (1888). “Patch, Samuel”Appletons’ cyclopaedia of American biography IV669Retrieved 4January 2012.
  4. ^ Smith, Seba; Smith, Elizabeth Oakes Prince (December, 1856). “Life and Death of Sam Patch”United StatesMagazine (J. M. Emerson & Co.): 567–570Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  5. a b “Sam Patchs Last Leap” (PDF). New York TimesAugust 12, 1883Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  6. ^ Thomas, W. Stephen; Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck (October 1988). “Sleep City The Sesquicentenneial History of Mt. Hope Cemetery” (PDF). Rochester History (Rochester Public Library) L (4): 4. ISSN 0035-7413RetrievedDecember 31, 2007.

Inspiration for the Day for Nov. 13: How Long

How Long


When we take the time to sit with our emotions fully, it will become apparent that the emotion was a catalyst for much needed healing.

Our emotions color our lives with varying palettes. Sometimes we feel a strong emotion in reaction to something that has happened, but emotions also visit us seemingly out of the blue, flooding us unexpectedly with joy or grief or melancholy. Like the weather, they come and go, influencing our mental state with their particular vibration. Sometimes a difficult emotion hangs around longer than we would like, and we begin to wonder when it will release its hold on us. This is often true of grief stemming from loss, for example, or lingering anger over a past event.

Usually, if we allow ourselves to feel our emotions fully when they come up, they recede naturally, giving way to another and another. When an emotion haunts us, it is often because we are afraid of really feeling it. Emotions like despair and rage are powerful, and it is natural to want to hold them at bay. Certainly, we don’t want to let them take us over so that we say or do things we later regret. When we are facing this kind of situation, it can be helpful to ask the spirit, “How long do I need to sit with these emotions, how long do I need to feel these emotions before they can pass?” If you ask sincerely and wait, an answer will come. Setting a time limit on your engagement with that difficult emotion may be just the technique you need to face it fully.

When you have a sense of how much time you need to spend, set a timer. Sit down and make yourself available to the emotion that has been nagging you. All you have to do is feel it. Avoid getting attached to it or rejecting it. Simply let it ebb and flow within you. Emotions are by their nature cyclical, so you can trust that just as one reaches its apex it will pass. Each time you sit with its presence without either repressing or acting out, you will find that that difficult emotion was the catalyst for much needed emotional healing.



How You Spend Money, According to Your Zodiac Sign

How does your sign handle money?

Woman Coins

How does your horoscope sign spend money? For example, what would you buy if you won the lottery and had to spend it all within 48 hours? Fashionable Gemini might splurge on a closet full of shoes, while Taurus might stock the cellar with fine wine. What would YOU buy? Look to Astrology for insight about the spending styles of every sign.

Aries (March 21 – April 19)

To an Aries, everything that passes through those hot little hands of yours is a toy. And money is a particularly fun toy. It gets you whatever you want, the second you want it — which, as the commercial says, is in your book, “priceless.” Of course, whether or not you’re close to the limit on the plastic you’re carrying around doesn’t matter … impulse is your middle name. That goes double when you’ve got some extra Benjamins in your pocket.


Taurus (April 20 – May 20)

Quality or quantity? Lots of us spend hours of our lives mulling that over. You, however, have the answer deeply imbedded in the back of your quality-conscious brain: both. Fortunately, you’re a money-magnet, and an expert at finding objects, experiences and people who answer those descriptions, so why settle? When you find what you want (after lots of highly pleasurable comparison shopping), you plunk down the cash or plastic, smile a thank you and toddle off happily to enjoy yourself.


Gemini (May 21 – June 20)

Unlike your Taurus neighbors, you don’t want just one, special, unusual thing, experience or friend — you’re a collector. You like lots of what you like. In fact, if “variety is the spice of life” wasn’t written by, or for, a Gemini — well, then it wasn’t written at all. So when it comes to laying down a stack of bills, pulling out your ATM or deciding whether or not to wreak major havoc on your Visa, if the decision involves a collection, a medley or an assortment, you’re in.


Cancer (June 21 – July 22)

Home, kids and family. Those are the keywords most often associated with your sign. What’s not often mentioned is the fact that you also suffer, occasionally, from bouts of guilt — when you feel like you haven’t paid enough attention to any or all of those matters. So when it comes to spending your hard-earned pesos, it’s easiest for you to do it — to justify it, that is — when you’re making your home more of a nest than it already is (as if that’s possible), or buying a gift for a loved one.


Leo (July 23 – August 22)

Royalty deserves the best and nothing less. You, Leo, just so happen to be the lion, the sign of royalty. Why else would there be all those lions on those ancient coats of arms? That means when it comes to spending, you don’t hesitate to pull out all the stops — for yourself, sure, but even more so for the ones you love, since you’re also famous for treating those closest to your heart (also ruled by Leo) even more like royalty. Careful, though. Spending like royalty means you’ve got to earn like royalty … or end up in the gallows.


Virgo (August 23 – September 22)

You’ve probably got a great big jar of silver coins, another one full of strictly pennies, some bills tucked away in a coffee can, and a real savings account somewhere. Or if you’re superstitious, there may be a tightly-wrapped bundle of cash in any number of other places. Regardless of where it is, right down to the penny, you’re quite sure of exactly what’s there. When you decide to spend any of it, there’s got to be a very good, logical reason for it — and a terrific sale going on.


Libra (September 23 – October 22)

Spending on yourself? Well, yes — but only for beauty products, beauty procedures or the latest fashions, and only to keep your significant other (current or prospective) happy and interested. Spending on others? Especially the ones you love best? That’s easy. You love them, which entitles them to the very best, and nothing less. It doesn’t matter whether it’s their birthday, a holiday or just a Wednesday. If you see something that you’re sure will make them smile, you’ll buy it. Take it easy on the plastic, though. Remember, your charming company is the greatest gift of all.


Scorpio (October 23 – November 21)

Your nature is intense — no doubt about that. It’s been written about for centuries — and it doesn’t take an astrologer to tell you that. That goes for every action you take, from picking up groceries to investing in a mutual fund. So when you take off on a shopping trip, unlike your Aries or Aquarius cousins, you definitely don’t need anyone to go along with you, holding onto your plastic, cash, checkbook or hand. You’re definitely equipped to handle it on your own.


Sagittarius (November 22 – December 21)

As your friend Shakespeare once said, Sag, “Here’s the rub” — when it comes to spending money, it’s like every other department of life: unbridled. Whether it’s in your hand, in your account, en route next week or on sale tomorrow doesn’t matter. If you see it and you want it, you want it now. Right now, or not at all. Fortunately, your planet Jupiter will be in your sign for over a year, so you’ll likely be able to do that. Still, just because you may have a bit extra to toss around, try not to do it indiscriminately.


Capricorn (December 22 – January 19)

Separating yourself from the money you make isn’t often an easy job — okay, it’s never an easy job, because you very rarely have an easy job. As such, with everything else you do, spending more than a quarter on the paper may involve charts, diagrams, months of research, and lots and lots of comparison shopping. Don’t let anyone talk you down, either. You’re one of the three smartest shoppers in the zodiac, so you’ll invariably end up with what you want.


Aquarius (January 20 – February 18)

You’ve heard the expression “impulse buyer.” You’ve probably also learned by now that you, along with a couple of other signs, definitely fall into that category. More importantly, though, before you fall prey to impulse spending for any reason, consider one thing: is what I’m about to buy unique? If so, and you really love it, you’ll hock everything but Grandma’s jewelry to buy it. If it’s what everyone else is wearing, doing, or a place everyone else is going to, forget it. Individuality is what’s most important.


Pisces (February 19 – March 20)

You’re motivated by one thing, for the most part: emotions. In fact, to be perfectly blunt, at times you can be a salesperson’s dream: the impulse buyer. That doesn’t mean you spend irrationally, but when an item or experience triggers a pleasant emotional memory, it’s obvious — and any salesperson worth their salt will pick that up from the second the bell on the door jingles. Protect yourself from them. Think of them as sharks (not far from the truth) and bring a shopping chaperone along if you’re planning to spend more than $50. Either that, or shop online — with your chaperone in a chair by your side. is Part of the Daily Insight Group ©2018

The Daily Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 13th

The Daily Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 13th

Claire Petulengro, Astrologer

From The Astrology Room


ARIES (March 21st-April 20th)
A strong sign such as you needs to look the future straight in the eye and just give it a wink. You know as well as I do, that you spent much of this year trying to keep up with the competition. Setting your own standards and believing in your own visions promises success.

TAURUS (April 21st-May 21st)
Don’t speak for the sake of it but use your time and energy to focus on what you want the end result to be, rather than how things appear to others on this very emotive day. News from far away gives you reason to get more excited about this Christmas than most.

GEMINI (May 22nd-June 21st)
Are you making changes for the sake of it, or do you really like this new path which is opening up to you? Being honest about where you see yourself in the months ahead can help you make choices you won’t have to back out of at a later date.

CANCER (June 22nd-July 23rd)
Try to have more faith in yourself and where you see your life going in the months ahead. Some would suggest that you are allowing jealousy to force your hand. Doing the right thing will ensure you put your life on its best path yet in the days and weeks ahead.

LEO (July 24th-August 23rd)
You may not realise it, but your words and actions over the last few weeks could be responsible for some really major changes your close ones will be making. Talk to them, before it’s too late and before you both say and do things which cannot be taken back.

VIRGO (August 24th-September 23rd)
New invites make your life a more interesting place to be. You no longer worry about how things look to those around, but you are willing, ready and able to speak and act only from the heart. Some of you have proposals coming your way. Prepare to be impressed.

LIBRA (September 24th-October 23rd)
Don’t compromise yourself Libra. You’re all you’ve got. Knowing what you really want from deals done at this time is half the battle. Take time out to check forms you need to fill out. I see that events this week will demand you have tied up all you started this month asap.

SCORPIO (October 24th-November 22nd)
Don’t cancel any of the arrangements you have made for yourself, but stick to plans. I know and you will too soon enough, that you have the support you thought was missing. You just have to ask for it. Time spent with family reveals who really stretched the truth recently.

SAGITTARIUS (November 23rd-December 21st)
I know it has proven hard to get on with loved ones as you would like, but events which unfold over the coming days will prove to you that you have what it takes to move your career up to the next level. You just need to find a little more faith in yourself and who you are. Ring now to end your week on a high.

CAPRICORN (December 22nd-January 20th)
I know there are many challenges you have to face this year, but what you don’t know is that you have help in hidden places. Try to be fair in family issues which have been causing such a difficult air. Time is the key to the atmosphere mellowing for you and those involved.

AQUARIUS (January 21st-February 19th)
No one is allowed to dull your sparkle. Don’t let them think they can or you will only be giving them power. Playing fair in business can put you ahead of the competition, especially if you promise to give them the time they have been asking for to complete current projects.

PISCES (February 20th-March 20th)
The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. Knowing how far is too far to go with financial disputes can make all the difference as to whether you are in or out of pocket.


For Claire’s in-depth horoscope for this week, call 0905 072 0237
Calls cost 77p/min from a BT landline

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American Revolution: Major Events 1776

The following list is important dates during the year 1776;


1 January: American forces besieging Boston reorganized in accordance with Congressional resolve of preceding November, making this portion of patriot Army “Continental in every respect”; but only about 5,500 were present and fit for duty.

1 January: First patriot flag bearing seven red and six white stripes raised at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in recognition of reorganization of Continental forces before Boston.

1 January: Governor Dunmore, following patriot refusal to allow him to send ashore parties for provisions, bombarded and set fire to Norfolk, Virginia’s largest town.

5 January: New Hampshire adopted new written constitution replacing its colonial charter, first of 13 colonies to do so.

5 January: Continental Congress ordered work on Constitution Island (opposite West Point) suspended and emphasis placed on Fort Montgomery.

6 January: Alexander Hamilton’s New York artillery battery constituted organization that became only Continental Army unit to have officially recognized modern active army descendant, the 1st Battalion, 5th Artillery.

10 January: Royal Governor Josiah Martin of North Carolina, from aboard British sloop Scorpion, urged loyalists to gather near Wilmington on Cape Fear River to collaborate with forthcoming British Army offensive in South.

10 January: Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense published in Philadelphia, urging American declaration of independence.

12-14 January: Sailors from British ships stationed at Newport raided Patience, Hope, and Prudence Islands in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and on Prudence engaged militia from Bristol and Warren in 3-hour fight.

20 January: Patriot General Philip Schuyler in New York leading 3,000 militia forced Sir John Johnson of Johnstown, New York, and 700 other loyalists, to surrender, thereby breaking back of loyalist resistance in Albany area and assuring neutrality of neighboring Indians for some time to come.

20 January: General Henry Clinton left Boston with about 1,200 troops to lead British expedition against Carolinas.

23 January: Patriot group from Elizabethtown (modern Elizabeth), New Jersey, led by William Alexander (better, if inaccurately, known as Lord Stirling) and Elias Dayton, captured British supply ship Blue Mountain Valley 40 miles off Sandy Hook.

24 January: Colonel Henry Knox, Washington’s artillery chief, who on the proceeding 15 November had been sent to fetch cannon captured at Ticonderoga, returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts, with 55 guns.

27 February: Congress resolved to establish separate Middle and Southern Departments of Continental Army, former including New York through Maryland and latter Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia.

27 February: Loyalist force of 1,400 including 1,000 Scotch Highlanders advancing toward Wilmington in hope of joining up with British Army force under Clinton was ambushed at Moore’s Creek Bridge, North Carolina, about 15 miles north of Wilmington, and then caught between patriot forces in front and rear. In the fight at bridge, loyalists lost 50-70, patriots 2; but afterward more than 850 loyalists were taken prisoner.

2-5 March: Heavy patriot bombardment of Boston began on 2 March, and on night of 4-5 March darkness concealed Washington’s occupation of Dorchester Heights and emplacement there of cannon from Ticonderoga.

3 March: Secret Committee of Correspondence decided to send “commercial” agent to France to purchase military supplies, and Congress selected Silas Deane of Connecticut for this mission.

3-4 March: Patriot sailors and marines attacked New Providence (now Nassau) in Bahamas, capturing 100 cannon and mortars and a large quantity of other useful military stores. This action was first in which American marines participated as an organized unit.

7 March: Royal Governor Sir James Wright, who fled Savannah, Georgia, on 11 February to take refuge on British warship, returned with naval reinforcements on 6 March, captured 11 rice laden merchant ships, and threatened to attack Savannah from Hutchinson’s Island opposite. Counterattack drove off British and left patriots in control of Savannah for next three years.

9-13 March: British sloop Otter sailing up Chesapeake Bay was attacked and driven away by Maryland ship Defense and two Maryland militia companies stationed at Chariton Creek, Northampton County, Virginia.

17 March: General Howe having abandoned initial plan to attack new patriot fortifications on Dorchester Heights and realizing they made British position in Boston untenable, had decided on 7 March to evacuate Boston and on this date did so, taking with him 1,000 loyalists, and sailing to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

23 March: Congress authorized privateering, resolving “that the inhabitants of these colonies be permitted to fit out armed vessels, to cruise on the enemies of the United Colonies.”

25 March: Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Charles Carrol of Carrolton, and Samuel Chase left Philadelphia as envoys of Congress to Canada, to negotiate with Canadians toward union with 13 coastal colonies in rebellion.

6 April: Congress, disregarding British Navigation Acts and Prohibitory Act of December 1775, opened ports of United Colonies to trade of all nations, except for trade with British dominions and in British goods, and except also for import of slaves.

12 April: Provincial Congress of North Carolina instructed its delegates in Continental Congress to vote for independence first of new governments of United Colonies to do so.

13 April: General Washington arrived in New York, to which bulk of Continental forces that had besieged Boston had already been moved.

2 May: France secretly allotted munitions from royal arsenals valued at one million livres ($200,000) to American patriots, and Spain followed suit.

4 May: Act known as “Rhode Island Declaration of Independence” passed by its General Assembly. While not mentioning independence specifically it denied King’s authority and authorized Rhode Island delegates to accept any Congressional measures they deemed prudent and effectual.

6 May: With large reinforcements under General John Burgoyne about to reach Quebec, Canada, General Carleton led sally from city that ended American siege begun preceding December and started patriot troops under General John Thomas on precipitous retreat.

8-9 May: Thirteen Pennsylvania galleys attacked two British warships in Delaware River off mouth of Christiana Creek (near Wilmington), Delaware, and drove them down the river. Patriots lost one killed and two wounded in actions on successive days.

15 May: Virginia Convention instructed Richard Henry Lee and its other delegates to Continental Congress to propose independence.

16 May: At The Cedars, Canada, on St. Lawrence River about 30 miles below Montreal, patriot force of 400 surrendered almost without fighting and smaller relieving force was also overwhelmed.

19 May: Near Nantasket, Massachusetts, long boats from British men-of-war attempted to board patriot ships Franklin and Lady Washington, but were driven off after hand-to-hand fighting in which captain of Franklin and one other were killed and British may have lost as many as 70 killed including those drowned.

4 June: British expeditionary force of more than 2,000 troops under General Clinton and nine warships under Admiral Sir Peter Parker arrived off Charleston, South Carolina. General Charles Lee assigned by Congress to command Southern Department, arrived same day to direct defenses.

7 June: Richard Henry Lee, delegate from Virginia, proposed resolution by Congress declaring independence of 13 United Colonies from Great Britain.

8-9 June: After retreat from Quebec, 2,000 of best troops of reinforced patriot Army in Canada attacked Three Rivers (Trois Riveres), half way between Montreal and Quebec. Unknown to patriots Three Rivers had been heavily reinforced and attackers lost nearly 400 in casualties, British 17. This action ended any American hope of maintaining hold on St. Lawrence valley.

9 June: Montreal, Canada, evacuated by patriot force of 300 under General Arnold.

10 June: Pierre Augustin Caron Beaumarchais, French playwright and watchmaker, who had set up fictitious Hortalez et Cie as intermediary to transmit French and Spanish munitions to American patriots, received one million livres in gold from French government to initiate financing of his operations.

11 June: Congress appointed committee of five delegates to draft declaration of independence.

12 June: Virginia Convention adopted Declaration (or Bill) of Rights, drafted by George Mason.

12 June: Remnants of American forces, beaten at Trois Riveres and subject to numerous ambushes in route, arrived at base at Sorel, Canada.

12-13 June: On 12 June, Congress resolved to establish Board of War and Ordnance, to consist of five of its members, and next day this board, ancestor of War Department-Department of the Army headquarters, was established.

14 June: Remnant of American troops in St. Lawrence valley, now under General John Sullivan, began retiring from Sorel, Canada, pressed by advancing British forces. Patriots retreated first to Isle aux Noir at north end of Lake Champlain and by early July to Crown Point, New York, thus ending Canadian invasion of 1775-76.

25 June: General William Howe arrived off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with small British force, but one that was to grow to nearly 32,000 encamped on Staten Island, New York, by 12 August, largest single military body in America during Revolutionary War.

28 June: In New York City Thomas Hickey, belonging to General Washington’s personal guard, executed for “sedition and mutiny,” after discovery of loyalist inspired plot that allegedly included plan to assassinate Washington and other patriot generals.

28 June: British naval forces attacked fortified Sullivan’s Island guarding entrance to harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Coordinated land attack by Clinton’s troops from neighboring Long Island proved impossible because of deep water, and British warships were worsted in spirited exchange of fire with patriot forces. Patriots lost about 37, the British 225, and British gave up and sailed away, ending efforts to invade the South for nearly three years.

2 July: General Howe with 9,300 troops landed unopposed on Staten Island, New York.

2 July: Congress at Philadelphia approved resolution of independence introduced by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia on 7 June.

4 July: Congress at Philadelphia approved formal Declaration of Independence, as drafted by Thomas Jefferson and other members of committee appointed for this purpose, and in doing so “solemnly published and declared that these United Colonies are, and of Right, ought to be Free and Independent States.”

8-10 July: Patriot forces attacked and captured Gwynn Island, Virginia, off western shore of Chesapeake Bay where Governor Dunmore had taken refuge with some 500 white and Negro loyalist’s troops. Dunmore and survivors were forced to flee, and after raid up Potomac River went to Lynnhaven Roads near Cape Henry and then to New York.

16 July: Lord Dunmore landed some of his force on St. George’s Island, Maryland, near mouth of Potomac River, but was driven off by local militia.

23 July: Lord Dunmore in sailing up Potomac River destroyed several plantations and then turned into Occoquan Creek, Virginia, to its falls and village, where he destroyed mill before being driven off by Prince William County militia.

22 August: British disembarked 15,000 troops on Long Island, New York, and during next few days Washington sent large patriot reinforcements to Long Island to meet this threat and British also built up their initial landing force.

27 August: Battle of Long Island (Long Island Campaign) fought between about 10,000 American defenders and 22,000 British and German troops. Americans were badly defeated and pushed into narrow confinement of Brooklyn Heights, losing about 1,400 (1,100 captured) against British losses of 375.

28 August: At Jamaica, New York, after British victory day before, militia detachment of 100 commanded by patriot General Nathaniel Woodhull was overwhelmed by much larger British force.

29-30 August: Washington first reinforced Brooklyn Heights after the defeat in Battle of Long Island, then in masterly fashion secretly withdrew his entire force at night across the East River onto Manhattan Island, above New York City, without loss.

6-7 September: In New York harbor Sgt. Ezra Lee attempted first submarine attack in history of warfare in David Bushnell’s “American Turtle,” but copper bottoms of British ships off Governor’s Island were too thick to be damaged by powder charges released from “Turtle.”

9 September: Congress resolved that in future all of its commissions and other instruments should be issued in name of United States instead of United Colonies as heretofore.

11 September: Three-man delegation from Congress (Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge) discussed possibilities of peace with Admiral Lord Richard Howe on Staten Island, but fruitlessly when Americans discovered Howe had no powers to negotiate, only to refer proposals to London.

15 September: British troops from Long Island, under protection of warships, crossed East River and routed patriot forces at Kip’s Bay (presently 34th Street) on Manhattan Island almost without firing shot. Washington managed to extricate his troops from New York City which British then occupied.

16 September: After Washington withdrew his army to heights of northwestern Manhattan Island, he sent out small reconnaissance force to check British near site of present Columbia University. With both sides putting in reinforcement’s as the battle of Harlem Heights developed. Patriots lost 130, British and German troops involved about 170, and American morale was much improved by this successful holding action

16 September: Congress resolved that 88 battalions of Continental Army troops, apportioned among the states according to population, should be enlisted as soon as possible for duration of war. This action was essential since existing Continental forces were enlisted only to end of 1776.

20 September: Congress adopted Articles of War, “rules and articles to govern the armies of the United States.”

21-22 September: Captain Nathan Hale of Connecticut captured by British on Manhattan Island while returning to American lines, and executed as spy. On 12 September he had volunteered for an intelligence mission within British lines on Long Island.

23 September: Patriot force of 240 attempted to recapture Montresor’s (now Randall’s) Island, New York, at East River end of Harlem River, but was repulsed with loss of 14.

26 September: Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Thomas Jefferson as commissioners to court of France. When Jefferson declined to serve, Arthur Lee was appointed in his place.

11-13 October: By June 1776 British had 13,000 troops in Canada, but invasion path by water route southward from the St. Lawrence River was barred until October by flotilla hastily constructed by General Benedict Arnold on Lake Champlain. On 11 October, Arnold led his ships northward and met principal British ships at Valcour Island, New York, then lost most of his ships in next two days and a quarter of his troops were casualties. Although Arnold was defeated, his operations thwarted British invasion from Canada in 1776, when it might have been fatal to patriot cause.

12 October: General Howe’s attempt to flank Washington’s force in northern Manhattan started with landing at Throg’s Neck, New York (northern end of modern Throg’s Neck Bridge over Long Island Sound), but British were unable to get across bridge and causeway to dry ground because of stiff patriot rifle and cannon fire.

14 October: After defeating Arnold’s flotilla on Lake Champlain, General Carleton’s invading force on this date occupied Crown Point, New York, but because of American strength at Ticonderoga and lateness of season withdrew to Canada on 3 November.

18 October: Frustrated at Throg’s Neck, General Howe shifted northward to Pell’s Point and fought an action at Pelham, New York. American units posted there delayed British advance and helped Washington’s safe withdrawal with main Continental force from Manhattan to White Plains.

22-23 October: Force of Continentals attempted to surprise and cut off from main British Army Maj. Robert Rogers’ “Queen’s American Rangers,” stationed at Mamaroneck, New York. Surprise was incomplete, but patriots came off with 36 prisoners and booty, at cost of 15 casualties.

27 October: British attacked Fort Washington, New York, from both land and river sides, but attack was driven off with considerable loss to enemy, including one warship badly damaged.

28 October: Having failed to flank Washington’s main force of 14,500, Howe attacked it with 13,000 at White Plains, New York. Although Americans again withdrew northward after battle, British suffered heavier losses (300 or more to 150) and once again failed to trap and destroy Washington’s army.

9-10 November: Washington with part of his army crossed Hudson River and moved into northeastern New Jersey.

13-29 November: Patriots from Machias, Maine, and Bay of Fundy region, attacked and besieged Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia (near modern Amherst), but were repelled when reinforcements arrived from Halifax. This was principal armed effort of American patriots to get New England settlers of Acadia aligned with American cause.

16 November: Fort Washington, New York, surrendered to British. After battle of White Plains, Howe pulled his army back for another attack on Fort Washington on northern Manhattan Island overlooking Hudson River. Using 8,000 troops he forced surrender of more than 2,800 Continentals after fighting that cost enemy about 450 killed and wounded and Americans about 300.

20 November: Fort Lee, New Jersey, on Hudson River opposite Fort Washington, made untenable after latter’s capture, was abandoned to British with heavy losses in materiel, and some 160 Americans were taken prisoner.

21 November-7 December: After loss of Fort Lee, Washington with about 4,000 troops retreated across New Jersey and Delaware River into Pennsylvania, with some of Howe’s forces under General Charles Cornwallis following in close pursuit to Delaware.

8 December: With Washington’s forces safely across Delaware River and in possession of all small boats that might have been used to follow him across, Howe’s advanced forces occupied Trenton, New Jersey.

12 December: Constitution by Congress of regiment of light dragoons and appointment of Elisha Sheldon of Connecticut as its commander mark establishment of Cavalry.

13 December: American General Charles Lee captured at Basking Ridge, New Jersey, after two of his guard were killed and two wounded.

19 December: Opening tract of The Crisis, “these are the times that try men’s souls,” by Thomas Paine, published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

20 December: Congress, with British so near, adjourned at Philadelphia and on this date met in Baltimore, Maryland.

26 December: General Clinton and Admiral Parker with 6,000 British troops occupied Newport, Rhode Island, providing the British with an important naval base in New England.

26 December: About 2,400 patriot troops under Washington having re-crossed the Delaware River surprised 1,400-man Hessian garrison at Trenton, New Jersey (Trenton Campaign), killing and wounding about 105 and capturing 918, with American losses at most 4 killed and 4 wounded.

27 December: In view of critical situation, Congress in Baltimore resolved to grant General Washington almost dictatorial powers over military affairs for ensuing six months including authority to recruit 22 additional battalions.

29-31 December: After escorting Hessians captured on 26 December across Delaware, Washington returned to New Jersey and reoccupied Trenton.

GOTO: American Revolution: Major Events 1777

SOURCE: War of the American Revolution; BY: Robert W. Coakley & Stetson Conn
CONTRIBUTOR: Frances Thompson

European Headlines: 11-13-2018

Germany: (DW) Gang accused of laundering millions in Germany; The group is said to have laundered drug money for South American cartels for years — above all in Germany. With the defendants facing trial today in Paris, German reporters unveil how they were able to pull it off.

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(DW) Italy host Libya summit to end crisis; Italy is trying to show leadership to end the Libya crisis in a bid to stem migration and promote stability in North Africa. It is the first time rival Libya factions and international powers have held talks since May.

(DW) German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas calls for China transparency; Despite warnings from China that Germany should not interfere in its internal affairs, Foreign Minister Heiko Maas called on Beijing to be transparent about the human rights conflict surrounding the Uighur Muslims.

(DW) Bulgaria opposes UN pact for safe and orderly migration; Bulgaria has said it opposes a UN pact on regulating the treatment of migrants and refugees. A growing number of EU states are voicing their reservations about the historic global agreement.

(DW) Is the EU kowtowing to the Kremlin on Magnitsky sanctions; Bill Browder has spent nine years campaigning to punish Russian officials responsible for killing his friend Sergei Magnitsky. He hopes Moscow’s increased aggression will convince Europe it’s time to act.

France: (France24) France to use social media to track down tax cheats; French Budget Minister Gérald Darmanin unveiled on Sunday a plan to extend the use of social media in the fight against tax evasion, a tactic that was first successfully tried in the UK.

(France24) France to mark anniversary of deadliest terrorist attack; France on Tuesday is marking the third anniversary of the country’s deadliest ever terrorist attacks with a procession linking the areas in and around Paris that were struck by jihadist gunmen on November 13, 2015.

(France24) Death toll mounts as violence between Israel and Hamas escalates; Israel’s military said it was carrying out air strikes “throughout the Gaza Strip” on Monday after a barrage of rocket fire from the Palestinian enclave towards its territory, with casualties on both sides.