This Day In History for Nov. 17th: The Luxor Massacre (1997)

The Luxor Massacre (1997)

The Luxor massacre was the killing of 62 people, mostly tourists, on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahari, an archaeological site and major tourist attraction across the Nile from Luxor, Egypt.

It is thought to have been instigated by exiled leaders of al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya, an Egyptian Islamist organization, attempting to undermine the July 1997 “Nonviolence Initiative”, to devastate the Egyptian economy[2] and provoke the government into repression that would strengthen support for anti-government forces.[3] However, the attack led to internal divisions among the militants, and resulted in the declaration of a ceasefire.[4] In June 2013, the group denied that it was involved in the massacre.[5]

Attack

Deir el-Bahari is one of Egypt’s top tourist attractions, notable for the spectacular Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, an 18th dynasty pharaoh known also as Djeser-Djeseru.

In the mid-morning attack, six gunmen killed 58 foreign nationals and four Egyptians.[6] The assailants were armed with automatic firearms and knives, and disguised as members of the security forces. They descended on the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at around 08:45. They killed two armed guards at the site.[6] With the tourists trapped inside the temple, the killing went on systematically for 45 minutes, during which many bodies, especially of women, were mutilated with machetes.[6] A note praising Islam was found inside a disemboweled body.[7] The dead included a five-year-old British child, Shaunnah Turner, and four Japanese couples on honeymoon.[8][9]

The attackers then hijacked a bus, but ran into a checkpoint of armed Egyptian National Police and military forces. One of the terrorists was wounded in the subsequent shootout and the rest fled into the hills where their bodies were found in a cave, apparently having committed suicide together.[10]

One or more al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya leaflets were reportedly found calling for the release of Omar Abdel-Rahman from U.S. prison,[11][12] stating that the attack had been carried out as a gesture to exiled leader Mustafa Hamza,[13] or declaring: “We shall take revenge for our brothers who have died on the gallows. The depths of the earth are better for us than the surface since we have seen our brothers squatting in their prisons, and our brothers and families tortured in their jails”.[14]

Casualties

Most of the 58 victims were foreign tourists. Switzerland was the hardest hit, with 36 of its citizens killed. The youngest victim was a 5-year-old British child.

Nationality Number of victims
 Switzerland 36[15]
 Japan 10
 Great Britain 6
 Germany 4
 Egypt 4[16]
 Colombia 1
 France 1
Total 62

Reaction

Following the attack, then president Hosni Mubarak replaced interior minister General Hassan Al Alfi with General Habib al-Adly.[17] The Swiss Federal Police “later determined that bin Laden had financed the operation”.[18]

The tourist industry in Egypt in general and in Luxor in particular was seriously affected by the resultant slump in visitors and remained depressed until sinking even lower with the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the 2005 Sharm el-Sheikh attacks, and the 2006 Dahab bombings.[citation needed]

However, the massacre marked a decisive drop in Islamist terrorists’ fortunes in Egypt by turning public opinion overwhelmingly against them. Terrorist attacks declined dramatically following the backlash from the massacre.[18] Organizers and supporters of the attack quickly realised that the strike had been a massive miscalculation and reacted with denials of involvement. The day after the attack, al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya leader Refa’i Ahmed Taha claimed the attackers intended only to take the tourists hostage, despite the immediate and systematic nature of the slaughter. Others denied Islamist involvement completely. Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman blamed Israelis for the killings, and Ayman Zawahiri maintained the attack was the work of the Egyptian police.[19][20]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “In free Egypt, Jihad leader says time for gun is over”. Reuters UK. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  2. Jump up^ “Fearing the worst”. Al-Ahram Weekly. 5 May 2005. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  3. Jump up^ Wright, The Looming Tower, (2006), pp. 256–7
  4. Jump up^ el-Zayat, Montasser, “The Road to al-Qaeda”, 2004. tr. by Ahmed Fakry
  5. Jump up^ “Egypt’s Al-Gamaa Al-Islamiya denies involvement in 1997 Luxor massacre”. Egypt Independent. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  6. Jump up to:a b c Napoli, James J. “Egyptian Government Continues to Blame West for Ills After Luxor Massacre”. Washington Report. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  7. Jump up^ Phil Day – Massacre in Luxor – 3 of 7. 24 June 2009 – via YouTube.
  8. Jump up^ “At Ancient Site Along the Nile, Modern Horror”New York Times. 19 November 1997. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  9. Jump up^ “At a Swiss Airport, 36 Dead, Home From Luxor”New York Times. 20 November 1997. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  10. Jump up^ Wright, Lawrence, The Looming Tower, (2006), pp. 257–8
  11. Jump up^ Mannes, Aaron (2004). Profiles in Terror: The Guide to Middle East Terrorist Organizations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7425-3525-1.
  12. Jump up^ United States of America v. Ahmed Abdel Sattar, a/k/a “Abu Omar,” a/k/a “Dr. Ahmed,” Lynne Stewart, and Mohammed Yousry, Defendants. No. S1 02 CR. 395(JGK). 24 October 2005.
  13. Jump up^ “Terror in Egypt”. ADL. January 1998. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  14. Jump up^ “Bloodbath at Luxor”. The Economist. 20 November 1997. Retrieved 1 January2016.
  15. Jump up^ “Switzerland closes inquiry into Luxor massacre”Swiss Info. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  16. Jump up^ “Terror in Egypt”. ADL. January 1998. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  17. Jump up^ Rana Muhammad Taha; Hend Kortam; Nouran El Behairy (11 February 2013). “The Rise and fall of Mubarak”Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  18. Jump up to:a b Wright, The Looming Tower, (2006), p.258
  19. Jump up^ Wright, The Looming Tower, (2006), p. 293
  20. Jump up^ “Egypt tries to understand the Luxor massacre”. BBC News. 1 December 1997. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
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