The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 18th: HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

 

HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

COLD MUCH? TIPS FOR STAYING WARM

Cold much? Where I live, winter temperatures are often in the single digits. No matter where you live, keeping warm is a basic need that we all share.

Here are some tips—from both Almanac editors and readers—about how to stay warm. These aren’t “big” projects like buying a new heating system—just inexpensive, resourceful ways to help you warm up now!

HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

1. Dress in layers

Bundle up. Wear long underwear, sweaters, and even hats indoors. Remember the days of “sleeping caps”? They make sense! Yes, wear a cap or hat to keep your head warm. If you’re headed outside, cover your face with a scarf.

To avoid getting overheated inside, wear layers. I recommend a “wicking” polyester (or silk) undershirt next to your skin versus cotton. I gave a polyester t-shirt to my father and he keeps talking about the amazing difference as if I had invented sliced bread! Just don’t layer yourself so much that you’re pouring sweat.  The idea is to keep your body warm AND dry.

One reader adds, “I can’t imagine surviving cold weather, inside or out, without a stretchy fleece neck warmer. I have several and I put one on when watching television or reading to avoid turning up the thermostat. Just think about summertime when you are feeling too hot—if you can, you try to cool down by opening your collar. We are using the reverse of that principle here.”

Another idea: Try flannel-lined pants.

2. Keep Your Feet Warm

I highly recommend “house slippers” indoors. I know that it sounds a bit old-fashioned, but having the rubber sole really makes a difference.

And warm socks! One reader says, “I’m from Florida. But when it’s cold, like when we got down to 23 last week, socks are my best friends. A soft, cozy pair worn to bed keeps my feet toasty warm, and as long as my feet are warm, I’m comfortable with the thermostat turned down.”

“Keep changing your socks! Everybody forgets that your feet sweat, and THAT can make you cold even though you are layered up.” Wool socks or “smartwool” keeps your feet from sweating.

For the outdoors, it really helps to insert foam liners in your boots or hiking shoes to give your toes an extra layer of insulation again the cold earth.

3. Heat Up Your Bed

Don’t turn up the heat for the entire house. Use an electric blanket. An even cheaper and safer option may be a hot water bottle with a wool or fleece cover. Here’s what other readers say:

  • “Fill your bottle with hot water from the faucet before going to bed and slip it into the foot of the bed between the sheets. By the time you’re ready for bed it’s all nice and toasty at your feet. Believe it or not the water bottle stays warm all night long.”
  • “Use rice! Put the rice in a fleece cover, then warm in the microwave. It will stay warm half the night and keep your toes comfortable.”
  • “I have a water bottle, but better and quicker is to use a large heating pad with an automatic shut-off. Mine shuts off after 30 minutes. I lay the heating pad in the bed and turn it on about 15 minutes before retiring. I turn it off and then on again if I still need a little more heat, but it is usually adequate just turning it on once.”

4. Harness the Sun

During the day, open the blinds and curtains on the south-facing windows—and let the Sun warm you. At night, close the blinds and curtains to better insulate your home.

One reader adds, “We use roller blinds every night for all windows. Saves a lot of energy in a cheap and easy way.”

5. Keep the Kitchen Cozy

Many readers keep the kitchen humming!

  • “I put a cast iron pot of water with liquid potpourri on the top of our cast iron stove. This increases the humidity in the room and puts a lovely smell in the air.”
  • “Drink lots of yummy hot chocolate!!!!”
  • “Bake something in the oven, either dinner or a dessert (doesn’t have to be fattening but even better if it is).”
  • “A hot cup of tea is great… If you are sick, a hot toddy works wonders. Also, I always have a crock pot of soup going during the cold months.”
  • “Use matches not lighters. It seems silly but if your pilot goes out, your lighter will not work.”

6. Block Drafts

Beyond weather-stripping, which is difficult with old houses, consider these reader tips:

  • “I hang blankets to close off the open stair well going to the second floor, since heat raises it keeps the warm air down stairs when we spend most of our time. I noticed it saves a lot of heating dollars.”
  • “Don’t forget to put something at the bottom of outside doors—you can just feel the cold air pour in. You can buy a fancy roll or just use a blanket or towel.”
  • “I made long round pillows to place against my doors and window sills. I found some scrap pieces of upholstery fabric that are nice and heavy and help keep the drafts out.”
  • “Just like layers of clothing, I put layers at the windows. Between the window and the thermal-backed drapes are the closed venetian blinds and a flannel-backed table cloth. And we hang a blanket over the entire exterior door cause air doesn’t just come in at the bottom.”

7. Stay Active

Get your body moving. At the Almanac, we joke that “one log can heat a house.” Just run up the stairs with the log, throw it out the top window, and repeat three times. You’ll be warm!

Our readers add:

  • “Keep active, this is a good time to clean out closets, garages, etc. Anything to keep active.”
  • “If I get a chill just sitting, I get up and stir around, the movement not only warms me up but also stirs the heat in the house. Children are great when playing, they stir the air around.”
  • “Don’t just sit around. Stay active to keep your blood from ‘thickinin.’ Exercise is good for ya.”

8. Humidify Your Home

Not only does a humidifier keep your house warmer, it also eliminates drying indoor air. As our readers say:

  • “I discovered that when I run my vaporizer (humidifier) in the bedroom, I can turn the heat down a couple extra degrees overnight. In the morning, I raise the heat by about 2 degrees at a time instead of making the furnace work hard to raise it all at once.”
  • “I keep coffee cans lined with large baggies with water in them, around the vents to add humidity to the house, and this works great. I lined the coffee cans so they would not rust.”
  • “I put a waterbath canner full of water on the stove (lasts all night).”

If you don’t have a humidifier, here’s another idea: When you take a bath in winter, leave the water in the tub after you get out. If you let it sit until it reaches room temperature, it will add a little warmth to the house and help humidify it, too!

9. More Ideas

Here’s a new one! “I live five miles from the Canadian border in the St Lawrence region—icebox country! To stay warm INEXPENSIVELY, recycle old panty hose that have runs or snags. This layer next to the bottom, legs, and toes—with slacks over top—keeps me toasty. For guys like Joe Namath too!!”

I hope that these tips help—please add any more suggestions on how to get and stay warm. Just “submit” your comment below.

Also, if you’re driving, be sure to check our car emergency kit. Always prepare your car as if it will break down.

 

ABOUT THIS BLOG

Your Old Farmer’s Almanac editors occasionally share our reflections, advice, and musings—and welcome your comments.

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The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 18th: WHAT IS THE BEST FIREWOOD TO BURN?

 

BEST FIREWOOD: HEAT VALUES AND WOOD-BURNING TIPS

WHAT IS THE BEST FIREWOOD TO BURN?
Do you use firewood to heat your home? Here is a list of the best types of firewood to burn—sorted by high, medium, and low heat value—as well as a few important wood-burning tips.

What makes some types of firewood better for burning than others? It comes down to two factors: density and water content. The denser and drier the firewood, the better it will burn and the more heat it can produce.

Because of this, hardwoods, which tend to be denser, generally make for better firewood than softwoods.

BEST FIREWOOD: HIGH HEAT VALUE

1 cord = 200 to 250 gallons of fuel oil

  • American beech
  • Apple
  • Ironwood
  • Red oak
  • Shagbark hickory
  • Sugar maple
  • White ash
  • White oak
  • Yellow birch

MEDIUM HEAT VALUE

1 cord = 150 to 200 gallons of fuel oil

  • American elm
  • Black cherry
  • Douglas fir
  • Red maple
  • Silver maple
  • Tamarack
  • White birch

LOW HEAT VALUE

1 cord = 100 to 150 gallons of fuel oil

  • Aspen
  • Cottonwood
  • Hemlock
  • Lodgepole pine
  • Red alder
  • Redwood
  • Sitka spruce
  • Western red cedar
  • White pine

FIREWOOD-BURNING TIPS

  • How much wood is in a cord? The cord is the standard measure of volume used for stacked wood. The volume of one cord of wood is 128 cubic feet of stacked wood. Generally, a cord is laid out in stacks that measure 4 feet wide, 4 feet tall, and 8 feet long (4’ x 4’ x 8’) in total. Due to air space between the stacked wood, the volume of solid wood in a cord may be only 70 to 90 cubic feet.
  • What is a “rick” or “face cord” of wood? Usually, a cord is made up of a few stacks of wood. One stack of a cord is called a “rick” or a “face cord.” Generally, a rick is 4 feet tall by 8 feet long, and the width of a rick will depend on the length of the individual pieces of firewood. Because of this variability in width, a rick could be equal to ¼ of a cord, ½ a cord, or more.
  • What is heat value? Heat value refers to the amount of heat a wood produced when burned. Heat value varies based on the type of wood: A cord of wood with “high heat value” provides the heat equivalent to that produced by burning 200 to 250 gallons of heating oil. Other heat values are listed above.
  • Cutting wood: Freshly cut wood contains up to 50 percent moisture and must be seasoned (dried) to 20 to 25 percent moisture content before burning. Wood containing more than 25 percent moisture is wet, or green, and should never be burned in a fireplace or wood stove.
  • Splitting wood: Wet wood is easier to split than dry wood. Wood must be split into pieces and stacked out of the rain for at least six months to season properly.
  • Seasoning firewood: If steam bubbles and hisses out of the end grain as the firewood heats up on the fire, the wood is wet, or green, and needs to be seasoned longer before burning. Well-seasoned firewood generally has darkened ends with visible cracks or splits. It is relatively lightweight and makes a sharp, distinctive “clink” when two pieces strike each other.
  • Burning pine: Limit the amount of pine you burn. It’s a resinous softwood.
  • Buy local: Only buy firewood from local sources. Buying and moving firewood from elsewhere (especially from state to state) is not only frowned upon, it may also be illegal. Transporting firewood from one place to another increases the chance of spreading invasive pests and diseases.

Source: The Old Farmer’s Almanac

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 18th: 2018–2019 WINTER WEATHER FORECAST

 

2018–2019 WINTER WEATHER FORECAST

WINTER WEATHER PREDICTIONS FROM THE OLD FARMER’S ALMANAC
Sunshine or snow? Be in the know! Read the official 2019 Winter Weather Forecast from North America’s #1 almanac to see the prediction for your area. Here’s a sneak peek.
The Old Farmer’s Almanac is North America’s most popular and longest-continuously-running almanac. Now on our 227 edition, we’ve been a trusted source for weather, astronomy, folklore and more since 1792, when George Washington was president!

Order your copy of The 2019 Old Farmer’s Almanac today to see monthly forecasts for your region—for winter, spring, summer, and fall.

2018–2019 WINTER WEATHER FORECAST: UNITED STATES

ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES (ALMOST) EVERYWHERE

This winter, we expect to see above-normal temperatures almost everywhere in the United States, except in the Southwest, where we’re predicting a colder-than-normal season. It’s still going to be wintery, of course, but it won’t be an especially frigid year. Our milder-than-normal forecast is due to the expected arrival of a weak El Niño, which will prevent cold air masses from lingering in the North. Despite a decrease in solar activity, we predict that the other factors that contribute to winter weather will keep temperatures above normal.

MORE RAIN, LESS SNOW

In terms of precipitation, we are predicting above-normal levels for most of the country, except in the Southeast, southern California, the nation’s midsection, and parts of Alaska and Hawaii, where normal or below-normal precipitation amounts are expected instead.

As for snow, we expect to see below-normal levels of snowfall in areas that normally get snow, with the interior West and a small part of the nation’s midsection being the snowier-than-normal exceptions.

2018–2019 WINTER WEATHER FORECAST: CANADA

MOSTLY COLD…

Thanks to a decrease in solar activity and the weak El Niño moving in, we are predicting colder-than-normal winter temperatures for most of Canada. The exceptions to this are northern Atlantic Canada, where temperatures will be milder than normal, and Pacific Canada and the southern two-thirds of Ontario, where temperatures are expected to be within the normal range.

…AND MORE SNOWY THAN NORMAL

An above-normal level of snowfall is predicted for all of Canada this winter. Prepare the sleds and snowplows!

 

LEARN MORE ABOUT THE WEATHER

 

For more detailed weather forecasts for this winter and beyond, order your print or digital copy of The 2019 Old Farmer’s Almanac from the Almanac store or from Amazon.com. Also available in stores near you!

This Day in History, Nov. 18th: The King’s Cross Fire (1987)

The King’s Cross Fire (1987)

On 18 November 1987, at approximately 19:30, a fire broke out at King’s Cross St Pancras tube station, a major interchange on the London Underground. As well as the mainline railway stations above ground and subsurface platforms for the Metropolitan lines,[a] there were platforms deeper underground for the Northern, Piccadilly, and Victoria lines. The fire started under a wooden escalator serving the Piccadilly line and, at 19:45, erupted in a flashover into the underground ticket hall, killing 31 people and injuring 100.

A public inquiry was conducted from February to June 1988. The investigators reproduced the fire twice, once to determine whether grease under the escalator was ignitable, and the other to determine whether a computer simulation of the fire—which would have determined the cause of the flashover—was accurate. The inquiry determined that the fire had started due to a lit match being dropped onto the escalator. The fire seemed minor until it suddenly increased in intensity, and shot a violent, prolonged tongue of fire, and billowing smoke, up into the ticket hall. This sudden transition in intensity, and the spout of fire, was due to the previously unknown trench effect, discovered by the computer simulation of the fire, and confirmed in two scale model tests.

London Underground were strongly criticised for their attitude toward fires. Staff were complacent because there had never been a fatal fire on the Underground, and had been given little or no training to deal with fires or evacuation.

A report was published on the inquiry, leading to resignations of senior management in both London Underground and London Regional Transport and to the introduction of new fire safety regulations. Wooden escalators were gradually replaced with metal escalators on the London Underground.

Fire

At King’s Cross there are platforms deeper underground for the Northern, Piccadilly, and Victoria lines. An escalator shaft led down to the Victoria line, and another led down to the Piccadilly line, and from that the Northern line. Stairs connected the Piccadilly and Victoria line platforms[1] and from these there was a subway to King’s Cross Thameslink railway station platforms used by British Rail Midland City (later Thameslink) trains to Moorgate and an entrance in Pentonville Road.[2]

At about 19:30 several passengers reported seeing a fire on a Piccadilly line escalator. Staff and police went to investigate and on confirming the fire one of the policemen went to the surface to radio for the fire brigade.[3] Four fire appliances and a turntable ladder were sent at 19:36 by the London Fire Brigade.[4] The fire was beneath the escalator, and it was impossible to reach it to use a fire extinguisher. There was water fog equipment but staff had not been trained in its use.[5] The decision to evacuate the station was made at 19:39, using the Victoria line escalators.[6] A few minutes later the fire brigade arrived and several firemen went down to the escalator to assess the fire. They saw a fire about the size of a large cardboard box and planned to fight it with a water jet using men with breathing apparatus.[7]

At 19:42 the entire escalator was aflame, producing superheated gas that rose to the top of the shaft enclosing the escalator, where it was trapped against the tunnel ceiling, which was covered with about twenty layers of old paint from past repainting. As the superheated gases pooled along the ceiling of the escalator shaft, the layers of paint began absorbing the heat. A few years before the fire, the Underground’s director of operations had suggested that the accumulated paint might pose a fire hazard. However, painting protocols were not in his purview and his suggestion was widely ignored by his colleagues.[8]

At 19:45 there was a flashover and a jet of flames came from the escalator shaft, filling the ticket hall with intense heat and thick black smoke,[9] killing or seriously injuring most of the people in the ticket hall.[10] This trapped below ground several hundred people, who escaped on Victoria line trains.[11] A policeman with an injured man tried to leave via the Midland City platforms, but found the way blocked by locked gates until these were unlocked by a cleaner.[12] Staff and a policewoman trapped on a Metropolitan line platform were rescued by a train.[11]

Thirty fire crews—over 150 firefighters—were deployed.[13] Fourteen London Ambulance Service ambulances ferried the injured to local hospitals, including University College Hospital.[14] The fire was declared out at 01:46 the following morning.[15]

Thirty-one people died[16] and 100 people were taken to hospital, 19 with serious injuries.[17] Fire Brigade station officer Colin Townsley was in charge of the first pump fire engine to arrive at the scene and was down in the ticket hall at the time of the flashover. He did not survive; his body was found beside that of a badly burnt passenger at the base of the exit steps to Pancras Road. It is believed that Townsley spotted the passenger in difficulty and stopped to help her.[18]

An initially unidentified man, commonly known as “Michael” or “Body 115” after its mortuary tag, was identified on 22 January 2004, when forensic evidence confirmed he was 73-year-old Alexander Fallon of Falkirk, Scotland.[19]

Aftermath

The ticket hall and platforms for the Metropolitan line were undamaged and reopened next morning; the Victoria line, its escalators only slightly damaged, resumed normal operation on the following Tuesday. The ticket hall for the three tube lines was reopened in stages over four weeks.[17] The three escalators for the Piccadilly line had to be completely replaced, the new ones being commissioned on 27 February 1989, more than 16 months after the fire. Until then, the Piccadilly line could only be reached via the Victoria line or Midland City platforms, and at peak hours in one direction only.[20]

Access to the Northern line platforms was indirect, its escalators connecting with the Piccadilly line. As the traffic from all three tube lines would have overcrowded the Victoria line escalators, Northern line trains skipped Kings Cross until repairs were complete. The nearly life-expired Northern line escalators were replaced as well and the Northern line station reopened, completing the return to normal operation, on 5 March 1989.[21]

Investigation and report

A public inquiry into the incident was initiated by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.[22] It was conducted by Desmond Fennell OBE QC, assisted by a panel of four expert advisers. The inquiry opened at Central Hall, Westminster on 1 February 1988 and closed on 24 June, after hearing 91 days of evidence.[23]

Smoking on Underground trains was banned in July 1984, over 3 years before the fire. Following a fire at Oxford Circus station in November 1984, the ban was extended to all underground stations in February 1985. However, smokers often ignored this and lit cigarettes on the escalators on their way out.[24] The inquiry found that the fire was most probably caused by a traveller discarding a burning match that fell down the side of the moving staircase on to the running track of the escalator.[25] The police decided that the fire had not been started deliberately, as there was no evidence that an accelerant had been used and access to the site of the fire was difficult. Investigators found charred wood in eight places on a section of skirting on an escalator and matches in the running track,[26]showing that similar fires had started before but had burnt themselves out without spreading.[27] The investigators found a build-up of grease under the tracks, which was believed to be difficult to ignite and slow to burn once it started, but it was noted that the grease was heavily impregnated with fibrous materials. A test was conducted where lit matches were dropped on the escalator to see if ignition would occur. Matches dropped ignited the contaminated grease and the fire began spreading, being allowed to burn for nine minutes before being extinguished.[28]

This test matched the initial eyewitness reports up to that point, but four expert witnesses could not agree as to how the small fire flashed over, with some concern that the paint used on the ceiling had contributed to the fire.[29] A model of King’s Cross station was built at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, and using computer simulation software; this showed the flames lying down along the floor of the escalator rather than burning vertically before producing a jet of flame into the ticket hall. The end result matched the eyewitness accounts of the tube fire, but the simulation’s depiction of the fire burning parallel to the 30° slope of the escalator was thought by some to be unlikely and it was suspected that the programming might be faulty.[30] Experiments were conducted with a third scale replica of the escalator built at the UK’s Health and Safety Executive site at Buxton. After seven and a half minutes of normal burning, the flames lay down as in the computer simulation.[31] The metal sides of the escalator served to contain the flames and direct the temperature ahead of the fire.[32] When the treads of the escalator flashed over, the size of the fire increased dramatically and a sustained jet of flame was discharged from the escalator tunnel into the model ticket hall.[10] The 30° angle of the escalators was discovered to be crucial to the incident, and the large number of casualties in the fire was an indirect consequence of a fluid flow phenomenon that was later named the trench effect, a phenomenon completely unknown before the fire. The conclusion was that this newly discovered trench effect had caused the fire to flashover at 19:45.[33]

London Underground were strongly criticised in the report for their attitude to fires underground, underestimating the hazard because no one had died in a fire on the Underground before.[34] Staff were expected to send for the Fire Brigade only if the fire was out of control, dealing with it themselves if possible.[35] Fires were called smouldering and staff had little or no training to deal with fires or evacuation.[34]

Legacy

The publication of the report led to resignations of senior management of both London Underground and London Regional Transport. Wooden panelling was to be removed from escalators, heat detectors and sprinklers were to be fitted beneath escalators, and the radio communication system and station staff emergency training were to be improved.[36][37]

The Fire Precautions (Sub-surface Railway Stations) Regulations 1989 were introduced. Smoking was banned in all London Underground stations, including on the escalators, on 23 November, five days after the fire. Wooden escalators were gradually replaced, some remaining into the early 2000s (Wanstead replacing theirs in 2003 and Marylebone in 2004[38]) and as of 2014 the entire London Underground was operating on metal escalators, after the last wooden escalator at Greenford Underground station was decommissioned on 10 March 2014.[39]

London Underground was also recommended by the Fennell Report to investigate “passenger flow and congestion in stations and take remedial action”.[40] Consequently, Parliamentary bills were tabled to permit London Underground to improve and expand the busiest and most congested stations, such as London Bridge, Tottenham Court Road, Holborn and King’s Cross St Pancras.[41][42]

Since then, major tube stations have been upgraded and expanded to increase capacity and improve safety. London Bridge was upgraded in conjunction with the Jubilee Line Extension project, which opened in 1999,[43] King’s Cross St Pancras was substantially upgraded and expanded as a component of the High Speed 1 project in the late 2000s,[42][44] and Tottenham Court Road was expanded as part of the Crossrail project in the mid 2010s.[45]

The fire also led to improvement in firefighters’ equipment: yellow plastic leggings that melted in the heat and rubber gloves that limited movement were replaced with more effective clothing.[46]

Six firemen received Certificates of Commendation for their actions at the fire, including Station Officer Townsley who was given the award posthumously.[47] Station Officer Townsley was also posthumously awarded the George Medal.[48]

Soon after the fire a commemoration service was held at St Pancras Church.[49] Further commemoration services were held on 18 November 2002, the fifteenth anniversary of the blaze, on the twentieth anniversary in 2007 at the station itself,[49] on the twenty-fifth anniversary in 2012 at the Church of the Blessed Sacrament near the station[50] and on the thirtieth anniversary in 2017 at the station, with a wreath laying.[51]

Memorial plaques commemorating the disaster were installed at St Pancras Church, unveiled by the Princess of Wales, and at King’s Cross station.[49]

In popular culture

Shortly after the fire, it was incorrectly assumed that the song “King’s Cross”, recorded by synthpop duo Pet Shop Boys as part of their 1987 album Actually, was written in reference to the fire.[52][better source needed] In fact, the album was released two months before the fire. Duo frontman Neil Tennant clarified that the song had been written as “a hymn to the people getting left out of Thatcherism”.[52][better source needed] Opposition MPs in the House of Commons used the event to accuse the government of sacrificing safety in cutting the transport budget.[53][non sequitur]

Notes and references

Notes
  1. Jump up^ Circle line trains also call at these platforms.
References
  1. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, figure 6.
  2. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, figure 5.
  3. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 49.
  4. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 50.
  5. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 51, 62.
  6. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 51.
  7. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 52.
  8. Jump up^ Duhigg, Charles (2012). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. p. 171. ISBN 081298160X.
  9. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 53.
  10. Jump up to:a b Fennell 1988, p. 100.
  11. Jump up to:a b Fennell 1988, p. 54.
  12. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 54, 56.
  13. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 82.
  14. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 91.
  15. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 57.
  16. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 17.
  17. Jump up to:a b Croome & Jackson 1993, p. 459.
  18. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 78–79.
  19. Jump up^ Duffy, Jonathan (22 January 2004). “Solved after 16 years – the mystery of victim 115”BBC News. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  20. Jump up^ Croome & Jackson 1993, pp. 459, 462.
  21. Jump up^ Croome & Jackson 1993, pp. 459–462.
  22. Jump up^ McNulty, Deane; Rielly, Philip (March 1992). “A Report for Dr A. Buchanan Dept. of Civil Engineering Canterbury University” (PDF)University of Canterbury: 3. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  23. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 21–23.
  24. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 94.
  25. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 111.
  26. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 221–224.
  27. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 114.
  28. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 104.
  29. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 105–106.
  30. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 107.
  31. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 110.
  32. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 113.
  33. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 113–114.
  34. Jump up to:a b Fennell 1988, pp. 17–18.
  35. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, p. 61.
  36. Jump up^ Paul Channon (12 April 1989). “King’s Cross Fire (Fennell Report)”Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. col. 915–917.
  37. Jump up^ “Sir Desmond Fennell”The Daily Telegraph. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  38. Jump up^ An End To Treading the Boards, Metronet Matters, Issue 3: Metronet, 2004, p. 17|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  39. Jump up^ Mann, Sebastian (11 March 2014). “Tube’s only wooden escalator to carry last passengers”. London 24. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  40. Jump up^ Fennell 1988, pp. 169.
  41. Jump up^ “London Underground (Safety Measures) Act 1991”http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  42. Jump up to:a b “London Underground (King’s Cross) Act 1993”http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  43. Jump up^ Eng., Mitchell, Bob, C. (2003). Jubilee Line extension : from concept to completion. London: Thomas Telford. ISBN 0727730282OCLC 51945284.
  44. Jump up^ “King’s Cross St. Pancras Tube station doubles in size as state-of-the-art ticket hall opens”tfl.gov.uk. Transport for London. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 19 September2017.
  45. Jump up^ Murray, Dick (10 February 2017). “Tottenham Court Road station’s £500 million revamp completed as entrances open”London Evening Standard. Retrieved 19 September2017.
  46. Jump up^ Evans, Alice; Thompson, Clifford (18 November 2017). “King’s Cross fire: ‘I was screaming in pain. BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  47. Jump up^ “RMT calls for staffing cuts to be scrapped on 25th anniversary of Kings Cross fire”London Evening Standard. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  48. Jump up^ “No. 51745”The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 May 1989. p. 6217.
  49. Jump up to:a b c “Ceremony marks King’s Cross fire”. BBC News. 17 November 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  50. Jump up^ “King’s Cross fire 25th anniversary marked”. BBC News. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  51. Jump up^ “King’s Cross fire: Victims remembered at wreath-laying service”. BBC News. 18 November 2017.
  52. Jump up to:a b Studer, Wayne. “King’s Cross”. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  53. Jump up^ “London Mourns Victims Of Subway Fire”. The Dispatch. London. Associated Press. 20 November 1987. p. 18.

The Daily Inspiration for November 18: Miracles Each Day

Miracles Each Day

BY MADISYN TAYLOR

By noticing how small things can fill our days with delight, we are more likely to experience the wonder of living.

They are the everyday aspects of our lives that bring us the most joy, even if at first it may seem natural to expect our feelings of happiness to come from the larger events in our lives. By noticing how small things can fill our days with delight, we are more likely to experience the wonder of living. Once we take the time to look around and witness the beauty, kindness, and laughter that envelop us, what may seem like the ordinariness of the everyday becomes filled with the extraordinary detail of each individual moment. If we bring this sense of awareness to our lives for even a few minutes each day, we will begin to see just how blessed we truly are.

Beholding the joy that surrounds us may initially seem easy, but for some it can take a conscious effort to make it a part of a daily routine. When you awake in the morning and set the intention to notice more joy in the world, watch how your day and, eventually, your life are filled with more joy. The more we do this the more apt we will be to notice the sounds of children laughing or the sparkle of dewdrops on a flower petal. Allow this joy to fill your heart fully, and from there it will naturally expand to your entire body and then spread to others, giving them joy as well.

Taking in the small joys of each day expands our feeling of being connected with the world, especially once we become more attuned to them. With each passing day, we will find that these small delights, which bring a deeper level of appreciation for everything the universe has given to our lives, are miracles.

 

Source: The DailyOM

Moon in zodiac signs – How Does The Moon Affect Your Zodiac Sign?

Moon in Aries:
Good for initiating action, confronting things, for activities requiring enthusiasm & spirit. Tends to give us a sense of urgency…Aries keyword is “NOW.” Aries helps you to be more forceful, direct & competitive; in fact, it feels good to assert oneself. You have more confidence which is good for presentations. Aries is a good sign for making changes, for new beginnings, and working with tools (but be patient). People tend to react quickly. When the Moon is in Aries, try to do something spontaneous…it opens up a brand new perspective.

Moon in Taurus:
Good for money matters, budgeting, practical actions, maintenance on things, production, activities requiring patience, art, music, singing, gardening, starting a savings account, starting a building, training a pet, moving, painting, pouring cement (best during Full Moon), planting. Also good for scheduling & planning. Good for launching an advertising campaign, purchases you want to last (especially the 3rd quarter), buying clothes, dental work (if moon is favorable to your sign) and dressmaking. Putting up preserves or jellies (3 or 4 quarter). People tend to react slowly and with more stability. Taurus is great for getting out in nature…it will recharge your batteries.

Moon in Gemini:
Good for writing, communicating, intellectual pursuits, change, travel, beginning a study, shopping for bargains, mail-outs, parties & socializing. People are more adaptable, extraverted, on the go, needing variety, curious, witty, inquisitive. People react quickly, perceptively, and with unending curiosity. You may find you can do two things at once. You may need to verbalize emotions in order to connect to them.

Moon in Cancer:
Great for attending to family and home matters, cooking, canning (3rd or 4th quarter), nurturing, being sentimental, putting together photo albums, collecting things, launching an advertising campaign, signing agreements (waxing moon), weddings. People react with sensitivity and protectiveness. You have a natural sense of timing and an ability to tune in to others. Emotions become very helpful in guiding you.

Moon in Leo:
Good for creativity, performances, activities requiring drama, auditions, confronting issues, self confidence, and presentations. People react warmly, enthusiastically & generously (if you give them the proper acknowledgement). Feeling of security comes from pride and confidence in self. Let the child within emerge…get playful, and a new enthusiasm will result. Good for applying for loans, for making reliable purchases such as autos. Good for getting auto repairs or for doing things you want to last (building, pouring cement). Also favorable for getting fillings at dentist and for beauty treatments.

Moon in Virgo:
Good for organizing, work ethics, analyzing, working with numbers, spotting flaws & trouble shooting, cleaning, creating order. Any activity requiring practicality and attention to detail is enhanced. Good for writing out a new health plan, making lists, buying medicine, studying about health, getting more grounded, working with your hands, crafts. People react practically and with good common sense, and tend to respond analytically. Virgo is a great sign for ending habits (waning moon), finding bargains, and for mail-outs.

Moon in Libra:
Good for art, music, dancing, acting, anything creative, parties, socializing, listening, strengthening relationships. Lots of people react with objectivity & a sense of fairness. They tend to weigh all sides to an issue, and to take a more diplomatic and cautious approach. Good for improving your social skills and improving your personal appearance. Great for shopping for clothes or beauty items. Also good for dressmaking.

Moon in Scorpio:
Good for research, investigation, understanding the motives & emotions of others, psychic development, meditation, metaphysical exploration.. People are more resourceful and controlled, but have a lot of intensity & passion under the surface. Good for buying antiques, filling teeth, moving, starting savings account, buying home or medicine. Also good for improving your sexual relations.

Moon in Sagittarius:
Good for expanding the mind, beginning a study, spiritual pursuits, being outdoors, exploring freedom, adventures, buying a car, starting a diet, sending mail, removing teeth. sports. Good for launching an advertising campaign, getting a loan. People react enthusiastically, idealistically, courageously and more open-minded. You may have urges to search for a deeper meaning. Sagittarius is excellent for travel, whether you are planning or actually going on a trip. Also great for presentations.

Moon in Capricorn:
Good for organizing, budgeting, making plans, focusing on ambition, being realistic, serious thinking, taking a more conventional & conservative approach. People react with self-control and determination (sometimes with negativity). Capricorn is good for taking control of a situation, and helps you act with more sensibility and protectiveness.

Moon in Aquarius:
Good for contacting friends, group meetings, brain-storming, humanitarian ventures, computer work, inventive thinking, dealing with inventors or computer people. Also great for borrowing money, giving a party, traveling for pleasure, start a building, start a diet (waning cycle), join a club, move, fix cars, buy a home, Good for launching an advertising campaign. People react with detached objectivity and logic. You may have urges to express your true originality, as well as individual freedom. You need to interact with others. Aquarius is a good sign to modernize your life, getting rid of old stuff, including past.

Moon in Pisces:
Good for performing, auditioning, playing roles, film, singing, arts, spiritual pursuits, giving of oneself, helping others, psychic development, understanding. People react with sensitivity and can tune into vibes of others. Intuitions are very high (much better than logic) and can guide you well. Good for dealing with oils & liquids, being near water, swimming. Also good for Loans (waxing moon).

 

Source: Yearly-Horoscopes.org

The Daily Horoscopes for Sunday, November 18

 

 

 

The Daily Horoscopes for Sunday, November 18

Claire Petulengro, Astrologer

From The Astrology Room

 

ARIES (March 21st-April 20th)
Just be yourself Aries, for there really is no one better. You have been making recent changes based on what you think other people want you to do rather than what is actually best for you. Time to change this for you to get the most from all others want to offer. Ring now for answers.

TAURUS (April 21st-May 21st)
Secrets come to light and what you learn that you did not know before, is how good you have been at standing by those who really don’t deserve it. Being open to new ideas socially is what can help you gravitate towards more suitable friends. Call now to hear who your soul mate is.

GEMINI (May 22nd-June 21st)
Try not to allow well-meaning but naïve friends to give you bad advice. Remember you are a sign of individual needs who needs to stand up for what they truly believe in and not give in to those who are only thinking of their own needs. Ring now to hear how cancelled plans are a blessing.

CANCER (June 22nd-July 23rd)
Venus is making it hard for you to see the difference between fact and fiction. You begin to realise that certain signs are out for what they can get, rather than trying to help and support those around them. Phone calls you make today can arrange a better working week. Ring now to hear which enemy is really your ally.

LEO (July 24th-August 23rd)
Don’t spend too much time thinking, just do. Thoughts you have about your professional future may seem far-fetched but are actually exactly what the stars have planned for you. Grab what is ahead with both hands. This really is your time my friend. Ring now for promotions to knock at your door.

VIRGO (August 24th-September 23rd)
I know you feel as if you could do with some more time with a loved one, but they have already taken enough time out from all they had to do than they wanted to, so give them a break. Fun times this week rely on you turning up on time and not late. Ring now to find the patience you’ve been lacking.

LIBRA (September 24th-October 23rd)
I know it feels as if it has been all work and no play but that’s because you’ve worked so hard and you’ve done better than you thought. Travel plans you make for Christmas are a good reward for what is now a very successful path to your destiny you’re on. Call for answers.

SCORPIO (October 24th-November 22nd)
Try not to let others bring out your jealous side Scorpio. You and I know you are better than that and I also know that the people who are trying to get a rise out of you are not even as strong as you! Ring to hear how forms you sign now ensure a better financial future.

SAGITTARIUS (November 23rd-December 21st)
A busy feel to your chart should see you achieving more this week than you have all year. Try not to join in with any negativity that others choose to indulge in or you will only end up looking like the ringleader and you and I know you are better than that. Ring now for a full reading.

CAPRICORN (December 22nd-January 20th)
Instead of focusing on all that may go wrong in a relationship, try instead to focus only on what can and should go right. By putting your best efforts into all that is in front of you then you can build up the support team which will take you to your best chapter yet. Phone so I can put a smile on your face.

AQUARIUS (January 21st-February 19th)
If you can present yourself with confidence, then you can pull off pretty much anything. Those who tell you that you can’t today, will be the very ones who will praise you for your skills by the time this month comes to a close. Call to focus with clear visions not other’s opinions on board

PISCES (February 20th-March 20th)
Financial affairs prove hard to understand and you may find yourself having to pay for those who never have and never would do the same in return. Being fair in family affairs tonight is what can get you back in the good books of a loved one. Ring now for love to prevail.

 

For Claire’s in-depth horoscope for this week, call 0905 072 0237
Calls cost 77p/min from a BT landline

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European Headlines: 11-18-2018

GERMANY (DW) EU demands Saudi ‘clarity,’ on Khashoggi, Trump wavers over top suspect; The EU has told Saudi Arabia to “shed full clarity” on what it openly calls the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. Still wavering is US President Donald Trump whose ally Riyadh denies orders came from the top.

(DW) Prague protesters call for embattled Czech PM Andrej Babis to resign; The billionaire premier is denying accusations he hindered a fraud investigation and refuses to resign. The protest rallies coincided with the anniversary of the November 1989 Velvet Revolution that toppled communism.

(DW) Protester killed in French ‘yellow-vest’ road blockades; A woman taking part in protests against rising fuel prices in France has died after being hit by a car. The incident took place as activists angered by the government’s tax hikes blocked motorways across the country.

(DW) AfD’s Jörg Meuthen aims to bring together populists in European Parliament; The co-leader of Germany’s far-right AfD says his party will use European elections to unite populists across the continent. Jörg Meuthen told DW the party’s key concern will be getting “migration chaos under control.”

(DW) Greeks recall 1973 student defiance of junta; Athens protesters decrying a 1973 military crushing of a student uprising have converged on the US embassy. The main march went of peacefully, but afterwards, and two other cities, radicals clashed with police.

(DW) Blackface Christmas tradition prompts Dutch protests; Scuffles have broken out across the Netherlands over the fictional character Black Pete, who traditionally helps St. Nick distribute Christmas presents to children who have been good.

(DW) German transport minister ready to welcome Uber by 2021; Germany’s transport minister has said he wants to ease rules on car-pooling companies such as Uber. The US company has failed to take off in the country — freelance driver-based model has run afoul of existing laws.

(DW) Hero worship and villain worship in the Balkans; “Kisses from grandpa Ratko,” said jailed Serb ex-general Ratko Mladic during a live phone call to a morning TV show in Serbia, where his son was one of the guests. War criminals are still glorified across ex-Yugoslavia.

(DW) In Yemen’s war, locals struggle to stay neutral; Ever more Yemenis are siding with the Saudi coalition or Houthis to safeguard a salary and a semblance of protection. But some are determined to stay neutral, despite the obstacles they face. Mat Nashed reports.

(DW) Opinion: Tanzania’s Magufuli, a reformist or dictator?; The latest showdown over rights abuses between the European Union and Tanzanian leader John Magufuli is worrisome. Should Maguful not change his leadership style, it signals tough times ahead, writes DW’s Isaac Mugabi.

(DW) Anti-IS coalition airstrikes kill at least 40 in eastern Syria: monitor
Airstrikes by the US-led coalition have reportedly killed at least 40 people in the last IS-controlled territory in eastern Syria. Most of the victims were reportedly women and children.

(DW) Iraq, Iran to expand cooperation, despite US sanctions; Iran and Iraq have both said they want to cooperate more despite fresh US sanctions on Tehran. The gulf neighbors could increase bilateral trade by $8 billion.

(DW) Is Brazil turning into a military state?; From January, Brazil will be soon ruled by former military leaders. There is growing support for this in Congress, but ever more people fear there will be a coup. Thomas Milz reports from Rio de Janeiro.

(DW) CAR’s Colonel ‘Rambo’ to face war crimes charges in The Hague; A militia leader from the Central African Republic has been extradited to the International Criminal Court in The Hague. Alfred Yekatom will face trial on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

(DW) European Muslims’ support for Asia Bibi falls short; Islamic organizations in Germany and Britain have expressed support for the Pakistani woman who was recently freed from a blasphemy death sentence. However, experts say more Muslims should oppose the idea of blasphemy.

(DW) Argentina locates missing submarine one year later; The wreckage of a missing Argentine submarine has been found a year after it disappeared with 44 crew members on board. The stricken ARA San Juan had been at the center of an exhaustive search effort.

FRANCE (France 24) Despite CIA report, US State Department says no final conclusion on Khashoggi murder; The Trump administration on Saturday said it had not reached a final conclusion on who was involved in the death of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi despite a CIA assessment that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the killing.

(France24) Accidents and anger at anti-Macron ‘yellow vest’ road blocks across France; “Yellow vest” demonstrators have blocked motorways across France in protest at President Emmanuel Macron. The movement began out of fury at higher petrol taxes, but is now a general protest against Macron.

(France24) C. Africa former militia leader extradited to face ICC trial; Central African Republic lawmaker and former militia leader Alfred Yekatom was extradited to The Hague on Saturday to stand trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the first such deportation from the conflict-ridden country.

(France24) Georgia Democrat Abrams bows out of bid to become first black female governor; Georgia Democrat Stacey Abrams admitted defeat in her effort to become the first black female U.S. governor on Friday, but said she planned to sue the state over voting problems and “gross mismanagement” of the election.

(France24) Two ex-presidents set to compete in Madagascar election run-off; Two former presidents of Madagascar, Andry Rajoelina and Marc Ravalomanana, came out top in the country’s election, results showed Saturday, and are set to compete in a run-off.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

CONTRIBUTOR: Staff