Today’s Extra: Why Should You Start The Practice of Meditation

Meditation is the art of silencing the mind. When the mind is silent, concentration is increased and we experience inner peace in the midst of worldly turmoil. This elusive inner peace is what attracts so many people to meditation and is a quality everyone can benefit from.

What are the Benefits of Meditation?

I’ve been meditating twice a day for the past 9 years because I enjoy it. It may seem strange, but I feel happiest when sitting in perfect silence. The experience is difficult to express in words. It is akin to the “peace that passeth understanding”. It is also true that every meditation is not the same. Sometimes meditation is a struggle to control the mind, while at other times it feels effortless.

These are some of the benefits of meditation:

  1. Improved concentration – A clear mind makes you more productive, especially in creative disciplines like writing.
  2. Less bothered by little things – Do you sometimes allow yourself to get upset by little things? It is the nature of the mind to magnify small things into serious problems. Meditation helps us detach. We learn to live in the here and now, rather than worrying about the past or future. We do not worry about meaningless things, but see the bigger picture.
  3. Better Health – There have been numerous studies pointing to the health benefits of meditation. The reason is that meditation reduces stress levels and alleviates anxiety. If we can reduce stress, many health benefits follow.
  4. Knowledge of Self – Meditation enables us to have a deeper understanding of our inner self. Through meditation we can gain a better understanding of our life’s purpose.

Is Meditation Religious?

The great thing about meditation is that our philosophy/religious belief is not importanct. Meditation is about consciousness. The beliefs of the mind become trivial. We dive deep into the heart of the matter to gain access to our soul – our inner reality. Therefore, mediation can (and is ) practiced by people of different religions or no religion.

But I don’t have time To Meditate

Many people like the idea of meditation, but feel they don’t have enough time. When you really want to do something you can find time. Get up earlier or watch 30 minutes less TV. Meditation requires an investment of time, but clearing the mind makes the the rest of the day more productive. Nothing is better than the feeling of inner peace. What is the point in being tremendously busy but unable to enjoy it? Meditation is not about retreating from the world; it gives us inspiration. Whatever you do, if you have peace of mind, your work will be more enjoyable and productive.

How To Meditate

Like anything worthwhile, meditation requires practice. To get the most from meditation you need to do it every day. This requires a place and time where you will not be disturbed. Check out this cool mindmap pdf for inspiration: meditation.pdf

  1. Sit with a straight back. Don’t try to meditate lying down because you are likely to fall asleep. Meditation brings relaxation and peace but at the same time this is a dynamic peace. Meditation is quite different than the relaxation of sleep. When we really meditate, we are fully alert and conscious. Our sense of awareness is heightened. Afterwards you’ll have a positive feeling for the world and a renewed sense of dynamism.
  2. Don’t eat before meditating. After a heavy meal your body will be lethargic with digestion.
  3. It is not necessary to mediate in the lotus posture. It is fine to meditate in a chair, as long as the back is straight.
  4. It is helpful to take a shower before meditating.
  5. Burning incense and having a candle are not necessary, but they can add a little extra inspiration.
  6. It is good to meditate early in the morning. It is said the best time is 3am, although, I feel it is more important to be awake and not sleepy, I meditate at 6.30am.

One Pointed Concentration

However you learn to meditate, you must learn to concentrate on one thing at a time. Usually, the mind tries to hold several different thoughts and ideas at once. When you sit down to meditate for the first time, you realize how cluttered the mind is. Mediation teachers have described the mind as a “mad monkey”. However, the mind can be tamed and forced to concentrate on a single thought.

One helpful technique is concentrating on a candle flame. Narrow your gaze to the small tip and block out all other thoughts. When you get distracted, go back to focusing on the candle flame. You can also use other objects like a small dot or flower. The important thing is that you concentrate only on one thing at a time.

Mantra

Another way to learn concentration is through the use of mantra. A mantra is the repetition of a sacred word. For example, you might repeat the mantra AUM a certain number of times. Repeating a mantra forces the mind to focus on a single thought.

Silent Mind

After you’ve practiced concentration and learned to focus on one thing at a time, you can proceed to the next stage: no thought at all. Achieving a silent mind is difficult, but when to attain it the experience is powerful. A technique I advise is viewing your thoughts as separate from your self. When a thought appears, make a conscious decision to throw it out of your mind. Over time you realize that you are capable of allowing or rejecting thoughts. Your real “I” is not a collection of thoughts, but something far deeper. This is the most significant realization of meditation – that you do not have to be a slave to your thoughts.

Through meditation, you attain the power to control your thoughts, and on occasion stop them completely. Don’t be discouraged if you can’t attain a silent mind straightaway. It takes time and practice. There is nothing really else to it; meditation is a simple and spontaneous action. Unfortunately, our mind is used to complication and it takes time to unlearn bad habits.

Tejvan Pettinger is a member of the Sri Chinmoy Meditation Centre. He lives in Oxford where he works as a teacher. He also offers mediation classes as a community service and updates a blog at Sri Chinmoy Inspiration, a collection of articles on meditation and spirituality.

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The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 26: HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

 

HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

COLD MUCH? TIPS FOR STAYING WARM

Cold much? Where I live, winter temperatures are often in the single digits. No matter where you live, keeping warm is a basic need that we all share.

Here are some tips—from both Almanac editors and readers—about how to stay warm. These aren’t “big” projects like buying a new heating system—just inexpensive, resourceful ways to help you warm up now!

HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER

1. Dress in layers

Bundle up. Wear long underwear, sweaters, and even hats indoors. Remember the days of “sleeping caps”? They make sense! Yes, wear a cap or hat to keep your head warm. If you’re headed outside, cover your face with a scarf.

To avoid getting overheated inside, wear layers. I recommend a “wicking” polyester (or silk) undershirt next to your skin versus cotton. I gave a polyester t-shirt to my father and he keeps talking about the amazing difference as if I had invented sliced bread! Just don’t layer yourself so much that you’re pouring sweat.  The idea is to keep your body warm AND dry.

One reader adds, “I can’t imagine surviving cold weather, inside or out, without a stretchy fleece neck warmer. I have several and I put one on when watching television or reading to avoid turning up the thermostat. Just think about summertime when you are feeling too hot—if you can, you try to cool down by opening your collar. We are using the reverse of that principle here.”

Another idea: Try flannel-lined pants.

2. Keep Your Feet Warm

I highly recommend “house slippers” indoors. I know that it sounds a bit old-fashioned, but having the rubber sole really makes a difference.

And warm socks! One reader says, “I’m from Florida. But when it’s cold, like when we got down to 23 last week, socks are my best friends. A soft, cozy pair worn to bed keeps my feet toasty warm, and as long as my feet are warm, I’m comfortable with the thermostat turned down.”

“Keep changing your socks! Everybody forgets that your feet sweat, and THAT can make you cold even though you are layered up.” Wool socks or “smartwool” keeps your feet from sweating.

For the outdoors, it really helps to insert foam liners in your boots or hiking shoes to give your toes an extra layer of insulation again the cold earth.

3. Heat Up Your Bed

Don’t turn up the heat for the entire house. Use an electric blanket. An even cheaper and safer option may be a hot water bottle with a wool or fleece cover. Here’s what other readers say:

  • “Fill your bottle with hot water from the faucet before going to bed and slip it into the foot of the bed between the sheets. By the time you’re ready for bed it’s all nice and toasty at your feet. Believe it or not the water bottle stays warm all night long.”
  • “Use rice! Put the rice in a fleece cover, then warm in the microwave. It will stay warm half the night and keep your toes comfortable.”
  • “I have a water bottle, but better and quicker is to use a large heating pad with an automatic shut-off. Mine shuts off after 30 minutes. I lay the heating pad in the bed and turn it on about 15 minutes before retiring. I turn it off and then on again if I still need a little more heat, but it is usually adequate just turning it on once.”

4. Harness the Sun

During the day, open the blinds and curtains on the south-facing windows—and let the Sun warm you. At night, close the blinds and curtains to better insulate your home.

One reader adds, “We use roller blinds every night for all windows. Saves a lot of energy in a cheap and easy way.”

5. Keep the Kitchen Cozy

Many readers keep the kitchen humming!

  • “I put a cast iron pot of water with liquid potpourri on the top of our cast iron stove. This increases the humidity in the room and puts a lovely smell in the air.”
  • “Drink lots of yummy hot chocolate!!!!”
  • “Bake something in the oven, either dinner or a dessert (doesn’t have to be fattening but even better if it is).”
  • “A hot cup of tea is great… If you are sick, a hot toddy works wonders. Also, I always have a crock pot of soup going during the cold months.”
  • “Use matches not lighters. It seems silly but if your pilot goes out, your lighter will not work.”

6. Block Drafts

Beyond weather-stripping, which is difficult with old houses, consider these reader tips:

  • “I hang blankets to close off the open stair well going to the second floor, since heat raises it keeps the warm air down stairs when we spend most of our time. I noticed it saves a lot of heating dollars.”
  • “Don’t forget to put something at the bottom of outside doors—you can just feel the cold air pour in. You can buy a fancy roll or just use a blanket or towel.”
  • “I made long round pillows to place against my doors and window sills. I found some scrap pieces of upholstery fabric that are nice and heavy and help keep the drafts out.”
  • “Just like layers of clothing, I put layers at the windows. Between the window and the thermal-backed drapes are the closed venetian blinds and a flannel-backed table cloth. And we hang a blanket over the entire exterior door cause air doesn’t just come in at the bottom.”

7. Stay Active

Get your body moving. At the Almanac, we joke that “one log can heat a house.” Just run up the stairs with the log, throw it out the top window, and repeat three times. You’ll be warm!

Our readers add:

  • “Keep active, this is a good time to clean out closets, garages, etc. Anything to keep active.”
  • “If I get a chill just sitting, I get up and stir around, the movement not only warms me up but also stirs the heat in the house. Children are great when playing, they stir the air around.”
  • “Don’t just sit around. Stay active to keep your blood from ‘thickinin.’ Exercise is good for ya.”

8. Humidify Your Home

Not only does a humidifier keep your house warmer, it also eliminates drying indoor air. As our readers say:

  • “I discovered that when I run my vaporizer (humidifier) in the bedroom, I can turn the heat down a couple extra degrees overnight. In the morning, I raise the heat by about 2 degrees at a time instead of making the furnace work hard to raise it all at once.”
  • “I keep coffee cans lined with large baggies with water in them, around the vents to add humidity to the house, and this works great. I lined the coffee cans so they would not rust.”
  • “I put a waterbath canner full of water on the stove (lasts all night).”

If you don’t have a humidifier, here’s another idea: When you take a bath in winter, leave the water in the tub after you get out. If you let it sit until it reaches room temperature, it will add a little warmth to the house and help humidify it, too!

9. More Ideas

Here’s a new one! “I live five miles from the Canadian border in the St Lawrence region—icebox country! To stay warm INEXPENSIVELY, recycle old panty hose that have runs or snags. This layer next to the bottom, legs, and toes—with slacks over top—keeps me toasty. For guys like Joe Namath too!!”

I hope that these tips help—please add any more suggestions on how to get and stay warm. Just “submit” your comment below.

Also, if you’re driving, be sure to check our car emergency kit. Always prepare your car as if it will break down.

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 26: HOW TO SAVE MONEY ON HEATING

 

HOW TO SAVE MONEY ON HEATING

KEEP YOURSELF WARM WITH THESE TIPS
Everyone wants to save on their heating bill, so find out how to cut heating costs and keep your home warmer in the cold season!

During the chilly months of late fall and winter, no matter what heat source you use—oil, gas, electricity, or wood—you can cut costs by adopting temporary measures to keep the thermostat turned down. Here are some money-saving tips for cutting the cost of cold snaps.

Note: Some of these tips are only appropriate for above-freezing cold snaps and are not advised for subfreezing temperatures.

KEEPING DOWN HEATING COSTS

  • Temporarily close off heat to some rooms by shutting doors. (This requires a heating system that can be controlled room by room.) Shut the doors to unheated closets, the pantry, and the basement and attic.
  • Hang blankets over the windows at night. Tape or thumbtack the sides and bottom of blankets to the walls or windowsills to maximize the insulation value. (Press the tacks or tape under the bottom of the sill and over the top of the frame to hide any damage to the finish.) Remove the coverings on the south side of the house during the day to let in the warming sunlight.
  • Cover cracks around doors and windowsills with rugs, newspaper, towels, or other insulation. Window-sealing kits can be bought at hardware stores, too.
  • Use electric space heaters in living or work areas. These are more efficient than the furnace for localized heating, and they will allow you to set the thermostat lower for the whole house. Always be sure to use space heaters in open areas only.
  • Put on layers. The real trick to staying warm is to dress in layers, so get a few pairs of long underwear and long-sleeve undershirts that you can wear in addition to your regular lounge clothes. Don’t underestimate the heating power of a wool sweater!
  • Cook a hot meal. Not only will the heat from the stove help to warm the kitchen, the hot food will also warm your body.
  • See more tips from our readers in the comments below!

LEARN MORE

Get tips on how to keep pipes from freezing in subfreezing temperatures, explore more ideas for staying warm in winter, and catch up on your winter weather terms so you know when storms are coming!

 

Source: The Old Farmer’s Almanac

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 26: BEST DAYS BY DATE

 

BEST DAYS BY DATE

Today’s Holidays Around The World For Nov. 26: Baha’i Day of the Covenant

Baha’i Day of the Covenant

November 26

The Baha’i Day of the Covenant is a Baha’i holy day. It commemorates the covenant Baha’u’llahfounder of the faith, madewith humanity and his followers, appointing Abdu’l-Baha as the head of the Baha’i religion who would interpret Baha’iteachings. Abdu’l-Baha chose the date when followers requested an occasion to remember his importance.
CONTACTS:
Baha’i National Center
1233 Central St.
Evanston, IL 60201
800-228-6483 or 847-733-3559; fax: 847-733-3578
http://www.us.bahai.org
SOURCES:
AnnivHol-2000, p. 196
RelHolCal-2004, p. 157

This Day in History for Nov. 26: Casablanca Premieres (1942)

Casablanca Premieres (1942)

Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison’s unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick’s. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid; it also features Claude Rains, Conrad Veidt, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, and Dooley Wilson. Set during contemporary World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate who must choose between his love for a woman and helping her and her husband, a Czech Resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis.

Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra’s Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned a month later. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3; the film was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles.

Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything other than one of the hundreds of ordinary pictures produced by Hollywood that year.[6] Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier.[7] It had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run.

Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for writing the Best Adapted Screenplay—and gradually its reputation grew. Its lead characters,[8][9] memorable lines,[10][11][12] and pervasive theme song[13] have all become iconic, and the film consistently ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history.

Plot

In December 1941, American expatriate Rick Blaine owns an upscale nightclub and gambling den in Casablanca. “Rick’s Café Américain” attracts a varied clientele, including Vichy French and German officials, refugees desperate to reach the still-neutral United States, and those who prey on them. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, he ran guns to Ethiopia during its war with Italy and fought on the Loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War.

Petty crook Ugarte boasts to Rick of “letters of transit” obtained by murdering two German couriers. The papers allow the bearers to travel freely around German-occupied Europe and to neutral Portugal, and are priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club, and asks Rick to hold them. Before he can meet his contact, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault, the unabashedly corrupt Vichy prefect of police. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing that he entrusted the letters to Rick.

Then the reason for Rick’s bitterness—former lover Ilsa Lund—enters his establishment. Spotting Rick’s friend and house pianist, Sam, Ilsa asks him to play “As Time Goes By.” Rick storms over, furious that Sam disobeyed his order never to perform that song, and is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by her husband, Victor Laszlo, a renowned fugitive Czech Resistance leader. They need the letters to escape to America to continue his work. German Major Strasser has come to Casablanca to see that Laszlo fails.

When Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari, a major underworld figure and Rick’s friendly business rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. Privately, Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask his wife the reason. They are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing “Die Wacht am Rhein” (“The Watch on the Rhine”). Laszlo orders the house band to play “La Marseillaise”. When the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first, then patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. Strasser demands Renault close the club, which he does on the pretext of suddenly discovering there is gambling on the premises.

Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café. When he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a gun, but then confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they met and fell in love in Paris in 1940, she believed her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a concentration camp. While preparing to flee with Rick from the imminent fall of the city to the German army, she learned Laszlo was alive and in hiding. She left Rick without explanation to nurse her sick husband. Rick’s bitterness dissolves. He agrees to help, letting her believe she will stay with him when Laszlo leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl spirit Ilsa away. Laszlo, aware of Rick’s love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the letters to take her to safety.

When the police arrest Laszlo on a minor, trumped-up charge, Rick persuades Renault to release him by promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. To allay Renault’s suspicions, Rick explains that he and Ilsa will be leaving for America.

When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with Laszlo, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed—”Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life.” Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots him when he tries to intervene. When policemen arrive, Renault pauses, then orders them to “round up the usual suspects.” He suggests to Rick that they join the Free French in Brazzaville. As they walk away into the fog, Rick says, “Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship”.

Cast

The play’s cast consisted of 16 speaking parts and several extras; the film script enlarged it to 22 speaking parts and hundreds of extras.[14] The cast is notably international: only three of the credited actors were born in the United States (Bogart, Dooley Wilson, and Joy Page). The top-billed actors are:[15]

  • Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine. Rick was Bogart’s first truly romantic role.
  • Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. Bergman’s official website calls Ilsa her “most famous and enduring role”.[16] The Swedish actress’s Hollywood debut in Intermezzo had been well received, but her subsequent films were not major successes until Casablanca. Film critic Roger Ebert called her “luminous”, and commented on the chemistry between her and Bogart: “she paints his face with her eyes”.[17] Other actresses considered for the role of Ilsa included Ann Sheridan, Hedy Lamarr, Luise Rainer and Michèle Morgan. Producer Hal Wallis obtained the services of Bergman, who was contracted to David O. Selznick, by lending Olivia de Havilland in exchange.[18]
  • Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Henreid, an Austrian actor who had emigrated in 1935, was reluctant to take the role (it “set [him] as a stiff forever”, according to Pauline Kael[19]), until he was promised top billing along with Bogart and Bergman. Henreid did not get on well with his fellow actors; he considered Bogart “a mediocre actor.” Bergman called Henreid a “prima donna”.[20]

The second-billed actors are:

  • Claude Rains as Captain Louis Renault. Rains was an English actor born in London. He had previously worked with Michael Curtiz on The Adventures of Robin Hood. He later played the villain in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious, reteaming with Ingrid Bergman.
  • Conrad Veidt as Major Heinrich Strasser. He was a refugee German actor who had appeared in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. He fled the Nazis, but was frequently cast as a Nazi in American films. A major star in German cinema before the Nazi era, he was the highest paid member of the cast despite his second billing.[21]
  • Sydney Greenstreet as Signor Ferrari. Another Englishman, Greenstreet had previously starred with Lorre and Bogart in his film debut in The Maltese Falcon.
  • Peter Lorre as Signor Ugarte. Born in Austria-Hungary, Lorre fled Nazi Germany in 1933 after starring in Fritz Lang’s first sound movie, M (1931). Greenstreet and Lorre appeared in several films together over the next few years, although they did not share a scene in Casablanca.

Also credited are:

  • Curt Bois as the pickpocket. Bois was a German-Jewish actor and refugee. He had one of the longest careers in film, making his first appearance in 1907 and his last in 1987.
  • Leonid Kinskey as Sascha, the Russian bartender infatuated with Yvonne. He was born into a Jewish family in Russia and had immigrated to the United States. He told Aljean Harmetz, author of Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca, that he was cast because he was Bogart’s drinking buddy.[22] He was not the first choice for the role; he replaced Leo Mostovoy, who was deemed not funny enough.[22]
  • Madeleine Lebeau as Yvonne, Rick’s soon-discarded girlfriend. The French actress was married to fellow Casablanca performer Marcel Dalio until their divorce in 1942. She was the last surviving cast member at her death on May 1, 2016.[23]
  • Joy Page as Annina Brandel, the young Bulgarian refugee. The third credited American, she was the stepdaughter of Jack L. Warner, the studio head.
  • John Qualen as Berger, Laszlo’s Resistance contact. He was born in Canada, but grew up in the United States. He appeared in many of John Ford’s films.
  • S. Z. Sakall (credited as S. K. Sakall) as Carl, the waiter. The Jewish-Hungarian actor fled Germany in 1939. His three sisters and his niece later died in a concentration camp.
  • Dooley Wilson as Sam. He was one of the few American-born members of the cast. A drummer, he had to fake playing the piano. Even after shooting had been completed, producer Wallis considered dubbing over Wilson’s voice for the songs.[24][25] He had originally considered changing the character to a woman and casting singers Hazel Scott, Lena Horne, or Ella Fitzgerald.

Notable uncredited actors are:

  • Marcel Dalio as Emil the croupier. He had been a star in French cinema, appearing in Jean Renoir’s La Grande Illusion and La Règle du Jeu. After he fled the fall of France and went to America, he was reduced to bit parts in Hollywood. He had a key role as “Frenchy” in another of Bogart’s films, To Have and Have Not.
  • Helmut Dantine as Jan Brandel, the Bulgarian roulette player married to Annina Brandel. Another Austrian, he had spent time in a concentration camp after the Anschluss, but left Europe after being freed.
  • Gregory Gaye as the German banker who is refused entry to the casino by Rick. Gaye was a Russian-born actor who went to the United States in 1917 after the Russian Revolution.
  • Torben Meyer as the Dutch banker who runs “the second largest banking house in Amsterdam”. Meyer was a Danish actor.
  • Corinna Mura as the guitar player who sings “Tango Delle Rose” (or “Tango de la Rosa”) while Laszlo is consulting with Berger, and later accompanies the crowd on “La Marseillaise”.
  • Frank Puglia as a Moroccan rug merchant.
  • Dan Seymour as Abdul the doorman. He was an American actor who often played villains, including the principal one in To Have and Have Not, and one of the secondary ones in Key Largo, both opposite Bogart.
  • Gerald Oliver Smith as the Englishman whose wallet is stolen. Smith was an English actor.
  • Norma Varden as the Englishwoman whose husband has his wallet stolen. She was a famous English character actress.

Much of the emotional impact of the film has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees who were extras or played minor roles (in addition to leading actors Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt and Peter Lorre): such as Louis V. Arco, Trude Berliner, Ilka Grünig, Lotte Palfi, Richard Ryen, Ludwig Stössel, Hans Twardowski, and Wolfgang Zilzer. A witness to the filming of the “duel of the anthems” sequence said he saw many of the actors crying and “realized that they were all real refugees”.[26]Harmetz argues that they “brought to a dozen small roles in Casablanca an understanding and a desperation that could never have come from Central Casting”.[27] They were frequently cast as Nazis in war films, even though many were Jewish.

The comedian Jack Benny may have had an unbilled cameo role, as was claimed by a contemporary newspaper advertisement[28] and in the Casablanca press book.[29][30]When asked in his column “Movie Answer Man”, critic Roger Ebert first replied, “It looks something like him. That’s all I can say.”[29] In a later column, he responded to a follow-up commenter, “I think you’re right. The Jack Benny Fan Club can feel vindicated.”[31]

Production

The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison’s then-unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick’s.[32] The Warner Bros. story analyst who read the play, Stephen Karnot, called it (approvingly) “sophisticated hokum”,[33] and story editor Irene Diamond, who had discovered the unproduced play on a trip to New York in 1941, convinced producer Hal Wallis to buy the rights in January 1942 for $20,000,[34] the most anyone in Hollywood had ever paid for an unproduced play.[35] The project was renamed Casablanca, apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit Algiers.[36] Although an initial filming date was selected for April 10, 1942, delays led to a start of production on May 25.[37]Filming was completed on August 3, and the production cost $1,039,000 ($75,000 over budget),[38] above average for the time.[39] Unusually, the film was shot in sequence, mainly because only the first half of the script was ready when filming began.[40]

The entire picture was shot in the studio, except for the sequence showing Major Strasser’s arrival, which was filmed at Van Nuys Airport, and a few short clips of stock footage views of Paris.[41] The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for another film, The Desert Song,[42] and redressed for the Paris flashbacks.

The background of the final scene, which shows a Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior airplane with personnel walking around it, was staged using little person extras and a proportionate cardboard plane.[43] Fog was used to mask the model’s unconvincing appearance.[44] Nevertheless, the Disney’s Hollywood Studios theme park in Orlando, Florida purchased a Lockheed 12A for its Great Movie Ride attraction, and initially claimed that it was the actual plane used in the film.[45]

Film critic Roger Ebert called Hal Wallis the “key creative force” for his attention to the details of production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar).[17]

The difference between Bergman’s and Bogart’s height caused some problems. She was two inches (5 cm) taller than Bogart, and claimed Curtiz had Bogart stand on blocks or sit on cushions in their scenes together.[46]

Later, there were plans for a further scene, showing Rick, Renault and a detachment of Free French soldiers on a ship, to incorporate the Allies’ 1942 invasion of North Africa. It proved too difficult to get Claude Rains for the shoot, and the scene was finally abandoned after David O. Selznick judged “it would be a terrible mistake to change the ending.”[47][21]

Writing[edit]

The original play was inspired by a trip to Europe made by Murray Burnett and his wife in 1938, during which they visited Vienna shortly after the Anschluss and were affected by the anti-Semitism they saw. In the south of France, they went to a nightclub that had a multinational clientele, among them many exiles and refugees, and the prototype of Sam.[48][49] In The Guardian, Paul Fairclough writes that Cinema Vox in Tangier “was Africa’s biggest when it opened in 1935, with 2,000 seats and a retractable roof. As Tangier was in Spanish territory, the theatre’s wartime bar heaved with spies, refugees and underworld hoods, securing its place in cinematic history as the inspiration for Rick’s Cafe in Casablanca.”[50][51] The scene of the singing of La Marseillaise in the bar is attributed by the film scholar Julian Jackson as an adaptation of a similar scene from Jean Renoir’s film from 5 years before titled La Grande Illusion.[52]

The first writers assigned to the script were twins Julius and Philip Epstein who, against the wishes of Warner Brothers, left at Frank Capra’s request early in 1942 to work on the Why We Fight series in Washington, D.C.[53][54] While they were gone, the other credited writer, Howard Koch, was assigned; he produced thirty to forty pages.[54] When the Epstein brothers returned after about a month, they were reassigned to Casablanca and—contrary to what Koch claimed in two published books—his work was not used.[54] The Epstein brothers and Koch never worked in the same room at the same time during the writing of the script. Koch later commented, “When we began, we didn’t have a finished script … Ingrid Bergman came to me and said, ‘Which man should I love more…?’ I said to her, ‘I don’t know … play them both evenly.’ You see we didn’t have an ending, so we didn’t know what was going to happen!”[55] In the final budget for the film, the Epsteins were paid $30,416, and Koch earned $4,200.[56]

In the play, the Ilsa character is an American named Lois Meredith; she does not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with Rick in Paris has ended. Rick is a lawyer. To make Rick’s motivation more believable, Wallis, Curtiz, and the screenwriters decided to set the film before the attack on Pearl Harbor.[57]

The uncredited Casey Robinson assisted with three weeks of rewrites, including contributing the series of meetings between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe.[58][59] Koch highlighted the political and melodramatic elements,[60][61] and Curtiz seems to have favored the romantic parts, insisting on retaining the Paris flashbacks.[62] Wallis wrote the final line, “Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship,” after shooting had been completed. Bogart had to be called in a month after the end of filming to dub it.[62]

Despite the many writers, the film has what Ebert describes as a “wonderfully unified and consistent” script. Koch later claimed it was the tension between his own approach and Curtiz’s which accounted for this: “Surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance.”[63] Julius Epstein would later note the screenplay contained “more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. But when corn works, there’s nothing better.”[64]

The film ran into some trouble with Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favors from his supplicants, and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together.[65][66] Extensive changes were made, with several lines of dialogue removed or altered. All direct references to sex were deleted; Renault’s selling of visas for sex, and Rick and Ilsa’s previous sexual relationship were implied elliptically rather than referenced explicitly.[67] Also, in the original script, when Sam plays “As Time Goes By”, Rick remarks, “What the —— are you playing?” This line was altered to: “Sam, I told you never to play…” to conform to Breen’s objection to an implied swear word.[68]

Misquotes

The script has been subject to a significant amount of misquotation. One of the lines most closely associated with the film—”Play it again, Sam”—is inaccurate.[69][70] When Ilsa first enters the Café Americain, she spots Sam and asks him to “Play it once, Sam, for old times’ sake.” After he feigns ignorance, she responds, “Play it, Sam. Play ‘As Time Goes By’.” Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick says, “You played it for her, you can play it for me,” and “If she can stand it, I can! Play it!” Rick’s toast to Ilsa, “Here’s looking at you, kid”, used four times, was not written into the draft screenplays, but has been attributed to a comment Bogart said to Bergman as he taught her poker between takes.[71] It was voted the fifth most memorable line in cinema in AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes by the American Film Institute.[72]

Six lines from Casablanca appeared in the AFI list, the most of any film (Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz tied for second with three apiece). The other five are:

  • “Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.”—20th
  • “Play it, Sam. Play ‘As Time Goes By’.”—28th
  • “Round up the usual suspects.”—32nd
  • “We’ll always have Paris.”—43rd
  • “Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine.”—67th

Additionally, the line “Ilsa, I’m no good at being noble, but it doesn’t take much to see that the problems of three little people don’t amount to a hill of beans in this crazy world” was nominated for the list.[73]

Direction

Wallis’s first choice for director was William Wyler, but he was unavailable, so Wallis turned to his close friend Michael Curtiz.[74][21] Curtiz was a Hungarian Jewish émigré; he had come to the U.S. in 1926, but some of his family were refugees from Nazi Europe.

Roger Ebert has commented that in Casablanca “very few shots … are memorable as shots,” as Curtiz wanted images to express the story rather than to stand alone.[17] He contributed relatively little to development of the plot. Casey Robinson said Curtiz “knew nothing whatever about story … he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories.”[75]

Critic Andrew Sarris called the film “the most decisive exception to the auteur theory”,[76] of which Sarris was the most prominent proponent in the United States. Aljean Harmetz has responded, “nearly every Warner Bros. picture was an exception to the auteur theory”.[74] Other critics give more credit to Curtiz. Sidney Rosenzweig, in his study of the director’s work, sees the film as a typical example of Curtiz’s highlighting of moral dilemmas.[77]

The second unit montages, such as the opening sequence of the refugee trail and the invasion of France, were directed by Don Siegel.[78]

Cinematography

The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot The Maltese Falcon and Frankenstein. Particular attention was paid to photographing Bergman. She was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle; the whole effect was designed to make her face seem “ineffably sad and tender and nostalgic”.[17] Bars of shadow across the characters and in the background variously imply imprisonment, the crucifix, the symbol of the Free French Forces and emotional turmoil.[17] Dark film noir and expressionist lighting was used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Rosenzweig argues these shadow and lighting effects are classic elements of the Curtiz style, along with the fluid camera work and the use of the environment as a framing device.[79]

Music

The music was written by Max Steiner, who was best known for the score for Gone with the Wind. The song “As Time Goes By” by Herman Hupfeld had been part of the story from the original play; Steiner wanted to write his own composition to replace it, but Bergman had already cut her hair short for her next role (María in For Whom the Bell Tolls) and could not re-shoot the scenes which incorporated the song,[80] so Steiner based the entire score on it and “La Marseillaise”, the French national anthem, transforming them as leitmotifs to reflect changing moods.[81] Even though Steiner didn’t like “As Time Goes By”, he admitted in a 1943 interview that it “must have had something to attract so much attention.”[82] The “piano player” Dooley Wilson was a drummer, not a trained pianist, so the piano music for the film was played offscreen by Jean Plummer and dubbed.[83]

Particularly memorable is the “duel of the songs” between Strasser and Laszlo at Rick’s cafe.[21] In the soundtrack, “La Marseillaise” is played by a full orchestra. Originally, the opposing piece for this iconic sequence was to be the “Horst Wessel Lied”, a Nazi anthem, but this was still under international copyright in non-Allied countries. Instead “Die Wacht am Rhein” was used.[84] The “Deutschlandlied”, the national anthem of Germany, features in the final scene, in which it gives way to “La Marseillaise” after Strasser is shot.[85][21]

Other songs include:

  • “It Had to Be You”, music by Isham Jones, lyrics by Gus Kahn
  • “Shine”, music by Ford Dabney, lyrics by Cecil Mack and Lew Brown
  • “Avalon”, music and lyrics by Al Jolson, Buddy DeSylva and Vincent Rose
  • “Perfidia”, by Alberto Dominguez
  • “The Very Thought of You”, by Ray Noble
  • “Knock on Wood”, music by M. K. Jerome, lyrics by Jack Scholl, the only original song.

The piano featured in the Paris flashback sequences was sold in New York City on December 14, 2012, at Sotheby’s for more than $600,000 to an anonymous bidder.[86] The piano Sam “plays” in Rick’s Café Américain, put up for auction with other film memorabilia by Turner Classic Movies at Bonhams in New York in November 2014, sold for $3.4 million.[87][88]

Release

Although an initial release date was anticipated for early 1943,[89] the film premiered at the Hollywood Theater in New York City on November 26, 1942, to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of Casablanca.[7][90] It went into general release on January 23, 1943, to take advantage of the Casablanca Conference, a high-level meeting in the city between British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Office of War Information prevented screening of the film to troops in North Africa, believing it would cause resentment among Vichy supporters in the region.[91]

Reception

Initial response

Casablanca received “consistently good reviews”.[92] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote, “The Warners … have a picture which makes the spine tingle and the heart take a leap.” He applauded the combination of “sentiment, humor and pathos with taut melodrama and bristling intrigue”. Crowther noted its “devious convolutions of the plot”, and praised the screenplay quality as “of the best” and the cast’s performances as “all of the first order”.[93]

The trade paper Variety commended the film’s “combination of fine performances, engrossing story and neat direction” and the “variety of moods, action, suspense, comedy and drama that makes Casablanca an A-1 entry at the b.o.”[94] “Film is splendid anti-Axis propaganda, particularly inasmuch as the propaganda is strictly a by-product of the principal action and contributes to it instead of getting in the way.”[94] The review also applauded the performances of Bergman and Henreid and noted that “Bogart, as might be expected, is more at ease as the bitter and cynical operator of a joint than as a lover, but handles both assignments with superb finesse.”[94]

Some other reviews were less enthusiastic. The New Yorker rated it only “pretty tolerable” and said it was “not quite up to Across the Pacific, Bogart’s last spyfest”.[95]

In the 1,500-seat Hollywood Theater, the film grossed $255,000 over ten weeks.[96] In its initial U.S. release, it was a substantial but not spectacular box-office success, taking in $3.7 million, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 1943.[96][97]

According to Warner Bros records the film earned $3,398,000 domestically and $3,461,000 foreign.[4]

Lasting influence

In the seven decades since its production the film has grown in popularity. Murray Burnett called it “true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow”.[98] By 1955, the film had brought in $6.8 million, making it the third most successful of Warners’ wartime movies (behind Shine On, Harvest Moon and This Is the Army).[99] On April 21, 1957, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts, showed the film as part of a season of old movies. It was so popular that it began a tradition of screening Casablanca during the week of final exams at Harvard University, which continues to the present day. Other colleges have adopted the tradition. Todd Gitlin, a professor of sociology who had attended one of these screenings, has said that the experience was “the acting out of my own personal rite of passage”.[100] The tradition helped the movie remain popular while other films famous in the 1940s have faded from popular memory. By 1977, Casablanca was the most frequently broadcast film on American television.[101]

On the film’s 50th anniversary, the Los Angeles Times called Casablanca‘s great strength “the purity of its Golden Age Hollywoodness [and] the enduring craftsmanship of its resonantly hokey dialogue”. Bob Strauss wrote in the newspaper that the film achieved a “near-perfect entertainment balance” of comedy, romance, and suspense.[102]

According to Roger Ebert, Casablanca is “probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other single title, including Citizen Kane” because of its wider appeal. Ebert opined that Citizen Kane is generally considered to be a “greater” film, but Casablanca “is more loved.”[17] In his opinion, the film is popular because “the people in it are all so good”, and it is “a wonderful gem”.[17] Ebert said that he has never heard of a negative review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticized, citing unrealistic special effects and the stiff character/portrayal of Laszlo.[75] Critic Leonard Maltin considers Casablanca to be “the best Hollywood movie of all time.”[103]

Rick, according to Rudy Behlmer, is “not a hero … not a bad guy”: he does what is necessary to get along with the authorities and “sticks his neck out for nobody”. The other characters, in Behlmer’s words, are “not cut and dried” and come into their goodness over the course of the film. Renault begins as a collaborator with the Nazis who extorts sexual favors from refugees and has Ugarte killed. Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is “caught in the emotional struggle” over which man she really loves. By the end, however, “everybody is sacrificing.”[75] Behlmer also emphasized the variety in the picture: “it’s a blend of drama, melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue”.[75]

A few reviewers have had reservations. To Pauline Kael, “It’s far from a great film, but it has a special appealingly schlocky romanticism …”[104] Poet and critic Dan Schneiderwrote that the work “does entertain, and is an interesting piece of Americana”, but criticized it as a melodrama “driven by plot, not by character development. All the characters react to what the plot dictates to them; the plot does not organically flow from their personae.”[105] Umberto Eco wrote that “by any strict critical standards … Casablanca is a very mediocre film.” He viewed the changes the characters undergo as inconsistent rather than complex: “It is a comic strip, a hotchpotch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects.” However, he added that due to the presence of multiple archetypes which allow “the power of Narrative in its natural state without Art intervening to discipline it”, it is a movie reaching “Homeric depths” as a “phenomenon worthy of awe.”[106] Casablanca holds a 97% “Fresh” rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 77 reviews, with the consensus: “An undisputed masterpiece and perhaps Hollywood’s quintessential statement on love and romance, Casablanca has only improved with age, boasting career-defining performances from Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman.”[107]

In the November/December 1982 issue of American Film, Chuck Ross claimed that he retyped the screenplay to Casablanca, changing the title back to Everybody Comes to Rick’s and the name of the piano player to Dooley Wilson, and submitted it to 217 agencies. Eighty-five of them read it; of those, thirty-eight rejected it outright, thirty-three generally recognized it (but only eight specifically as Casablanca), three declared it commercially viable, and one suggested turning it into a novel.[108]

Influence on later works

Many subsequent films have drawn on elements of CasablancaPassage to Marseille (1944) reunited actors Bogart, Rains, Greenstreet, Lorre and director Curtiz in 1944,[109]and there are similarities between Casablanca and another later Bogart film, To Have and Have Not (also 1944).[110]

Parodies have included the Marx Brothers’ A Night in Casablanca (1946), Neil Simon’s The Cheap Detective (1978), and Out Cold (2001). Indirectly, it provided the title for the 1995 neo-noir film The Usual Suspects.[111] Woody Allen’s Play It Again, Sam (1972) appropriated Bogart’s Casablanca persona as the fantasy mentor for Allen’s character.[112]

The film Casablanca was a plot device in the science-fiction television movie Overdrawn at the Memory Bank (1983), based on John Varley’s story. It was referred to in Terry Gilliam’s dystopian Brazil (1985). Warner Bros. produced its own parody in the homage Carrotblanca, a 1995 Bugs Bunny cartoon.[113] Film critic Roger Ebert pointed out the plot of the film Barb Wire (1996) was identical to that of Casablanca.[114] In Casablanca, a novella by Argentine writer Edgar Brau, the protagonist somehow wanders into Rick’s Café Américain and listens to a strange tale related by Sam.[115] The 2016 musical film La La Land contains multiple allusions to Casablanca in the imagery, dialogue, and plot.[116] Director Robert Zemeckis of Allied (2016), which is also set in 1942 Casablanca, studied the film to capture the city’s elegance.[117]

Interpretation

Casablanca has been subjected to many readings; Semioticians account for the film’s popularity by claiming that its inclusion of stereotypes paradoxically strengthens the film.[118][119][120][121] Umberto Eco wrote:

Thus Casablanca is not just one film. It is many films, an anthology. Made haphazardly, it probably made itself, if not actually against the will of its authors and actors, then at least beyond their control. And this is the reason it works, in spite of aesthetic theories and theories of film making. For in it there unfolds with almost telluric force the power of Narrative in its natural state, without Art intervening to discipline it … When all the archetypes burst in shamelessly, we reach Homeric depths. Two clichés make us laugh. A hundred clichés move us. For we sense dimly that the clichés are talking among themselves, and celebrating a reunion.[122][123]

Eco also singled out sacrifice as a theme, “the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film”.[124] It was this theme which resonated with a wartime audience that was reassured by the idea that painful sacrifice and going off to war could be romantic gestures done for the greater good.[125]

Koch also considered the film a political allegory. Rick is compared to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who gambled “on the odds of going to war until circumstance and his own submerged nobility force him to close his casino (partisan politics) and commit himself—first by financing the Side of Right and then by fighting for it”. The connection is reinforced by the film’s title, which means “white house”.[126]

Harvey Greenberg presents a Freudian reading in his The Movies on Your Mind, in which the transgressions which prevent Rick from returning to the United States constitute an Oedipus complex, which is resolved only when Rick begins to identify with the father figure of Laszlo and the cause which he represents.[127] Sidney Rosenzweig argues that such readings are reductive and that the most important aspect of the film is its ambiguity, above all in the central character of Rick; he cites the different names which each character gives Rick (Richard, Ricky, Mr. Rick, Herr Rick and boss) as evidence of the different meanings which he has for each person.[128] Read More 

References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Roger Ebert (September 15, 1996). “Great Movies: Casablanca”RogerEbert.comArchived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015Bogart, Bergman and Paul Henreid were stars, and no better cast of supporting actors could have been assembled on the Warners lot than Peter Lorre, Sidney Greenstreet, Claude Rains and Dooley Wilson
  2. Jump up^ Casablanca (U)”Warner Bros. British Board of Film Classification. December 17, 1942. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20,2013.
  3. Jump up^ Thomas Schatz, Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s Uni of California Press, 1999 p. 218
  4. Jump up to:a b c Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup 1, 1–31 p. 23 doi:10.1080/01439689508604551
  5. Jump up^ “Top Grossers of the Season”, Variety, 5 January 1944 p. 54 Archived March 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). “Casablanca (1942)”Chicago Sun-TimesArchived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  7. Jump up to:a b Stein, Eliot (May 1995). “Howard Koch, Julius Epstein, Frank Miller Interview”Vincent’s CasablancaArchived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved June 11,2008. Frank Miller: “There was a scene planned, after the ending, that would have shown Rick and Renault on an Allied ship just prior to the landing at Casablanca, but plans to shoot it were scrapped when the marketing department realized they had to get the film out fast to capitalize on the liberation of North Africa.”
  8. Jump up^ Briony Smith, Andrew Wallace. “The demise of dating: Two writers square off on their favourite fictional dating men”Elle Canada. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
  9. Jump up^ “How Hollywood (Fictionally) Won World War Two”Empire magazine. August 4, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Emma Jones (February 13, 2012). “Guess the movie quote: How well do you know classic romantic films?: Casablanca”MSN Entertainment Canada. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
  11. Jump up^ Dee Doyle (June 5, 2008). “Best Movie Lines That Have Stuck In Pop Culture”. starpulse.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1,2012.
  12. Jump up^ “Round up the usual suspects”, for example, has been incorporated in the titles of business Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., sociology and political science Archived December 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. articles.
  13. Jump up^ “You CAN play it again (in your own living room): Casablanca piano heads to auction for $1.2m on 70th anniversary of classic movie”Mail Online. November 27, 2012. Archived from the original on April 22, 2013.
  14. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 119
  15. Jump up^ “Casablanca: Michael Curtiz’s 1942 film is a classic love story – with excellent hats”The Telegraph. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  16. Jump up^ “From quintessential “good girl” to Hollywood heavyweight”. The Family of Ingrid Bergman. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
  17. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Ebert, Roger. Commentary to Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD).
  18. Jump up to:a b Harmetz 1992, pp. 88–89, 92, 95
  19. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 99
  20. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 97
  21. Jump up to:a b c d e Oliver Lyttelton (November 26, 2012). “5 Things You Might Not Know About ‘Casablanca’ On Its 70th Anniversary”IndieWire. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  22. Jump up to:a b Lawrence Van Gelder (September 12, 1998). “Leonid Kinskey, 95, Bartender in ‘CasablancaThe New York TimesArchived from the original on March 26, 2017.
  23. Jump up^ “Last surviving Casablanca actress Madeleine Lebeau dies”BBC News. BBC. May 15, 2016. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  24. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 139–140, 260
  25. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, p. 214
  26. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 213
  27. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 214
  28. Jump up^ e.g. “Special Contest / Find Jack Benny in “CasablancaThe Evening Independent. February 4, 1943.
  29. Jump up to:a b Roger Ebert (December 9, 2009). “Movie Answer Man”Chicago Sun-TimesArchived from the original on July 8, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014. RogerEbert.com
  30. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 274 (figure)
  31. Jump up^ Roger Ebert (December 23, 2009). “Movie Answer Man”Chicago Sun-TimesArchived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014. RogerEbert.com
  32. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, p. 194
  33. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 17
  34. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 19
  35. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 33
  36. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 30
  37. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 136
  38. Jump up to:a b c Robertson, James C. (1993). The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz. London: Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-415-06804-8.
  39. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, p. 208
  40. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, pp. 141–142
  41. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 139
  42. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, pp. 214–215
  43. Jump up^ Casablanca – You Must Remember This … A Tribute to Casablanca (Blu-ray Disc). Warner Home Video. February 2, 2010. Event occurs at 21:09.
  44. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 237
  45. Jump up^ “The Plane Truth”Snopes. August 21, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  46. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 170
  47. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 280–281
  48. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 53–54
  49. Jump up^ Casablanca – You Must Remember This … A Tribute to Casablanca (Blu-ray Disc). Warner Home Video. February 2, 2010. Event occurs at 4:36.
  50. Jump up^ Fairclough, Paul (June 2, 2011). “Africa’s rich cinema heritage”The GuardianArchived from the original on February 21, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  51. Jump up^ “The Bar at Cinema Vox in Tangier – Casablanca Film”The bar at Cinema Vox in Tangier. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  52. Jump up^ Julian Jackson. La Grande Illusion. BFI film series. 2009. p. 85.
  53. Jump up^ “Prepared Statement of Julius Epstein, Screenwriter and Member, Writers Guild of America, West”United States House Committee on the Judiciary. Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2012He [Capra] asked Phil and me and a half dozen other screenwriters to join him in an effort our government considered very important—to write a series of films to be called Why We Fight.
  54. Jump up to:a b c McGilligan 1986, pp. 185
  55. Jump up^ “101 Greatest Screenplays”. Writers Guild of America, West. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  56. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, p. 209
  57. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 121
  58. Jump up^ Merlock, Ray (Winter 2000). “Casablanca”. Journal of Popular Film & Television27(4): 2. doi:10.1080/01956050009602809.
  59. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 175, 179
  60. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 56–59
  61. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, pp. 154–155
  62. Jump up to:a b Casablanca – You Must Remember This … A Tribute to Casablanca (Blu-ray Disc). Warner Home Video. February 2, 2010. Event occurs at 29:57.
  63. Jump up^ Sorel, Edward (December 1991). “Casablanca”American HeritageArchived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  64. Jump up^ “Casablanca writer dies”. BBC News. January 2, 2001. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  65. Jump up^ “Censored Films and Television at University of Virginia online”. lib.virginia.edu. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
  66. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 162–163
  67. Jump up^ Gardner 1988, pp. 2–4
  68. Jump up^ Gardner 1988, p. 4
  69. Jump up^ Fred R. Shapiro (January 15, 2010). “Movie Misquotations”The New York Times MagazineArchived from the original on December 17, 2015.
  70. Jump up^ Ben Child (May 11, 2009). “Darth Vader line is the daddy of film misquotes, finds poll”guardian.co.ukArchived from the original on November 15, 2016.
  71. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 187
  72. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes”. American Film Institute. Archived from the original on November 16, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  73. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes – List of the 400 nominated movie quotes”(PDF). American Film Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  74. Jump up to:a b Harmetz 1992, p. 75
  75. Jump up to:a b c d Quoted in Ebert commentary.
  76. Jump up^ Sarris, Andrew (1968). The American Cinema: Directors and Directions 1929–1968(New York: Dutton), p. 176.
  77. Jump up^ Rosenzweig 1982, pp. 158–159
  78. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 264
  79. Jump up^ Rosenzweig 1982, pp. 6–7
  80. Jump up^ “As Time Goes By” enjoyed a resurgence after the release of Casablanca, spending 21 weeks on the hit parade.
  81. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 253–258
  82. Jump up^ Lebo 1992, p. 182
  83. Jump up^ “Who Played It Again, Sam? The Three Pianists of ‘Casablanca. AFM. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  84. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 169
  85. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 257
  86. Jump up^ “Casablanca piano sold at auction”BBC News. December 14, 2012. Archivedfrom the original on December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  87. Jump up^ “TCM Presents … There’s No Place Like Hollywood”. Bonhams. Archived from the original on September 11, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  88. Jump up^ Barron, James (November 24, 2014). Casablanca’ Piano Sells for $3.4 Million at Bonhams”The New York TimesArchived from the original on November 29, 2014.
  89. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 184
  90. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, pp. 188–189
  91. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 286
  92. Jump up^ Stanley, John (April 5, 1992). “Casablanca’ Celebrates Its 50th”. San Francisco Chronicle.
  93. Jump up^ Crowther, Bosley (November 27, 1942). Casablanca’, with Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, at Hollywood”The New York Times. p. 27. Retrieved October 26,2017.
  94. Jump up to:a b c “Variety 100 Reviews: Casablanca”Variety. December 1, 1942. Archivedfrom the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2009.
  95. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 12–13
  96. Jump up to:a b c Francisco 1980, p. 192
  97. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 12
  98. Jump up^ Interviewed in Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember ThisArchived December 21, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. (Turner: 1992)
  99. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 283
  100. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 343
  101. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 346
  102. Jump up^ Strauss, Bob (April 10, 1992). “Still the best: Casablanca loses no luster over time”. Los Angeles Times.
  103. Jump up^ Casablanca’ to be shown on the big screen in Oklahoma City”NewsOK. March 9, 2012. Archived from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  104. Jump up^ Pauline Kael. “Casablanca”. geocities.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  105. Jump up^ Schneider, Dan (December 25, 2008). “DVD Review Of Casablanca”Archivedfrom the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  106. Jump up^ Eco, Umberto (1985). Blonsky, Marshal, ed. Casablanca, or the Clichés are Having a BallOn Signs. JHU Press. pp. 35–38. ISBN 978-0-8018-3007-5Archived from the original on May 2, 2016.
  107. Jump up^ Casablanca at Rotten Tomatoes
  108. Jump up^ Zinman, David (April 10, 1983). The Magazine (Sunday supplement to The Provincenewspaper), p. 12
  109. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 302–303 and Rosenzweig 1982, p. 101
  110. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 306 and Rosenzweig 1982, pp. 98–101
  111. Jump up^ Larsen, Ernest (2005). “The Usual Suspects“. British Film Institute.
  112. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 347
  113. Jump up^ Casablanca – You Must Remember This … A Tribute to Casablanca (Blu-ray Disc). Warner Home Video. February 2, 2010. Event occurs at 31:56.
  114. Jump up^ “Roger Ebert – Chicago Sun-Times. Rogerebert.suntimes.com. May 3, 1996. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  115. Jump up^ Michael Dirda (January 7, 2007). “For the first time in English, the Argentine labyrinths of Edgar Brau”The Washington PostArchived from the original on November 10, 2012.
  116. Jump up^ Orr, Christopher (December 9, 2016). “The Novelty and Nostalgia of La La Land”The Atlantic. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
  117. Jump up^ Coggan, Devan. “Allied: How Brad Pitt, Marion Cotillard film recreated glamour of 1942 Casablanca”Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  118. Jump up^ Pontuso, James F. (2005). “Casablanca and the Paradoxical Truth of Stereotyping”Political Philosophy Comes to Rick’s: Casablanca and American Civic Culture. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-1113-0Archived from the original on May 16, 2016.
  119. Jump up^ Raleigh, Henry P. (April 2003). “Archetypes: What You Need to Know About Them”Art TimesArchived from the original on July 7, 2011.
  120. Jump up^ Morrow, Lance (December 27, 1982). “We’ll Always Have Casablanca”TimeArchived from the original on June 4, 2011. (subscription required)
  121. Jump up^ Clayton, Jay; Rothstein, Eric (1991). Influence and Intertextuality in Literary History. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-299-13034-3Archived from the original on April 29, 2016.
  122. Jump up^ Umberto EcoTravels in Hyperreality (1986)
  123. Jump up^ Eco, Umberto“Casablanca, or, The Clichés are Having a Ball”. Archived from the original on March 8, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  124. Jump up^ Eco, Umberto (1994). Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers (Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon, eds.) Bedford Books.
  125. Jump up^ Gabbard, Krin; Gabbard, Glen O. (1990). “Play it again, Sigmund: Psychoanalysis and the classical Hollywood text.” Journal of Popular Film & Television vol. 18 no. 1 pp. 6–17 ISSN 0195-6051
  126. Jump up^ Koch 1973, p. 166
  127. Jump up^ Greenberg, Harvey (1975). The Movies on Your Mind New York: Saturday Review Press, p. 88 quoted in Rosenzweig 1982, p. 79 and Harmetz, p. 348
  128. Jump up^ Rosenzweig 1982, p. 81
  129. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 195
  130. Jump up to:a b Ronald HaverCasablanca: The Unexpected Classic”. The Criterion Collection Online Cinematheque. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  131. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 321–324
  132. Jump up^ Molotsky, Irvin (September 20, 1989). “25 Films Chosen for the National Registry”The New York TimesArchived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April 1,2017.
  133. Jump up^ Corliss, Richard (June 2, 2005). “That Old Feeling: Secrets of the All-Time 100″TIME. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  134. Jump up^ Braund, Simon; et al. “Empire’s 100 Greatest Movies Of All Time”Empire. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  135. Jump up^ “101 Greatest Screenplays”. Writers Guild of America, West. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
  136. Jump up^ “Casablanca: Two-Disc Special Edition”.
  137. Jump up^ “Casablanca [HD-DVD] (1943)”.
  138. Jump up^ “Casablanca – Humphrey Bogart”. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008.
  139. Jump up^ “WHV Press Release: Casablanca Ultimate Collector’s Edition (DVD/Blu-ray) – Home Theater”Archived from the original on December 11, 2010.
  140. Jump up^ “Casablanca (70th Anniversary Limited Collector’s Edition Blu-ray/DVD Combo)”. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  141. Jump up^ Katz, Josh (April 25, 2012). “Casablanca: 70th Anniversary Ultimate Collector’s Edition Blu-ray (Updated)”blu-ray.comArchived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  142. Jump up^ Francisco 1980, p. 204
  143. Jump up^ “Casablanca has scored such a hit…” The Midland Journal. Rising Sun, Md. February 19, 1943. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  144. Jump up to:a b c Harmetz 1992, p. 342
  145. Jump up^ Yoram Allon, Hannah Patterson, Contemporary British & Irish Directors, Wallflower Press, 2001, p. 332
  146. Jump up^ Stephen Hunter (December 14, 1990). “We’ll always have ‘Casablanca’ – so why see ‘Havana’?”The Baltimore SunArchived from the original on January 11, 2012.
  147. Jump up^ Graham, Caroline (March 29, 2008). “Madonna wants to remake Casablanca – and of all the places in all the world, she plans to set it in war-torn Iraq”Daily MailArchived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  148. Jump up^ “Casablanca: playing it again as film sequel planned”The Daily Telegraph. November 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  149. Jump up^ Stillman, Josh (November 5, 2012). “Producer pushing for ‘Casablanca’ sequel”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  150. Jump up^ “Borders.com presents Michael Walsh, Author of “As Time Goes By. LiveWorld, Inc. January 8, 1999. Archived from the original on October 28, 2002. Retrieved August 13, 2007.
  151. Jump up^ Walsh, Michael (1998). “How Did I Write “As Time Goes By”?”. Hachette Book Group USA. Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved August 13,2007.
  152. Jump up^ Lawless, Jill (May 31, 2006). Mrs. Robinson’ Returns in Sequel”. CBS News. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2007.
  153. Jump up^ “Suspects by David Thomson”. No Exit Press. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
  154. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, pp. 339–340
  155. Jump up^ Barbara Klinger (2015). “Pre-cult: Casablanca, radio adaptation, and transmedia in the 1940s”. New Review of Film and Television Studies13: 45–62. doi:10.1080/17400309.2014.982900.
  156. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 338
  157. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 331
  158. Jump up^ “『カサブランカ』”. Takarazuka Revue Company. Archived from the original on September 25, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  159. Jump up^ Krauthammer, Charles (January 12, 1987). “Casablanca in Color?”TimeArchived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  160. Jump up to:a b c d e Edgerton, Gary R. (Winter 2000). “The Germans Wore Gray, You Wore Blue”. Journal of Popular Film & Television27 (4): 24. doi:10.1080/01956050009602812.
  161. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 74
  162. Jump up^ Sklar, Robert (1992). City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-691-04795-9.
  163. Jump up^ Behlmer 1985, pp. 206–207
  164. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 229
  165. Jump up^ Epstein 1994, pp. 32–33
  166. Jump up^ Epstein 1994, pp. 33–35
  167. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 55
  168. Jump up^ Harmetz 1992, p. 208

Bibliography

  • Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935–1951). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79242-0.
  • Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (2003) (with audio commentaries by Roger Ebert and Rudy Behlmer and documentary Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember This, narrated by Lauren Bacall).
  • Epstein, Julius J. (1994). Casablanca. Imprenta Glorias. OCLC 31873886.
  • Francisco, Charles (1980). You Must Remember This: The Filming of Casablanca. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-977058-6.
  • Gardner, Gerald (1988). The Censorship Papers: Movie Censorship Letters from the Hays Office, 1934 to 1968. New York: Dodd Mead. ISBN 978-0-396-08903-2.
  • Harmetz, Aljean (1992). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca – Bogart, Bergman, and World War II. Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-56282-761-8.
  • Isenberg, Noah (2017). We’ll Always Have Casablanca: The Life, Legend, and Afterlife of Hollywood’s Most Beloved Movie. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-24312-3.
  • Koch, Howard (1973). Casablanca: Script and LegendThe Overlook PressISBN 978-0-87951-006-0.
  • Lebo, Harlan (1992). Casablanca: Behind the Scenes. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-671-76981-9.
  • McGilligan, Pat (1986). Backstory: Interviews with Screenwriters of Hollywood’s Golden Age. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05666-4.
  • Miller, Frank (1992). Casablanca – As Times Goes By: 50th Anniversary Commemorative. Turner Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-878685-14-8.
  • Robertson, James C. (1993). The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06804-5
  • Rosenzweig, Sidney (1982). Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz. Ann Arbor, Mich: UMI Research Press. ISBN 978-0-8357-1304-7.

 

Inspiration for the Day for Nov. 26: Loving What You Hate

Loving What You Hate

BY MADISYN TAYLOR

Hatred cannot help but be transformed in the presence of love.

Hatred can be irrational, and it has a greater impact on the individual who hates than the person or object being hated. Yet overcoming hatred is difficult because hatred reinforces itself and causes greater enmity to come into being. The most powerful tool one can use to combat hatred is love. Deciding to love what you hate, whether this is a person, situation, or a part of yourself, can create a profound change in your feelings and your experience. There is little room for anger, dislike, bitterness, or resentment when you are busy loving what you hate. The practice of loving what you hate can transform and shift your emotions from hatred to love because there is no room for hatred in a space occupied by love.

Granted, it is difficult to forgo judging someone, but you can love your enemy, and seek the good in situations that seem orchestrated to cause you pain or anger. In deciding to love what you hate, you become one less person adding negativity to the universe. On a simple level, loving what you hate can help you enjoy your life more. On a more complex level, loving what you hate sets you free because you disengage yourself from the hatred that can weigh down the soul. Responding with love to people radiating hatred transmutes their negative energy. You also empower yourself by not letting their negativity enter your personal space. Rather than lowering yourself to the level of their hatred, you give the other person an opportunity to rise above their feelings and meet you on the field of love.

Gandhi once said, “Be the change you want to see in the world.” Loving what you hate sends a positive, beautiful energy to people while spreading peace and harmony throughout the planet. Instead of reinforcing hatred, you become an advocate for love. Hatred responds to hate by causing anguish, but hatred cannot help but be transformed in the presence of love.

 

Source: Daily OM

What’s Your Power Color?

What’s Your Power Color?

See which color holds the most powerful energy for you!


Colors carry energy, and certain colors can bring out something in you that makes you truly shine. They can enhance confidence, calm restless energy, empower strength, and so much more. Keep reading to see which color brings out the most powerful traits in YOUR zodiac sign!

Aries color: Red

The color red stirs Aries’ soul and enhances passion, energy, and initiative. It’s the color of excitement and assertion, which supports Aries’ active nature and eagerness for life. Red demands attention — and Aries is a sign that doesn’t like to be ignored. It’s also no surprise that Aries’ ruling planet, Mars, is known as “The Red Planet.” The more shades of red Aries surrounds itself with, the greater their natural powers can be.

Taurus color: Green

Fresh green nurtures Taurus’ spirit and reinforces its connection to nature and growth. Just like the lush pastures the Bull resides in, green represents growth, and Taurus is a sign of absolute progress. The return of green in the springtime — Taurus’ season — further enhances its connection to this sign.

Gemini color: Yellow

Inspiring yellow lifts Gemini’s spirit and triggers curiosity and brilliant thoughts. This inspiring and life-giving color shines through in Gemini’s exciting, upbeat nature. Mimicking the warm Sun, yellow lightens and brightens everything around it. As the color of the mind and the intellect, yellow enhances Gemini’s mental powers and focus.

Cancer color: White and silver

Bright white and silver connect Cancer with its intuition and provide a clean, clear slate. Like the glistening surface of water or the shining face of the Moon, silver and white are colors of intuition and purity. They increase Cancer’s sensitivity and understanding, allowing love to flow at its deepest level.

Leo color: Gold

Glistening gold empowers Leo’s warm heart and strengthens its positive spirit. Shining with royalty and class, gold has always been a symbol of power and prestige. So it’s no wonder Leo — the King of the Jungle — is stirred by this expressive hue. Gold gives Leo the attention it wants, and supports its generous nature and warm, optimistic outlook on life.

Virgo color: Green and brown

Classic, natural brown and green keep Virgo grounded and focused on continuous growth. Brown represents stability, and supports the careful and methodical approach the Virgin takes to life. In nature green is the color of growth, and strengthens Virgo’s lifelong plight toward self-improvement.

Libra color: Pink and blue

Airy pink and light blue help to open Libra’s heart and soften its presence. These pale hues bring a calming and likeable presence to Libra’s personality. Symbolizing a cool, subtle breeze, light blue increases clarity and balance, while pink invokes Libra’s sweet and loving nature.

Scorpio color: Black

Dark and mysterious black keeps Scorpio intensely inquisitive and focused on transformation. Black represents the depths where the Scorpion resides, and strengthens its drive to look below the surface and question everything. In western culture the color black is associated with death and rebirth, enhancing Scorpio’s strength of letting go and its ability to transform itself.

Sagittarius color: Purple

As the color of spirituality and awareness, lush purple pushes Sagittarius’ philosophical mind toward enlightenment and openness. Also a color of abundance, purple encourages Sagittarius’ natural luck and positive nature, and drives it to continuously broaden its horizons.

Capricorn color: Brown and grey

Earthy grey and brown help Capricorn find the strongest and most practical path to take in life. These strong but neutral colors enhance Capricorn’s solidity, reliability, and traditionalism. A combination of extremes — white and black — grey increases the conservative nature of Capricorn and its no-nonsense approach to life. Brown represents stability, and can greatly benefit the Goat’s steadfast determination as it strives to reach its goals.

Aquarius’ color: Blue

Calming blue helps encourage Aquarius’ brilliant ideas and balance its restless energy. Just like the sky and the waters Aquarius is so closely connected to, blue represents vastness and creates a smooth flow of ideas, conversation, and experimentation. Fun fact: Uranus — Aquarius’ ruling planet — is also blue!

Pisces color: Light green

Perfectly pale green brings about healing and renewal and connects Pisces with its subconscious. As the color of life, light green represents renewal and inspiration, encouraging the healing and rejuvenating energies that Pisces is known for.

 

Tarot.com is Part of the Daily Insight Group ©2018

Get A Jump On Tomorrow, Your Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 27

Get A Jump On Tomorrow…..

Your Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 27

by Jennifer Angel  – 

Book an astrological life coaching consultation with Jennifer –

 

The combined energy of the Sun and Mercury sharpens your thought process. Record your thoughts, ideas and concepts.

Aries
Love needs to be passionate for an Aries and can boost your confidence to be yourself and follow your heart’s desire. And right now, don’t be surprised if someone very attractive gets your attention. Those already in a relationship could find themselves feeling renewed love for their partner.

Taurus
Your perseverance will pay dividends this week but to stay on track you will need to get organized. If you have to prepare for an important presentation, postpone, for the time being, the demands of friends and others. And do your own research; it’s your reputation that’s on the line.

Gemini
People know you to be a problem-solver, no matter how complex, you can find a common sense solution. You may be flattered, but it does interfere with your schedule. This week, it may be time to concentrate on your own schedule and productivity.

Cancer
Life is full of challenges and, as difficult as they sometimes are, it’s overcoming them that makes you grow. But you don’t necessarily have to do anything to prove yourself to anyone else. At work, you can listen to others and learn from them, but you don’t have to agree.

Leo
Nothing is impossible if you keep a positive attitude. If you stay optimistic and never lose sight of what you want in life, and also feel worthy of getting it, you will succeed. Set time aside to review this past year and reset your goals for now and long-term.

Virgo
When voicing your opinion about a family matter, don’t be overly assertive. You may need to be the one who initiates a discussion, and makes sure it heads in the right direction, but for everyone to feel that they have been taken into consideration, take a step back.

Libra
Life’s challenges are never-ending and, actually, they keep you trying to be and do your best. But no matter what you say or do, there’s always someone who’ll disagree. Since you have no power over how people react, smiling is sometimes the best way to get out of an awkward situation.

Scorpio
Venus in your sign inspires you to update your image. You may be knowledgeable in your field, but you need to also look the part and exude self-confidence to be noticed. And with a likely discussion around money, you want to feel as powerful and in control as you can be.

Sagittarius
As an independent fire sign you like the freedom to work alone, but you are smart enough to know that it is a team of people that bring a project to completion. Discussions this week can lead you closer to achieving a goal at work. Love and social arrangements are also in the stars; so, don’t get too preoccupied.

Capricorn
Influential people can help both your business and personal matters this month, so get ready to self-promote. Find out who makes the decisions, and seek ways to spend time with them so you can highlight your specific skills and attributes. And don’t underestimate your charm.

Aquarius
This week, don’t be surprised if you do a turn around on something you thought you wanted and now don’t. Give yourself permission to change your mind and not feel guilty about it.

Pisces
A situation at work can come through now, which can also be good for you financially. But with the holidays around the corner, it is wise not to overindulge; in the long run, it pays to be frugal. But if you have cash burning a hole in your pocket, by all means, treat yourself.