Annals Of Assur-Nasir-Pal (Sometimes Called Sardanapalus) Column 1; Assyrian

Concerning Assur-nasir-habal or Assur-nasir-pal (“i.e.”, “Assur preserves the son”) we possess fuller historical records than of any other of the Assyrian monarchs, and among these the following inscription is the most important. From it, and from the inscription upon his statue discovered by Mr. Layard [Footnote: Now in the British Museum.] in the ruins of one of the Nimroud temples, we learn that he was the son of Tuklat-Adar or Tuklat-Ninip, that he reigned over a territory extending from the “Tigris to the Lebanon, and that he brought the great sea and all countries from the sunrise to the sunset under his sway.” These inscriptions are published in the “Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia,” Vol. I, plates 17 to 27, and were partially translated by Professor Oppert, “Histoire des Empires de Chaldee et d’Assyrie,” page 73 and following ““Extrait des Annales de philosophie chretienne”” tom. IX, 1865.

There is considerable difficulty and a consequent divergence of opinion as to the precise date when Assur-nasir-pal ascended the throne. But he most probably reigned from 883 to 858 B.C. It need scarcely be remarked that Assur-nasir-pal is a different person from the well-known Sardanapalus of classic writers, or Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esar-haddon, who reigned from about B.C. 668 to 625.

It will be seen from the inscription that the campaigns of Assur-nasir-pal took place in the mountains of Armenia, in Commagene and the provinces of the Pontus, inhabited by the Moschi [Footnote: The Mesek of Psalm cxx. 5.] and other tribes. He probably advanced into Media and a portion of western Persia. The countries on the banks of the Euphrates submitted to his arms, and in one of his expeditions he vanquished Nabu-bal-iddin, King of Babylon. Westward, he reduced the southern part of Syria, and advanced to the mountain chains of the Amanus and Lebanon, but though he penetrated as far as to Tyre and Sidon and exacted tribute from both as well as from Byblus and Aradus, he did not subdue Phoenicia. The kingdoms of Israel and Judah, under the sway of Ahab and Jehosaphat, were no doubt too powerful, as is evinced by the armies which they must have maintained for their struggle with the Syrians, [Footnote: See 2 Chron. xvii. and following chapters.] for Assur-nasir-pal to have ventured upon attacking them. This feat was reserved for his successors on the throne of Assyria.

The inscription was found in the ruins of the Temple at the foot of the Pyramid at Nimroud (Calach).


To Ninip[1] most powerful hero, great, chief of the gods, warrior, powerful Lord, whose onset in battle has not been opposed, eldest son, crusher of opponents, first-born son of Nukimmut,[2] supporter of the seven,[3] noble ruler, King of the gods the producers, governor, he who rolls along the mass of heaven and earth, opener of canals, treader of the wide earth, the god who in his divinity nourishes heaven and earth, the beneficent, the exalted, the powerful, who has not lessened the glory of his face,[4] head of nations, bestower of sceptres, glorious, over all cities a ruler,[5] valiant, the renown of whose sceptre is not approached, chief of widespread influence, great among the gods, shading from the southern sun, Lord of Lords, whose hand the vault of heaven (and) earth has controlled, a King in battle mighty[6] who has vanquished opposition, victorious, powerful, Lord of water-courses and seas,[7] strong, not yielding, whose onset brings down the green corn, smiting the land of the enemy, like the cutting of reeds, the deity who changes not his purposes, the light of heaven and earth, a bold leader on the waters, destroyer of them that hate (him), a spoiler (and) Lord of the disobedient, dividing enemies, whose name in the speech of the gods no god has ever disregarded, the gatherer of life, the god(?) whose prayers are good, whose abode is in the city of Calah, a great Lord, my Lord–(who am) Assur-nasir-pal, the mighty King, King of multitudes, a Prince unequalled, Lord of all the four countries, powerful over hosts of men, the possession of Bel and Ninip the exalted and Anu and of Dakan,[8] a servant of the great gods in the lofty shrine for great (O Ninip) is thy heart; a worshipper of Bel whose might upon thy great deity is founded, and thou makest righteous his life, valiant, warrior, who in the service of Assur his Lord hath proceeded, and among the Kings of the four regions who has not his fellow, a Prince for admiration, not sparing opponents, mighty leader, who an equal has not, a Prince reducing to order his disobedient ones, who has subdued whole multitudes of men, a strong worker, treading down the heads of his enemies, trampling on all foes, crushing assemblages of rebels, who in the service of the great gods his Lords marched vigorously and the lands of all of them his hand captured, caused the forests of all of them to fall,[9] and received their tribute, taking securities, establishing laws over all lands, when Assur the Lord who proclaims my name and augments my Royalty laid hold upon his invincible power for the forces of my Lordship, for Assur-nasir-pal, glorious Prince, worshipper of the great gods the generous, the great, the powerful, acquirer of cities and forests and the territory of all of them, King of Lords, destroying the wicked, strengthening the peaceful, not sparing opponents, a Prince of firm will(?) one who combats oppression, Lord of all Kings, Lord of Lords, the acknowledged, King of Kings, seated gloriously, the renown of Ninip the warrior, worshipper of the great gods, prolonging the benefits (conferred by) his fathers: a Prince who in the service of Assur and the Sun-god, the gods in whom he trusted, royally marched to turbulent lands, and Kings who had rebelled against him he cut off like grass, all their lands to his feet he subjected, restorer of the worship of the goddesses and that of the great gods, Chief unwavering, who for the guidance of the heads (and) elders of his land is a steadfast guardian, the work of whose hands and the gift of whose finger the great gods of heaven and earth have exalted, and his steps[10] over rulers have they established forever; their power for the preservation of my Royalty have they exercised; the retribution of his power, (and) the approach of His Majesty over Princes of the four regions they have extended: the enemies of Assur in all their country, the upper and the lower I chastised, and tribute and impost upon them I established, capturing the enemies of Assur–mighty King, King of Assyria, son of Tuklat-Adar who all his enemies has scattered; (who) in the dust threw down the corpses of his enemies, the grandson of Bin-nirari, the servant of the great gods, who crucified alive and routed his enemies and subdued them to his yoke, descendant of Assur-dan-il, who the fortresses established (and) the fanes made good. In those days by the decree[11] of the great gods to royalty power supremacy I rose up: I am a King, I am a Lord, I am glorious, I am great, I am mighty, I have arisen, I am Chief, I am a Prince, I am a warrior I am great and I am glorious, Assur-nasir-habal, a mighty King of Assyria, proclaimer of the Moon-god, worshipper of Anu, exalter of Yav,[12] suppliant of the gods am I, servant unyielding, subduing the land of his foeman, a King mighty in battle, destroyer of cities and forests, Chief over opponents, King of the four regions, expeller of his foes, prostrating all his enemies, Prince of a multitude of lands of all Kings Even of all, a Prince subduing those disobedient to him, who is ruling all the multitudes of men. These aspirations to the face of the great gods have gone up; on my destiny steadfastly have they determined; at the wishes of my heart and the uplifting of my hand, Istar, exalted Lady, hath favored me in my intentions, and to the conduct of (my) battles and warfare hath applied her heart. In those days I Assur-nasir-pal, glorious Prince, worshipper of the great gods the wishes of whose heart Bel will cause him to attain, and who has conquered all Kings who disobey him, and by his hand capturing his enemies, who in difficult places has beaten down assemblages of rebels; when Assur, mighty Lord, proclaimer of my name aggrandizer of my royalty over the Kings of the four regions, bountifully hath added his invincible power to the forces of my government, putting me in possession of lands, and mighty forests for exploration hath he given and urgently impelled me–by the might of Assur my Lord, perplexed paths, difficult mountains by the impetuosity of my hosts I traversed, and an equal there was not. In the beginning of my reign (and) in my first campaign when the Sun-god guider of the lands threw over me his beneficent protection[13] on the throne of my dominion I firmly seated myself; a sceptre the dread of man into my hands I took; my chariots (and) armies I collected; rugged paths, difficult mountains, which for the passage of chariots and armies was not suited I passed, and to the land of Nairi[14] I went: Libie, their capital city, the cities Zurra and Abuqu Arura Arubie, situated within the limits of the land of Aruni and Etini, fortified cities, I took, their fighting-men in numbers I slew; their spoil, their wealth, their cattle I spoiled; their soldiers were discouraged; they took possession of a difficult mountain, a mountain exceedingly difficult; after them I did not proceed, for it was a mountain ascending up like lofty points of iron, and the beautiful birds of heaven had not reached up into it: like nests of the young birds in the midst of the mountain their defence they placed, into which none of the Kings my fathers had ever penetrated: in three days successfully on one large mountain, his courage vanquished opposition: along the feet of that mountain I crept and hid: their nests, their tents, I broke up; 200 of their warriors with weapons I destroyed; their spoil in abundance like the young of sheep I carried off; their corpses like rubbish on the mountains I heaped up; their relics in tangled hollows of the mountains I consumed; their cities I overthrew, I demolished, in fire I burned: from the land of Nummi to the land of Kirruri I came down; the tribute of Kirruri of the territory of Zimizi, Zimira, Ulmanya, Adavas, Kargai, Harmasai, horses,[15] (fish (?), oxen, horned sheep in numbers, copper, as their tribute I received: an officer to guard boundaries[16] over them I placed.

While in the land of Kirruri they detained me, the fear of Assur my Lord overwhelmed the lands of Gilzanai and Khubuskai; horses, silver gold, tin, copper, “kams” of copper as their tribute they brought to me. From the land of Kirruri I withdrew; to a territory close by the town Khulun in Gilhi[17] Bitani I passed: the cities of Khatu, Khalaru, Nistun, Irbidi, Mitkie, Arzanie, Zila, Khalue, cities of Gilhi situated in the environs of Uzie and Arue and Arardi powerful lands, I occupied: their soldiers in numbers I slew; their spoil, their riches I carried off; their soldiers were discouraged; the summits projecting over against the city of Nistun which were menacing like the storms of heaven, I captured; into which no one among the Princes my sires had ever penetrated; my soldiers like birds (of prey) rushed upon them; 260 of their warriors by the sword I smote down; their heads cut off in heaps I arranged; the rest of them like birds in a nest, in the rocks of the mountains nestled; their spoil, their riches from the midst of the mountains I brought down; cities which were in the midst of vast forests situated I overthrew, destroyed, burned in fire; the rebellious soldiers fled from before my arms; they came down; my yoke they received; impost tribute and a Viceroy I set over them.

Bubu son of Bubua son of the Prefect of Nistun in the city of Arbela I flayed; his skin I stretched in contempt upon the wall. At that time an image of my person I made; a history of my supremacy upon it I wrote, and (on) a mountain of the land of Ikin(?) in the city of Assur-nasir-pal at the foot I erected (it). In my own eponym in the month of July[18] and the 24th day (probably B.C. 882), in honor of Assur and Istar the great gods my Lords, I quitted the city of Nineveh: to cities situated below Nipur and Pazate powerful countries I proceeded; Atkun, Nithu, Pilazi and 20 other cities in their environs I captured; many of their soldiers I slew; their spoil, their riches I carried off; the cities I burned with fire; the rebel soldiers fled from before my arms, submitted, and took my yoke; I left them in possession of their land.

From the cities below Nipur and Pazate I withdrew; the Tigris I passed; to the land of Commagene I approached; the tribute of Commagene and of the Moschi[19] in “kams” of copper, sheep and goats I received; while in Commagene I was stationed, they brought me intelligence that the city Suri in Bit-Khalupe had revolted. The people of Hamath had slain their governor Ahiyababa the son of Lamamana[20] they brought from Bit-Adini and made him their King. By help of Assur and Yav the great gods who aggrandize my royalty, chariots, (and) an army, I collected: the banks of the Chaboras[21] I occupied; in my passage tribute in abundance from Salman-haman-ilin of the city of Sadi-kannai and of Il-yav of the city of Sunai,[22] silver, gold, tin, “kam” of copper, vestments of wool, vestments of linen I received. To Suri which is in Bit-Halupe I drew near; the fear of the approach of Assur my Lord overwhelmed them; the great men and the multitudes of the city, for the saving of their lives, coming up after me,[23] submitted to my yoke; some slain, some living, some tongueless I made: Ahiyababa son of Lamamana whom from Bit-Adini they had fetched, I captured; in the valor of my heart and the steadfastness of my soldiers I besieged the city; the soldiers, rebels all, were taken prisoners; the nobles to the principal palace of his land I caused to send; his silver, his gold, his treasure, his riches, copper (?)tin, “kams, tabhani, hariati” of copper, choice copper in abundance, alabaster and iron-stone of large size the treasures of his harem, his daughters and the wives of the rebels with their treasures, and the gods with their treasures, precious stones of the land of …, his swift chariot, his horses, the harness, his chariot-yoke, trappings for horses, coverings for men, vestments of wool, vestments of linen, handsome altars of cedar, handsome …, bowls of cedar-wood beautiful black coverings, beautiful purple coverings, carpets, his oxen, his sheep, his abundant spoil, which like the stars of heaven could not be reckoned, I carried off; Aziel as my lieutenant over them I placed; a trophy along the length of the great gate I erected: the rebellious nobles who had revolted against me and whose skins I had stripped off, I made into a trophy: some in the middle of the pile I left to decay; some on the top of the pile on stakes I impaled; some by the side of the pile I placed in order on stakes; many within view of my land I flayed; their skins on the walls I arranged; of the officers of the King’s officer, rebels, the limbs I cut off; I brought Ahiyababa to Nineveh; I flayed[24] him and fastened his skin to the wall; laws and edicts over Lakie I established. While I was staying in Suri the tribute of the Princes of Lakie throughout the whole of them, silver, gold, tin, copper, “kam” of copper, oxen, sheep, vestments of wool and linen, as tribute and gift, I defined and imposed upon them. In those days, the tribute of Khayani of the city of Hindanai, silver, gold, tin, copper, amu-stone, alabaster blocks, beautiful black (and) lustrous coverings I received as tribute from him.

In those days an enlarged image of my Royalty I made; edicts and decrees upon it I wrote; in the midst of his palace I put it up; of stone my tablets I made; the decrees of my throne upon it I wrote; in the great gate I fixed them, in the date of this year which takes its name from me, in honor of Assur my Lord and Ninip who uplifts my feet.[25]

Whereas in the times of the Kings my fathers no man of Suhi to Assyria had ever come, Il-bani Prince of Suhi together with his soldiers (and) his son, silver, gold as his tribute to Nineveh in abundance brought: in my own eponym[26] at the city of Nineveh I stayed: news they brought me that men of the land of Assyria, (and) Hulai the governor of their city which Shalmaneser King of Assyria my predecessor to the city of Hasiluha had united, had revolted: Dandamusa[27] a city of my dominion marched out to subdue (them); in honor of Assur, the Sun-god and Yav, the gods in whom I trust, my chariots and army I collected at the head of the river Zupnat, the place of an image which Tiglath-Pileser and Tiglath-Adar, Kings of Assyria my fathers had raised; an image of My Majesty I constructed and put up with theirs.

In those days I renewed the tribute of the land of Izala, oxen, sheep, goats: to the land of Kasyari[28] I proceeded, and to Kinabu the fortified city of the province of Hulai. I drew near; with the impetuosity of my formidable attack I besieged and took the town; 600 of their fighting men with (my) arms I destroyed; 3,000 of their captives I consigned to the flames; as hostages I left not one of them alive; Hulai the governor of their town I captured by (my) hand alive; their corpses into piles I built; their boys and maidens I dishonored; Hulai the governor of their city I flayed: his skin on the walls of Damdamusa I placed in contempt; the city I overthrew demolished, burned with fire; in the city of Mariru within their territory I took; 50 warrior fighting men by (my) weapons I destroyed; 200 of their captives in the flame I burned; the soldiers of the land of Nirbi I slew in fight in the desert; their spoil, their oxen, their sheep, I brought away; Nirbu which is at the foot of mount Ukhira I boldly took; I then passed over to Tila their fortified city; from Kinabu I withdrew; to Tila I drew near; a strong city with three forts facing each other: the soldiers to their strong forts and numerous army trusted and would not submit; my yoke they would not accept; (then,) with onset and attack I besieged the city; their fighting men with my weapons I destroyed; of their spoil, their riches, oxen and sheep, I made plunder; much booty I burned with fire; many soldiers I captured alive; of some I chopped off the hands and feet; of others the noses and ears I cut off; of many soldiers I destroyed the eyes;[29] one pile of bodies while yet alive, and one of heads I reared up on the heights within their town; their heads in the midst I hoisted; their boys

(“Continued on Column II.”)

[Footnote 1: Ninip was one of the great gods of the Assyrian Pantheon, often joined with Assur as one of the special deities invoked by the Assyrian kings at the opening of their inscriptions. His name is also
written under the symbol used for iron (“parzii”). Thus in later times the planets were connected with special metals.]–[Footnote 2: A goddess, called also Nuha, and the mother of Nebo as well as of Ninip. Fox Talbot (Gloss. 158) compares “nu (= ‘al’) kimmut” with the “al-gum” of Prov. xxx. 31, i.e., irresistible.”]–[Footnote 3: Planets. Or, “warrior among spirits.” I mention this rendering as the suggestion of Mr. G. Smith, though I prefer that given above.]–[Footnote 4: Literally, “horn.” Cf. Job xvi. 15.]–[Footnote 5: Tigallu. Menant renders this sentence “La massue pour regner sur les villes.”]–[Footnote 6: Cf. Ps. xxiv. 8.]–[Footnote 7: Cf. Ps. xcv. 4; civ. 6; cvii. 35.]–[Footnote 8: Probably the Dagon of Scripture.]–[Footnote 9: Compare the boast in Isaiah xxxvii. 24, “I cut down the tall cedars.”]—[Footnote 10: Goings. Cf. Ps. xl. 2, “He hath established my goings.”]–[Footnote 11: Mouth.]–[Footnote 12: The god Yav may be the Yaveh of the Moabite stone.]–[Footnote 13: Or, shade. This may refer to the eclipse of July 13, 885 B.C.]–[Footnote 14: A federation of States north and northeast of Assyria at the head of the Euphrates. In Tig. iv. 7, 33 of their kings are mentioned.]–[Footnote 15: Literally, “animals of the East.” This looks as if the Assyrians obtained the horse from some Eastern land.]–[Footnote 16: Or, a viceroy.]–[Footnote 17: A mountainous country near the upper Tigris, possibly Kurdistan.]–[Footnote 18: The Hebrew month Ab.]–[Footnote 19: In the text, “Kummuhi” and “Muski.”]–[Footnote 20: Dr. Hincks was of opinion that Lamaman meant “nobody”; and that “Son of Lamaman” was a delicate way of indicating a man was of low origin. Norr. Dict., p. 690.]–[Footnote 21: Assyrian, “Khabur.” This may be the Chebar mentioned in the Prophet Ezekiel. Schultens, however (in his Geogr.), mentions another Chaboras which flows into the Tigris.]–[Footnote 22: In the north of Mesopotamia.]–[Footnote 23: Literally, to my back.]–[Footnote 24: Compare 2 Mace. vii. 7 for a somewhat similar proceeding. The custom may also be alluded to in Mic. iii. 3.]–[Footnote 25: Compare Ps. lxxiv. 3, “Lift up thy feet,” etc.]–[Footnote 26: About 882 B.C.]–[Footnote 27: Near the modern Diarbekir, on the road to the sources of the Supnat.]–[Footnote 28: In Armenia near the sources of the Tigris.]–[Footnote 29: Thus in 2 Kings xxv. 7 we read that the Chaldees “put out the eyes of Zedekiah.” Samson (Judges xvi. 21) was similarly treated. And the custom may be alluded to in Num. xvi. 14. It may be well to compare the treatment of children as recorded in Joshua xi. 14 with what we read in line 118. Horrible and ferocious as was the treatment of the conquered by the Israelites, they at least on that occasion were content with enslaving the children.]

SOURCE: Babylonian and Assyrian Literature (1901); Translated, with notes, BY: REV. J.M. RODWELL, M.A.


SENNACHERIB (705-681 B.C.); Assyrian (Part 2)

Tyre and Jerusalem had hitherto formed the extreme outwork of the Syrian states; they were the only remaining barrier which separated the empires of Egypt and Assyria, and it was to the interest of the Pharaoh to purchase their alliance and increase their strength by every means in his power. Negotiations must have been going on for some time between the three powers, but up to the time of the death of Sargon and the return of Merodach-baladan to Babylon their results had been unimportant, and it was possible that the disasters which had befallen the Kalda would tend to cool the ardour of the allies. An unforeseen circumstance opportunely rekindled their zeal, and determined them to try their fortune. The inhabitants of Ekron, dissatisfied with Padi, the chief whom the Assyrians had set over them, seized his person and sent him in chains to Hezekiah. [The name of the city, written Amgarruna, is really Akkaron-Ekron.]

To accept the present was equivalent to open rebellion, and a declaration of war against the power of the suzerain. Isaiah, as usual, wished Judah to rely on Jahveh alone, and preached against alliance with the Babylonians, for he foresaw that success would merely result in substituting the Kalda for the Ninevite monarch, and in aggravating the condition of Judah. “All that is in thine house,” he said to Hezekiah, “and that which thy fathers have laid up in store unto this day, shall be carried to Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord. And of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the King of Babylon.” Hezekiah did not pay much heed to the prediction, for, he reflected, “peace and truth shall be in my days,” and the future troubled him little. [2 Kings xx. 16-19.] When the overthrow of Merodach-baladan had taken place, the prophet still more earnestly urged the people not to incur the vengeance of Assyria without other help than that of Tyre or Ethiopia, and Eliakim, son of Hilkiah, spoke in the same strain; but Shebna, the prefect of the palace, declaimed against this advice, and the latter’s counsel prevailed with his master. [This follows from the terms in which the prophet compares the two men (Isa. xxii. 15-25).]

Hezekiah agreed to accept the sovereignty over Ekron which its inhabitants offered to him, but a remnant of prudence kept him from putting Padi to death, and he contented himself with casting him into prison. Isaiah, though temporarily out of favour with the king, ceased not to proclaim aloud in all quarters the will of the Almighty. “Woe to the rebellious children, saith the Lord, that take counsel, but not of Me; and that cover with a covering (form alliances), but not of My spirit, that they may add sin to sin: that walk to go down into Egypt, and have not asked at My mouth, to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt! Therefore shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and the trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion. When your princes shall be at Tanis, and your messengers shall come to Heracleopolis, [Heb. Hanes.–Tr.] you shall all be ashamed of a people that cannot profit you…. For Egypt helpeth in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I called her Rahab that sitteth still.”[Isa. xxx. 1-5, 7. In verses 4, 5, the original text employs the third person; I have restored the second person, to avoid confusion.] He returned, unwearied and with varying imagery, to his theme, contrasting the uncertainty and frailty of the expedients of worldly wisdom urged by the military party, with the steadfast will of Jahveh and the irresistible authority with which He invests His faithful servants. “The Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses flesh, and not spirit; and when the Lord shall stretch out His hand, both he that helpeth shall stumble, and he that is holpen shall fall, and they shall all fail together. For thus saith the Lord unto me, Like as when the lion growleth, and the young lion over his prey, if a multitude of shepherds be called forth against him, he will not be dismayed at their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the Lord of hosts come down to fight upon Mount Zion, and upon the hill thereof. As birds flying, so will the Lord of hosts protect Jerusalem: He will protect and deliver it. Turn ye unto Him from whom ye have deeply revolted, O children of Israel.” [Isa. xxxi. 3-6.]

No one, however, gave heed to his warnings, either king or people; but the example of Phoenicia soon proved that he was right. When Sennacherib bestirred himself, in the spring of 702 B.C., either the Ethiopians were not ready, or they dared not advance to encounter him in Coele-Syria, and they left Elulai to get out of his difficulties as best he might. He had no army to risk in a pitched battle; but fondly imagined that his cities, long since fortified, and protected on the east by the range of Lebanon, would offer a resistance sufficiently stubborn to wear out the patience of his assailant. The Assyrians, however, disconcerted his plans. Instead of advancing against him by the pass of Nahr-el-Kebir, according to their usual custom, they attacked him in flank, descending into the very midst of his positions by the “col” of Legnia or one of the neighbouring passes. [This follows from the very order in which the cities were taken in the course of this campaign.] They captured in succession the two Sidons, Bit-ziti, Sarepta, Mahalliba, Ushu, Akzib, and Acco: Elulai, reduced to the possession of the island of Tyre alone, retreated to one of his colonies in Cyprus, where he died some years later, without having set foot again on the continent. All his former possessions on the mainland were given to a certain Eth-baal, who chose Sidon for his seat of government, and Tyre lost by this one skirmish the rank of metropolis which she had enjoyed for centuries.[The Assyrian text gives for the name of the King of Sidon a shortened form Tu-baal instead of Eth-baal, paralleled by Lulia for Elulai.]

This summary punishment decided all the Syrian princes who were not compromised beyond hope of pardon to humble themselves before the suzerain. Menahem of Samsi-muruna, [Several of the early Assyriologists read Usi-muruna, and identified the city bearing this name with Samaria. The discovery of the reading Samsi-muruna on a fragment of the time of Assur-bani-pal no longer permits of this identification, and obliges us to look for the city in Phoenicia.] Abdiliti of Arvad, Uru-malik of Byblos, Puduilu of Amnion, Chemosh-nadab of Moab, Malik-rammu of Edom, Mitinti of Ashdod, all brought their tribute in person to the Assyrian camp before Ushu: Zedekiah of Ashkelon and Hezekiah of Judah alone persisted in their hostility. Egypt had at length been moved by the misfortunes of her allies, and the Ethiopian troops had advanced to the seat of war, but they did not arrive in time to save Zedekiah: Sennacherib razed to the ground all his strongholds one after another, Beth-dagon, Joppa, Bene-berak, and Hazor, [These are the cities attributed to the tribes of Dan and Judah in Josh. xv. 25, 41; xix. 45. Beth-dagon is now Bet-Dejan; Azuru is Yazur, to the south-east of Joppa; Beni-barak is Ibn-Abrak, to the north-east of the same town.]

took him prisoner at Ascalon, and sent him with his family to Assyria, setting up Sharludari, son of Bukibti, in his stead. Sennacherib then turned against Ekron, and was about to begin the siege of the city, when the long-expected Egyptians at length made their appearance. Shabitoku did not command them in person, but he had sent his best troops–the contingents furnished by the petty kings of the Delta, and the sheikhs of the Sinaitic peninsula, who were vassals of Egypt. The encounter took place near Altaku, [Altaku is certainly Eltekeh of Dan (Josh. xix. 44), as was seen from the outset; the site, however, of Eltekeh cannot be fixed with any certainty. It has been located at Bet-Lukkieh, in the mountainous country north-west of Jerusalem, but this position in no way corresponds to the requirements of the Assyrian text, according to which the battle took place on a plain large enough for the evolutions of the Egyptian chariots, and situated between the group of towns formed by Beth-dagon, Joppa, Beni-barak, and Hazor, which Sennacherib had just captured, and the cities of Ekrbn, Timnath, and Eltekeh, which he took directly after his victory: a suitable locality must be looked for in the vicinity of Ramleh or Zernuka.]and on this occasion again, as at Raphia, the scientific tactics of the Assyrians prevailed over the stereotyped organisation of Pharaoh’s army: the Ethiopian generals left some of their chariots in the hands of the conqueror, and retreated with the remnants of their force beyond the Isthmus. Altaku capitulated, an example followed by the neighbouring fortress of Timnath, and subsequently by Ekron itself, all three being made to feel Sennacherib’s vengeance. “The nobles and chiefs who had offended, I slew,” he remarks, “and set up their corpses on stakes in a circle round the city; those of the inhabitants who had offended and committed crimes, I took them prisoners, and for the rest who had neither offended nor transgressed, I pardoned them.”

We may here pause to inquire how Hezekiah was occupied while his fate was being decided on the field of Altaku. He was fortifying Jerusalem, and storing within it munitions of War, and enrolling Jewish soldiers and mercenary troops from the Arab tribes of the desert. He had suddenly become aware that large portions of the wall of the city of David had crumbled away, and he set about demolishing the neighbouring houses to obtain materials for repairing these breaches: he hastily strengthened the weak points in his fortifications, stopped up the springs which flowed into the Gibon, and cut off the brook itself, constructing a reservoir between the inner and outer city walls to store up the waters of the ancient pool. These alterations[Isa. xxii. 8-11.] rendered the city, which from its natural position was well defended, so impregnable that Sennacherib decided not to attack it until the rest of the kingdom had been subjugated: with this object in view he pitched his camp before Lachish, whence he could keep a watch over the main routes from Egypt where they crossed the frontier, and then scattered his forces over the land of Judah, delivering it up to pillage in a systematic manner. He took forty-six walled towns, and numberless strongholds and villages, demolishing the walls and leading into captivity 200,150 persons of all ages and conditions, together with their household goods, their horses, asses, mules, camels, oxen, and sheep; [An allusion to the sojourn of Sennacherib near Lachish is found in 2 Kings xviii. 14-17; xix. 8, and in Isa. xxxvi. 2; xxxvii. 8] it was a war as disastrous in its effects as that which terminated in the fall of Samaria, or which led to the final captivity in Babylon. [It seems that the Jewish historian Demetrios considered the captivities under Nebuchadrezzar and Sennacherib to be on the same footing.]

SOURCE: History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 8 (of 12)

By G. MASPERO, Honorable Doctor of Civil Laws, and Fellow of Queen’s College, Oxford; Member of the Institute and Professor at the College of France; Edited by A. H. SAYCE, Professor of Assyriology, Oxford; Translated by M. L. McCLURE, Member of the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund

SENNACHERIB (705-681 B.C.) (Part3); Assyrian

SENNACHERIB (705-681 B.C.); Assyrian (Part 1)

World Headline News: 12-09-2018


Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer says Merkel is safe, for now; In an exclusive interview with DW, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, the new leader of Germany’s Christian Democrats (CDU), has said that she wants Angela Merkel to see out her remaining three years as chancellor. The new head of Germany’s Christian Democrats (CDU) Annegret Kramp-Karrenbau spoke to DW shortly after the conclusion of the party conference. DW asked her if she still thinks that Merkel will remain in office for the remaining three years of her term. On becoming chancellor: Kramp-Karrenbauer said: “We have a federal government that has been elected for this legislative period. Angela Merkel has said she’s available to see out the legislative period. And the party conference yesterday showed very clearly that that’s what members wish — and it is also my personal wish. “And I also see it as my task as the leader of the ruling party to ensure that this government has the stability it needs to fulfil its electoral mandate.”

Nearly 1,400 arrests in French ‘yellow vest’ protests as government offers dialogue; Some 125,000 people across France donned yellow safety jackets to rally against President Emmanuel Macron and the high cost of living. In Paris, armored vehicles and thousands of police contained the demonstrators. More than a thousand people were arrested across France on Saturday as police clashed with “yellow vest” demonstrators in the fourth week of anti-government protests.
Some 125,000 people took to the streets across the country, officials said, with around 10,000 gathering in Paris. Protests in several areas of Paris saw police use tear gas and water cannons against demonstrators. Some protesters set fire to cars and smashed windows. French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner said 1,385 people had been arrested.

Belgian PM reshuffles cabinet after right-wing party quits over UN migration pact; Prime Minister Charles Michel stood firm against calls from a coalition partner to quit the international migration pact. He now faces the delicate task of reshuffling his cabinet along linguistic lines.Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel has vowed to continue his administration as a minority government after the largest party in his coalition quit over his intention to sign the United Nations’ controversial migration pact. The leader of the Flemish-speaking N-VA party, Bart De Wever, announced his party’s withdrawal late on Saturday after Michel, a French-speaking liberal, said: “I stand by my word, I will leave for Marrakesh.” World leaders are to meet in the Moroccan city next week to sign the UN migration pact, which has elicited a strong backlash from right-wing parties in many countries. Conservative governments in Australia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic have withdrawn their support for the deal, which sets out non-binding measures for regulating global migration. Michel fended off N-VA pressure last week when a majority in the Belgian parliament voted in favor of maintaining Belgium’s support for the agreement. With N-VA’s departure, Michel will need to reshuffle his cabinet to ensure it conforms with a legal statute that requires an equal number of French- and Dutch-speaking ministers. His French-speaking liberal MR and the Flemish-speaking center-right CD&V and Open VLD parties will remain in the coalition. The next federal election is scheduled for May.

Brazil’s Odebrecht cuts deal with Peru to name bribed officials; Four former presidents and the opposition leader are currently under investigation in the Odebrecht graft scandal. The deal commits the construction giant to provide information about bribes it paid to officials. Peruvian authorities have reached a deal with Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht’s Peruvian unit that will allow the scandal-tainted firm to operate in Peru in exchange for fines and divulging information about officials it bribed, local media and Reuters reported on Saturday. Odebrecht has been at the center of a major graft scandal after it admitted to US, Brazilian and Swiss prosecutors in 2016 of paying nearly $800 million (€ 703 million) in bribes to politicians in a dozen Latin American countries, including Peru. Peruvian anti-graft prosecutors are currently investigating former presidents Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006), Alan García (1985-1990, 2006-2011), Ollanta Humala (2011-2016) and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016-2018), in addition to the former presidential candidate and opposition leader Keiko Fujimori, who is in prison. The internet portal El Comercio reported that the agreement between prosecutors and Odebrecht includes a commitment for the firm to provide information on bribes it paid to Peruvian officials.

Frans Timmermans elected European socialists’ lead candidate for 2019 vote; The European Commission vice president and former Dutch foreign minister Frans Timmermans will lead the Party of European Socialists (PES) in the 2019 European elections. He was the only candidate on the ballot. European socialist parties have approved Frans Timmermans of the Netherlands to lead them in May elections and to succeed Jean-Claude Juncker as head of the European Commission. Juncker is due to step down in mid-2019. Timmermans, who currently serves as Juncker’s deputy, won the election at the 11th congress for Europe’s alliance of socialist parties in Lisbon on Saturday after his only rival, Slovakia’s Maros Sefcoviv, dropped her candidacy in November. The 57-year-old has been at the forefront of the EU’s standoff with Poland’s right-wing government over its attempts to undermine the rule of law. “I am aware of the burden on my shoulders,” Timmermans said in a speech to delegates in Lisbon. “But how can I fail with a family like this behind me.” Socialist parties have suffered major electoral defeats across the continent in recent years amid a surge in support for anti-establishment and nationalist parties.

Armenian PM seeks to bolster authority in early parliamentary election; Acting Prime Minister Nikol Pashinian wants to weaken his predecessor’s party in the parliament and cement his leadership. He took over as prime minister in May after weeks of leading anti-corruption protests. Armenians are voting in an early parliamentary election on Sunday after acting Prime Minister Nikol Pashinian dissolved parliament in October to shore up his authority. Pashinian, a former journalist, is hoping the My Step Alliance, which includes his Civil Contract Party, will achieve a parliamentary majority ahead of the former ruling Republican Party. Polls show that the alliance is on course to easily win a majority. “We set big and difficult goals and we will achieve them, because we are a powerful, victorious free and happy nation,” he said at a recent campaign rally.

Hungarian workers protest ‘slave law’ overtime rules; Hungarians have taken to the streets to protest against labor law changes that would allow employers to demand up to 400 hours overtime per year. The government says it needs greater worker flexibility.Thousands of workers demonstrated in Budapest on Saturday, objecting to a change in the labor code proposed by Prime Minister Victor Orban’s right-wing Fidesz party. A draft bill proposed by Fidesz would see a rise in the amount of overtime that employers can demand from workers, along with an extended time period for settling compensation. Union leaders claim that the so-called “slave law” proposals underline the intention of Orban’s government to increase corporate profits at the expense of workers. Several thousand people protested in front of the Hungarian parliament building to show their opposition. “In Hungary, we carry the largest burden on our back and, in return, we get the lowest wage in Europe,” Laszlo Kordas, president of the Hungarian Trade Union Confederation, told protesters.

FRANCE (France24)

‘Yellow Vest’ protests: Nearly 1,400 detained in new day of unrest in France; Businesses, museums and other attractions in the French capital had shuttered on Saturday in anticipation of the violent new clashes during the critical Christmas shopping season. French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner said 125,000 demonstrators had taken to the streets across the country, including 10,000 in Paris. Paris and other French cities including Bordeaux, Lyon and Toulouse saw significant clashes between protesters and police. About 120 protesters and 20 law enforcement officials were injured nationwide, the interior minister said. Nearly 1,400 people were arrested. French PM Edouard Philippe called for dialogue and said President Emmanuel Macron would soon be proposing measures to “nourish” that dialogue and rebuild national unity.

‘Green vests’: Paris climate marchers spot overlap with ‘yellow’ comrades; An effort to raise the alarm about “the social and climatic emergency”, the march coincided with the United Nations’ COP24 climate conference taking place in the Polish city of Katowice. It was organised by environmental activist groups including Alternatiba and Les Amis de la Terre (Friends of the Earth). Similar marches were slated for more than 120 cities in France including Marseille, Lyon and Bordeaux on Saturday, alongside others around the world. The Paris edition of the march saw its route modified at the last minute in order to avoid potential spillover from the Yellow Vest protests that have had the city on tenterhooks for a fourth consecutive Saturday, but organisers rejected authorities’ entreaties to postpone to event. Demonstrators were initially meant to set off from Trocadéro to the Champ-de-Mars, in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower in the west of the city, but the procession was shifted eastward instead. The climate protesters marched from the Place de la Nation to the Place de la République, where speeches and a concert were slated to conclude the proceedings. Organisers said 25,000 people had arrived on the Place de la République by 4pm.

Yemen’s Houthis say port city of Hodeida should be neutral; The Houthi group control major population centres in Yemen, including the capital Sana’a and the port of Hodeida on the Red Sea. The Houthi negotiator, Mohammed Abdusalam, also told Reuters his group was open to the possibiliy of giving the United Nations a role at Sana’a airport as part of an effort to get it reopened.


Protestors call for more effort at COP24; Thousands of protestors have marched through the Polish city of Katowice, where the UN climate conference is taking place, to demand countries do more to fight global warming. People came from as far afield as India and the United States to protest. Some held signs with a picture of a clock and shouted “time is short” and “save the Earth.” Delegates at the COP24 conference are wrangling over rules to ensure the 2015 Paris climate accord is implemented. They are struggling to agree on how to finance efforts by developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris agreement is a framework to address global warming beyond 2020. It calls for all countries to strive to limit the rise in average global temperature to less than 1.5 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level. But a recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said the targets countries have set are not enough to meet that goal. An Austrian woman in her 20s said she came to protest to tell the delegates how urgent the situation is, and to urge them to speed up the negotiations. Some protestors carried a large effigy of Brazil’s President-elect, Jair Bolsonaro, who has threatened to roll back conservation efforts. The American woman who made the effigy said Bolsonaro is a threat to efforts against global warming.

Yemen port, airport on peace talks agenda; Peace talks aimed at ending the civil war in Yemen continue in Sweden. One of the main focuses is the reopening of an airport in the capital, Sanaa. Delegates from the Yemeni government and rebel forces are sitting down for UN-mediated talks that began on Thursday. On Saturday, the two sides were unable to bridge their differences over the airport. Houthi rebels supported by Iran are demanding it be fully reopened. But government delegates say it should reopen only to domestic flights, citing concerns about the possibility of weapons flooding into the country. The government, backed by a Saudi-led coalition, controls the air space and closed the airport to passenger planes. Another focus of the talks is a proposal to put the port city of Hodeidah under the temporary supervision of the United Nations. Government forces and rebels are engaged in fierce fighting at the port, which is the country’s main entry point for food aid. The civil war has been raging for more than 3-and-a-half years. It has been called the world’s worst humanitarian crisis. The lack of access to food and other relief supplies has been blamed for the deaths of tens of thousands of children.

China lodges protest over arrest of Huawei CFO; China’s Foreign Ministry says it has lodged a protest with the Canadian embassy over the detention of a senior executive of Huawei Technologies. The ministry says Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng summoned the Canadian Ambassador to China, John McCallum, on Saturday over the arrest of Huawei’s Chief Financial Officer, Meng Wanzhou. On December 1st, Meng was arrested at an airport in Canada, at the request of the United States. Le said the arrest violates the Chinese national’s rights and is “extremely nasty.” He urged the Canadian side to release Meng immediately, and to protect her lawful and legitimate rights. Le warned that Canada will have to accept responsibility for any consequences that result, if Meng is not released. The US alleges that Huawei used a Hong Kong shell company to sell equipment to Iran, in violation of the US’s sanctions against Tehran. At Friday’s court hearing, a Canadian prosecutor said Meng should be held until she is extradited to the US because she poses a flight risk. Meng’s lawyer sought bail. The lawyer told the court that she will not flee overseas. The hearing will resume on Monday.

UNSC gives up on N.Korea human rights meeting; The UN Security Council is giving up on holding an annual meeting on human rights in North Korea by the end of the year, as it failed to get enough support. Support from at least 9 Security Council member countries is needed for such a meeting. Diplomatic sources say the US got support from only 8 countries, including Britain, France and Peru. China and Russia oppose discussing human rights in North Korea at the Security Council. Bolivia and Kazakhstan also opposed the meeting. Three African countries appeared set to oppose or abstain. The meeting has been held every December since 2014 in response to a proposal by the United States. This year’s meeting was scheduled for Monday next week. Past meetings have taken up the issue of North Korea’s abductions of Japanese citizens. Observers say the US and Japan are likely to have trouble getting support to deal with human rights in North Korea.

Malaysian Muslims rally to defend privileges; Tens of thousands of Malaysian Muslims have taken to the streets in Kuala Lumpur to defend privileges that have long been enjoyed by ethnic Malays. The protest took place on Saturday amid speculation that Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad might review a preferential program that gives Malays privileges in jobs, education, and other areas. At the UN General Assembly in September, Mahathir expressed his intention to ratify the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, or ICERD. But this spurred a backlash from opposition parties that have many Malay supporters. They say the ratification of ICERD will lead to a review of the preferential program. Local police say more than 50,000 people took part in the Saturday rally. It was organized by opposition parties including the United Malays National Organization. Demonstrators marched through the city center while shouting their opposition. Some held placards saying Malaysian Muslims will unite to fight. Mahathir returned to power this year with strong support from voters of Chinese and Indian descent. Observers say Mahathir apparently meant to quell complaints of the non-Malays by ratifying ICERD. But they say it may be difficult to abandon the preferential treatment as opposition remains strong.