Napoleonic Wars: Minor States

Most know of the major states that warred during this period (France, Austrian, Prussia, Russia, England etc.) but their ranks were also filled from a multitude of smaller states.

Principalities of Anhalt (Bernburg, Dessau, Kӧthen)

The first standing troops of these principalities was the Jäger-Corps raised in 1795. From 1807-1813 the three states together provided one infantry battalion (1st Battalion, 5th Regiment of the Confederation of the Rhine). In 1813 Napoleon demanded that a regiment of Chasseurs à Cheval also be raised.

Battle History: 1807—in Prussia with the French at the siege of Glogau; 1809-1811—Spain as part of the German Division; 1812—Russia as part of the 1st Brigade of the ‘Division Princiere’; 1813 (Infantry)—besieged Danzig; Chasseurs à Cheval—captured by the Allies almost as soon as they took the field.

Grand Duchy of Baden

Joined the Confederation of the Rhine July 1806. In 1790 fielded a Leib-regiment, a Füsillier-Bataillon ‘Erbprinz’, and a Leib-grenadier Battalion. During 1806-1815 they formed four Line regiments the 1st (Leib-regiment) 2nd (Erbgrossherzog) 3rd (Graf Wilhelm von Hochberg) 4th (vacant), a Jäger-Batailion, a Foot Artillery Barttery, a Horse Artillery Battery. Cavalry was a Garde du Corps squadron, one Hussars Regiment, a Leichtes Dragoner-Regiment.

Battle History: 1806—Küstrin and Stettin; 1807—Friedland (with 2nd Division X Corps); 18008-1813—the 4th Infantry regiment in Spain as part of the ‘German Division’; 1809—with the Grande Armée (part of the 1st Divison, IV Corps) in Vorarlberg, Aspern; Wagram and Znaim; 1812—in Russia as part of the 26th Division, IX Corps, destroyed at Beresina crossing; 1813—in Saxony with Ney’s Corps.

Electorate/Kingdom of Bavaria

Infantry were Grenadier (4) Fusilier (14) Regiments, Light infantry (8), Cavalry were mixed as Kürassiers, Dragoner, Chevau Légers;

Battle History: 1800—Hohenlinden (against France); 1805— in Bavaria (with France against Austria); 1808—Tyrol, Aspern, Wegram (VIII Corps Grande Armée); 1812—Russia as VI Corps Grande Armée; 1813—Saxony as VI Corps until Armistice thence with the Alllies against France at Hanau; 1814-1815 with Allies in France.

Duchy of Brunswick

Until 1806—1st Regiment Foot (Warmstedt) 2nd Regiment Foot (Griesheim). Following the French victories at Jena and Auerstädt on 14 October 1806, Brunswick was dissolved and incorporated into the new Kingdom of Westfalia until late in 1813. When Austria again took up arms against Napoleon in 1809 the dispossessed Duke Friedrich of Brunswick raised a legion of all arms in Bohemia under Austrian patronage and invaded Westfalia, subsequently making his way to England where his Corps was tken in to British service until 1815.

Infantry Regiment ( three battalions); Scharfschützen-Kompagnie ( Sharpshooter Company); Hussar regiment; Lancer squadron; 1 each of Foot & Horse Artillery battery; Avantgarde &Gelernte-Jäger (2 Companies), Leib-Batailion, 1-3 Light Battalions, 5 battalions of Landwehr battalions

Battle History: 1806—Jena; 1809— invasion of westfalia; 1810-13—Spain, Fuentes d’Onoro, Vittoria, Maya, Rocesvalles, Sorauren (1st and 2nd), Nive, Orthez; 1815—Quarte-Bras, Waterloo

Free City of Danzig

Estiblished by Napoleon on 28 October 1807, absorbed by Prussia in November 1813. One battalion of infantry, defended in the Siege of Danzig January-November 1813

Kingdom of Denmark

Until 1814 Norway belonged to Denmark and troops were incorporated as such, from 1814 there was a personal union between Norway and Sweden, and they were listed as such.

Grand Duchy of Frankfurt

Joined the Confederation of the Rhine 18 July 1806 and was required to provide one infantry regiment.

Battle History: 1806—Prussia (saw no action); 1809-13—Sapin in 3rd Brigade, Leval’s Dision VI Corps. The Frankfurt battalion in Spain went over to the English in December 1813.; 1812—Russia as part of 1st Brigade ‘Division Princiére’; 1813—besieged in Danzig

Electorate/Kingdom of Hanover

Electorate until 1803; part of Westfalia 1806-13; 1815 Kingdom

British “King’s German Legion” 1803-16 ( 8 line battalions, 2 light battalions, 2 Dragoon regiments, 3 light dragoon regiments, 2 horse artillery batteries, 4 foot artillery batteries,)

Hanseatic Cities (Hamburg, Breman, Lubeck)

French 127,128, 129 Line regiments (last with Duchy of Oldenberg)

Battle History: 1812-Russia; December 1812-April-1814 Blockade of Hamburg by allies.

Grand Duchy of Hessen-Darmstädt

Battle history: 1806-Jena with the French; 1807-seige of Graudenz; 1808-12 Spain; 1809-With 1st division, IV Corps of Grande Armée (Wagram); 1812-Russia in the 4th Division, I Corps & in 30th Light Brigade, IX Corps & in 30th Division, XI Corps; 1813-Saxony with the French until after Leipzig, thence with the allies.

Electorate of Hessen Kassel

County till 1803, then an electorate, 1806 abolished by Napoleon, re-established 1813 as electorate.

Battle history: 1792-5 the Rhine; 1798-the Rhine; 1814-France

Republics and Kingdom of Italy

Battle history: 1796-8 and1800-campaigns in Italy against Austria; 1805 and 1809–against Austria; 1806-against Prussia; 1808-13 Against Spain and Portugal; 1812- in Russia as 14th and 15th Divisions IV Corps; 1813-in Saxony against allies.

Grand Duchy of Kleve-Berg

Battle history: 1808-13-Chevau Légers and 1st and 2nd Regiments in Spain as part of the Imperial Guard(Horse) and German Division ( Line); 1809-Aspern and Wagram part of reserve; 1812- Russia part of 26th Division IX Corps (destoryed at the Beresina Crossing); 1813-in Saxony. 1815- Cavalry became part of 11th Prussian Hussars, infantry parts of 28th & 29th Infantry regiments.

Principality of Lippe-Detmold & County of Schaumburg-Lippe

Joined Confederation of the Rhine 18 April 1807 (forming a 650 man infantry contingnt)

Battle history: 1807-siege of Glogau against Prussia; 1809-11 in Spain; 1812-Russia part of 2nd Brigade, “Division Princiére”; 1813-besiege in Danzig [1813-left Confederation in November-December]

Kingdom of Naples

Created by Napoleon for his brother Joseph, later given to Joachim Murat in 1806, from the mainland portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Battle history: 1809-against Austria; 1809-14 against Spain; 1812-Russia as French 33rd Division XI Corps; 1813-Saxony against the allies

Duchy of Nassau

Formed of the principalities of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg, Joined Confederation of the Rhine 12 July 1806

Battle history; 1807-Berlin; 1809 Tryol (1st Regiment part of VIII Corps; 1809-13 Spain; 1814-France; 1815-Quatre Bras and Waterloo

Netherlands

Batavian Republic 1795-1806; Kingdom of Holland 1806-10; Part of Metro France 1810-14- Kingdom of Netherlands 1814

Poland

Kingdom 1792-05 Dismembered 1795 between Prussia, Russia and Austria; Partly reformed by Napoleon 1807as “Grand Duchy of Warsaw” until 1813 when Prussia and Russia regained control, Duchy of Krakow remained independent

Battle History: 1807 sieges of Danzig and Graudenz; 1807-14 June- Friedland; 1808-11 Spain, seige of Sargossa, Medina de Rio Secco, Talavera (28 July 1809), Almonacid (11 August 1809). The Vistula Legion Lancers destroyed Colbornes’s British Infantry Brigade at Albuferra (16 May 1811); 1812 –Russia as V Corps…Smolensk (17 August)…Borodino ( 7 September )…Winkowo (18 October)…Medyn (25 October), Beresina Crossing; 1813–Saxony as VIII Corps with various units in VII Corps…Katzbach (26 August)…Dennewitz (6 September); Liepzig (16-18 October); 1814-3rd Regiment Etranger

Kingdom Of Portugal

Battle history; November 1807- Spain and France invade (army disbanded)….1808 9May) Portuguese Legion in French Service; August 1808 British troops land and army reformes; 19 August 1808 –Rolica; 21 August 1808— Vimiero

Kingdom Sardinia

Battle history:1792-6 against France; 1798 December against France

Saxony

Electorate till 1808 then Kingdom

Battle history: 1806-Jena as Prussia’s ally; 1807-Danzig and Friedland as French ally; 1809-Linz…Wagram….Poland and Saxony as IX Corps; 1812-Russia as VII Corps (detachments also in IX Corps); 1813-Saxony as VII Corps

Saxon Duchies (Coburg-Saalfeld; Gotha-Altenburg; Hildburghausen; Meiningen; Weimar)

Joined Confederation of the Rhine 15 December 1806; combined to form the 4th Line Regiment.

Battle history: 1806-Jena (Prussian side); 1807-seige of Colberg; 1809-Tyrol 9almost destroyed in the Sachsenklemme); 1809-11- Spain (Gerona and Manresa); 1812-Russia part of 2nd Brigade ‘Division Princiére’; 1813-seige of Danzig, then newly raised regiment in Saxony

Principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstädt & Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

Battle history: 1807-seige of Glogau (for Prussia); 1809-Tryol;1809-11 Spain; 1812-Russia part of 2nd Brigade Division Princiére; 1813- besieged in Danzig

Kingdom of Sweden

Battle History: 1805-10 war against France; 1806-7 War against Prussia; 1808-09 War against Russia; 1808-09 war against Britain; 1813-14 War against France; 1814 war against Norway.

Principality of Waldeck

Until 1798 a regiment in service to Batavia, Joined the Confederation of the Rhine 13 April 1807, provided three companies of the 2nd Battalion 6th Regiment, and part of the ‘Princely Battalion’ destroyed in Spain.

Battle history: 1807-Siege of Glogau (with Prussia); 1809-Tyrol; 1809-11 Spain; 1812- Russia part of 2nd Brigade ‘Divison Princiére’; 1813-besieged in Danzig.

Kingdom of Westfalia

Napoleon created this in November 1807 from the Electorate of Hanover, the Duchy of Brunswick and Electorate of Hessen-Kassel and minor parts of Prussia

Battle history: 1808-13 in Spain as part of German Division; 1809- in saxony as part of IX Corps; 1812-Russia as VIII Corps; 1813-Saxony as VII Corps.

Württemburg

Duchy until 1803, Electorate till 1896 then Kingdom

Battle history: 1793-7 Against France; 1806-Against Russia (Sieges of Glogau, Breslau, Schweidnitz, Neisse and Glatz); 1807-against Russia; 1809- against Austria; 1812- Russia as 25th Division III Corps; 1813-Saxony against allies; 1814-15 Against France

Würzburg

Bishopric until 1805, Grand Duchy until 1815 then absorbed by Bavaria ( Left Confederation of the Rhine November 1813and by Congress of Vienna was absorbed by Bavaria)

Battle history: 1806- Berlin…Stettin with Grande Armée; 1807- Danzig and Stralsund; 1808-13 Spain; 1812-Russia part of 1st Brigade ‘Division Princiére’; 1813-Saxony

SOURCE: Armies of the Napoleonic Era; BY: Otto von Pivka

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