Today’s Funny: Rules for Being Human

Rules For Being Human

You will receive a body. You may like it or hate it, but it will be yours for the entire period this time around.

You will learn lessons. You are enrolled in a full-time informal school called LIFE. Each day in this school you will have the opportunity to learn lessons. You may like these lessons or think them irrelevant or stupid. It makes no difference, you will learn lessons.

There are no mistakes, only lessons. Growth is a process of trial and error, experimentation. The “failed” experiment that ultimately “works.”

A lesson is repeated until learned. A lesson will be presented to you in various forms until you have learned it. When you have learned it, you can then go on to the next lesson.

Learning lessons does not end. There is no part of life that does not contain its lessons. If you are alive, there are lessons to be learned.

“There” is no better than “Here.” When your “There” has become a “Here” you will simply obtain another “There” that will again, look better than “Here.”

Others are merely mirrors of you. You cannot love or hate something about another person unless it reflects to you something you love or hate about yourself.

What you make of life is up to you. You have all the tools and resources that you need. What you do with them is up to you. The choice is YOURS.

The answers to life’s questions lie inside of you. All you need to do is look, listen, and trust

You will get what you ask for. It may not be what you wanted, but it will be what you asked for.



Turok’s Cabana


Today’s Extra: 9 Gifts for the Dog Lovers in Your Life

9 Gifts for the Dog Lovers in Your Life

Dogs are easy to shop for. Toys, treats, a comfy bed — and they’re happy. But what about dog lovers? If you’re searching for the perfect gift for a dog lover, check out these nine options.


As a dog parent, you might eye those collars, leashes, toys, beds, etc. that you can personalize with your dog’s name. But you just can’t justify the cost when you already have perfectly fine gear at home. That’s where gifting comes in. Treat the dog lover in your life with personalized canine gear. This company, PrideBites, even puts your pup’s image on its products. Dog lovers already swoon over their furry friends, so they’re bound to love something personalized just for their animal.


For the crafty dog lover, consider a clay paw print impression kit, so they can create a cherished keepsake. The kits — such as this one that forms an ornament — typically include nontoxic clay, which you roll out and press your dog’s paw into. Then, you either bake or air-dry the clay, depending on the product. And you can paint your creation to truly customize it. Plus, if you don’t want to gift a ready-made kit, you can easily create your own for a more personal touch.


Your dog-loving friend probably thinks their animal is the most adorable pooch ever to walk the Earth. So why not spoil them with custom artwork of their fur kid? There are many business options out there that can turn a dog’s photo into a lifelike piece of art. And though you aren’t the one who created it, handmade gifts like this are always appreciated.


If the dog lover in your life happens to have a mixed-breed pup, consider gifting them a canine DNA test kit. It’s a fun way for them to learn a little more about their animal, and it might actually be a gift in disguise for the dog, too. “Once predominant breeds are established, owners can take their results to their veterinarian to discuss potential health issues associated with specific breeds,” according to WebMD. For instance, you might find out your dog’s dominant breed is prone to arthritis, so you can take steps to protect its joints. Regardless, the kit makes a fun gift and conversation piece for dog lovers.


If you share your home with a dog, odds are you’ve uttered something along the lines of: “I could make a sweater with all the fur you lose!” Well, you actually can. There are companies that will spin your dog’s fur into yarn, which you then can turn into any sort of knitted garment. According to the American Kennel Club, dog-fur yarn — or chiengora — is soft like angora wool and even warmer than sheep’s wool. (And don’t worry — you won’t smell like a dog once it’s cleaned and spun.) You need about a grocery bag of fur to create small items, such as mittens. So as a gift, you can do the legwork (i.e., brushing) and gather that fur if you’re able. But if you can’t, you still can offer to fund the process for a truly original present.


If wearable dog fur isn’t quite what you’re looking for, how about a custom item with the image of your gift recipient’s animal? Just like with the custom artwork, there are many businesses that specialize in turning a pet’s image into apparel for humans. For instance, this company will put your dog’s face onto a vibrant pair of socks, so you can always feel like you’re taking your dog for a walk. And this business features a necklace to which you can add charms stamped with your dog’s name — perfect for people with multiple animals. There’s definitely something out there for any dog lover’s taste.


Another product many dog parents eye but haven’t tried is a monthly subscription box of dog gear. For you, it’s an easy gift option that’s sure to please the recipient — and more importantly, their dog. Yes, this is really a gift for the canine companion, but a true dog lover will find joy in it, as well. And many of the subscription companies have gift options that essentially are just trials of the service. For instance, BarkBox allows you to give a subscription for one, three, six or 12 months. For the gift recipient, it’s a great way to try a service that’s probably already piqued their interest.


For the dog lovers who love to cook, consider gifting them some dog-themed bakeware. There are many kitchen items with paws prints and funny sayings about dogs. (And odds are the dog lover you’re shopping for has some of them.) Check out these silicone baking molds with both paws and bones. They’re fine for making human food. But they’re even better if you bake homemade dog treats for your pup. Plus, you can use them to mold frozen treats, as well.


Regardless of whether the dog lover in your life has a pup of their own, they still clearly care about dogs. Honor their passion by donating in their name to an organization that helps dogs. Try to learn whether your gift recipient has a favorite animal charity, as many dog lovers do. Or do your research, and choose a worthy cause. Some groups even allow you to sponsor a specific dog, which can add some fun to your gift. Or you can gift a membership to an animal organization, which usually comes with several perks for the recipient. No matter what, you’re showing your dog lover friend that you love dogs, too.




By The Old Farmer’s Almanac
Why is Christmas Day on December 25? Where did the phrase “Jiminy Christmas” come from? What about “Godspeed”? See these festive facts about Christmas traditions and customs—plus, the most common question, “How do you keep cats away from the Christmas tree?!”


Although the exact date of Christ’s birth is unknown, Christmas Day has been symbolically celebrated on the 25th of December since the 4th century.

The word Christmas comes from “Christ’s Mass.”

We do know that the oldest existing record of a feast to celebrate the birth of Christ is in the Roman almanac called the Chronographer of 354 or the Philocalian Calendar. This ancient almanac noted that a festival commemorating Christ’s birth was observed by the church in Rome in the year 336.

Chronographers of the third century were the ones who reckoned December 25, around the winter solstice, as the most likely day of Christ’s birth.

In ancient times, Celts divided the year into four sections marked by “quarter days” – the days of the two solstices and two equinoxes. The winter solstice, the shortest and darkest day of the year, was the fourth quarter day. It signaled a celebratory time, as the Sun began to reemerge and the land experienced a rebirth.

Gradually, to conform more closely to the liturgical year of the Christian church, the fourth quarter day merged easily with the Christian celebration of the birth of Christ. As Christianity began to spread in the 4th century, the Christmas feast day was set on December 25 by Pope Julius I to align with the Roman pagan holiday Dies natalis solis invicti, “the birth of the invincible Sun.”

Many historians believe that the church stirred up interest in a festival at this time of year to counter the pagan festivals surrounding the solstice, but no historical document proves Rome’s involvement. The record shows that such a festival was adopted throughout the Christian world by the year 458.



“Jimmy Christmas” or “Jiminy Christmas” is a direct reference to Jesus Christ and dates back to 1664, when it was first recorded as “Gemini,” a twist on the Latin phrase Jesu domini. The name of the Walt Disney character Jiminy Cricket was probably based on this phrase!


Decorated trees were used in winter celebrations long before the advent of Christianity. Plants and trees that remained green all year had a special significance for people who lived in cold winter climates.

Ancient people hung evergreen boughs over their doors and windows. Some believed that evergreens kept witches, ghosts, evil spirits, and illness away.

Romans decorated evergreen trees with trinkets and topped them with an image of their sun god. Druid sorcerers hung golden apples and lit candles on oak trees to celebrate the winter solstice.

Christian Christmas celebrations did indeed begin using the evergreen as a symbol about 400 years ago in Germany. This Christmas practice spread to most of northern Europe by the 19th century.


Ever wondered how the custom of giving Christmas giftsoriginated? No, it’s not invented by the department stores!

The ancient Romans gave each other gifts on the calends (first day) of January, and the practice spread throughout the Roman Empire.

Eventually, Christians moved the custom to December 25, although many Christians still give gifts on January 6, the feast of the Epiphany, commemorating the manifestation of Jesus’ divine nature to the Magi.


People used to write their own cards. The first Christmas card design is thought to have been printed in England in 1843. Wood engravers of the time often produced prints with religious themes, but this was the first time anyone produced these prints in quantity and sold them (1,000 copies in London). The design was of a family party, beneath which were the words “A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You.” In the mid-19th century in the United States, the owner of a variety store in Albany, New York, produced a card carrying Christmas greetings from “Pease’s Great Variety Store in the Temple of Fancy.”


This dates back to a 15th century song sung by English ploughmen on Plough Monday, the first Monday after Twelfth Day, the end of the Christmas holidays. Before farm laborers went back to the fields, they dressed all in white and went from door to door drawing a plough and soliciting “plough money” to spend on a last celebration. The song lyric “Godspeed the plough” expressed a wish for success and prosperity and was soon shortened to just “Godspeed”.


The word Yuletide originated from the word Yule, which was recorded in Latin writings as early as A.D. 726. At that time, the form of the word was guili. Both terms refer to a 12-day pagan feast celebrated around the time of year that has come to be known as the Christmas season.


This might seem an odd Christmas question, but it’s a common one! Folks have suggested a lot of things over the years, and you may have to try several until you find a method that fits your cat’s personality. The most direct route may be to keep your cat out of the room where the tree is.

If that’s not possible, try lining the tree’s lower trunk with aluminum foil. Some cats hate the sound and feel of it and won’t try to climb up with the foil there.

Another trick may be to keep a pot of ryegrass or catnip near the tree to act as a diversion. Cats may respond to loud noises or the popular method of spraying water at them when they begin to attack the tree, but we’ve found that their little cat brains forget this message pretty quickly, and they’re soon back to cause trouble again.

The Old Farmer’s Almanac




By The Old Farmer’s Almanac
When were the first Christmas card, Christmas tree, and department store Santa Claus in America? See when some of these Christmas traditions began!


  • The first American to print and sell Christmas cards was Louis Prang of Roxbury, Massachusetts, who began publishing cards in 1875. It was a British civil servant who pioneered commercially-produced Christmas cards. In 1843 Henry Cole saw that the postal service could help customers send their Christmas greetings. Making dozens or hundreds of your own personalized cards was very time-consuming. Why not make it easier? So he hired an artist named John Callcott Horsely, engaged a printer, and created the first Christmas cards.
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower is given credit for sending the first “official” Christmas card from the White House. An art print also became the standard Christmas gift for the president’s staff, a practice continued to this day.


  • Of course, Germany is credited with starting the Christmas tree tradition. However, the first American Christmas tree can be credited to a Hessian soldier by the name of Henrick Roddmore, who was captured at the Battle of Bennington (Vermont) in 1776. He then went to work on the farm of Samuel Denslow in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, where for the next 14 years he put up and decorated Christmas trees in the Denslow family home.
  • The first Christmas tree retail lot was established in 1851 by a Pennsylvanian named Mark Carr, who hauled two ox sleds loaded with Christmas trees from the Catskill Mountains to the sidewalks of New York City.
  • The first president to set up a Christmas tree in the White House was Franklin Pierce, and the first president to establish the National Christmas Tree Lighting Ceremony on the White House lawn was Calvin Coolidge.
  • On December 22, 1882, Edward Johnson, an associate of Thomas Edison, created the first string of Christmas tree lights. They were first sold in New York City.



While cakes at the holidays have been around for centuries, it was America’s first First Lady, Martha Washington, who made the first famous Christmas Cake. Below is the exact recipe for celebrating what she called “a true Virginia Christmas” at Mount Vernon:

  • “Take 40 eggs and divide the whites from the yolks and beat them to a froth, start to work four pounds of butter to cream and put the whites of eggs to it a spoon full at a time till it is well worked. Then put four pounds of sugar finely powdered to it in the same way, then put in the yolks of eggs, and five pounds of flower, and five pounds of fruit. Two hours will bake it. Add to it half an ounce of mace, one nutmeg, half a pint of wine, and some French brandy.”


  • The first department store Santa was James Edgar, who, during Christmas seasons beginning in 1890, would wander about his store (the Boston Store) in Brockton, Massachusetts, dressed as Santa Claus, talking to the children of customers.



  • December 7, 1898: The first Christmas postage stamp was released in Canada
  • December 7, 1907: Christmas seals sold for the first time
  • Wednesday, December 1, 1909: The Christmas Club savings account began

The Old Farmers Almanac

Holidays Around the World: Opalia, December 19th


December 19

The ancient Roman fertility goddess Ops was known by several different names—among them Rhea, Cybele, Bona Dea, Magna Mater ( see Megalesia), Thya, and Tellus. She married Saturn and was the mother of Jupiter, and was usually portrayed as a matron, with a loaf of bread in her left hand and her right hand opened as if offering assistance. There were actually two festivals in her honor. The Opalia was observed on December 19, when it is believed that a sacrifice to Ops was made in the temple of Saturn. On August 25, the Opiconsivia, the sacrifice took place in the Regia or king’s house.

Not much is known about what actually took place during the Opalia. There is even some disagreement as to whether Ops was the wife of Saturn or the wife of Consus. The fact that the Opalia was held four days after the Consualia on December 15, and that the Opiconsivia was held four days after the festival in honor of Consus on August 21 has been used to support the theory that Ops was actually the wife of Consus. In any case, it appears that women played an important role in the festival. Because Ops was a fertility goddess, she was often invoked by touching the earth.

ClassDict-1984, p. 424
DictFolkMyth-1984, p. 825
DictRomRel-1996, p. 169
FestRom-1981, pp. 180, 207
OxYear-1999, pp. 345, 503
RomFest-1925, pp. 212, 273

This Day in History: Operation Vijay (1961)

Operation Vijay (1961)

The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the “armed action” carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961. Depending on the view, this action is referred as the “Liberation of Goa” or the “Invasion of Goa”. Following the end of Portuguese rule in 1961, Goa was placed under military administration headed by Kunhiraman Palat Candeth as Lieutenant Governor.[5] On 8 June 1962, military rule was replaced by civilian government when the Lieutenant Governor nominated an informal Consultative Council of 29 nominated members to assist him in the administration of the territory.[6]

The “armed action” was code named Operation Vijay (meaning “Victory”) by the Indian Armed Forces. It involved air, sea and land strikes for over 36 hours, and was a decisive victory for India, ending 451 years of rule by Portugal over its remaining exclaves in India. The engagement lasted two days, and twenty-two Indians and thirty Portuguese were killed in the fighting.[2] The brief conflict drew a mixture of worldwide praise and condemnation. In India, the action was seen as a liberation of historically Indian territory, while Portugal viewed it as an aggression against national soil and its citizens.

After India’s independence from the British Empire in August 1947, Portugal continued to hold a handful of exclaves on the Indian subcontinent—the districts of Goa, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli—collectively known as the Estado da Índia. Goa, Daman and Diu covered an area of around 1,540 square miles (4,000 km2) and held a population of 637,591.[7] The Goan diaspora was estimated at 175,000 (about 100,000 within the Indian Union, mainly in Bombay).[8] Religious distribution was 61% Hindu, 36.7% Christian (mostly Catholic) and 2.2% Muslim.[8] The economy was primarily based on agriculture, although the 1940s and 1950s saw a boom in mining—principally iron ore and some manganese.[8]

Resistance to Portuguese rule in Goa in the 20th century was pioneered by Tristão de Bragança Cunha, a French-educated Goan engineer who founded the Goa Congress Committee in Portuguese India in 1928. Cunha released a booklet called ‘Four hundred years of Foreign Rule’, and a pamphlet, ‘Denationalisation of Goa’, intended to sensitise Goans to the oppression of Portuguese rule. Messages of solidarity were received by the Goa Congress Committee from leading figures in the Indian independence movement including Rajendra Prasad, Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose. On 12 October 1938, Cunha with other members of the Goa Congress Committee met Subhas Chandra Bose, the President of the Indian National Congress, and on his advice, opened a Branch Office of the Goa Congress Committee at 21, Dalal Street, Bombay. The Goa Congress was also made affiliate to the Indian National Congress and Cunha was selected its first President.[9]

In June 1946, Ram Manohar Lohia, an Indian Socialist leader, entered Goa on a visit to his friend, Julião Menezes, a nationalist leader, who had founded the Gomantak Praja Mandal in Bombay and edited the weekly newspaper Gomantak. Cunha and other leaders were also with him.[9] Ram Manohar Lohia advocated the use of non-violent Gandhian techniques to oppose the government.[10] On 18 June 1946, the Portuguese government disrupted a protest against the suspension of civil liberties in Panaji (then spelt ‘Panjim’) organised by Lohia, Cunha and others including Purushottam Kakodkar and Laxmikant Bhembre in defiance of a ban on public gatherings, and arrested them.[11][12] There were intermittent mass demonstrations from June to November.

In addition to non-violent protests, armed groups such as the Azad Gomantak Dal (The Free Goa Party) and the United Front of Goans conducted violent attacks aimed at weakening Portuguese rule in Goa.[13] The Indian government supported the establishment of armed groups like the Azad Gomantak Dal, giving them full financial, logistic and armament support. The armed groups acted from bases situated in Indian territory and under cover of Indian police forces. The Indian government—through these armed groups—attempted to destroy economic targets, telegraph and telephone lines, road, water and rail transport, in order to impede economic activity and create conditions for a general uprising of the population.[14] A Portuguese army officer stationed with the army in Goa, Captain Carlos Azaredo, stated in 2001 in the Portuguese newspaper Expresso: “To the contrary to what is being said, the most evolved guerilla warfare which our Armed Forces encountered was in Goa. I know what I’m talking about, because I also fought in Angola and in Guiné. In 1961 alone, until December, around 80 policemen died. The major part of the terrorists of Azad Gomantak Dal were not Goans. Many had fought in the British Army, under General Montgomery, against the Germans.”[15]


Goa, Western India
On 27 February 1950, the Government of India asked the Portuguese government to open negotiations about the future of Portuguese colonies in India.[16] Portugal asserted that its territory on the Indian subcontinent was not a colony but part of metropolitan Portugal and hence its transfer was non-negotiable, and that India had no rights to this territory because the Republic of India did not exist at the time when Goa came under Portuguese rule.[17] When the Portuguese government refused to respond to subsequent aide-mémoires in this regard, the Indian government, on 11 June 1953, withdrew its diplomatic mission from Lisbon.[18]

By 1954, the Republic of India instituted visa restrictions on travel from Goa to India which paralysed transport between Goa and other exclaves like Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[16] Meanwhile, the Indian Union of Dockers had, in 1954, instituted a boycott on shipping to Portuguese India.[19] Between 22 July and 2 August 1954, armed activists attacked and forced the surrender of Portuguese forces stationed in Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[20]

On 15 August 1955, 3000–5000 unarmed Indian activists[21] attempted to enter Goa at six locations and were violently repulsed by Portuguese police officers, resulting in the deaths of between 21[22] and 30[23] people.[24] The news of the massacre built public opinion in India against the presence of the Portuguese in Goa.[25] On 1 September 1955, India shut its consul office in Goa.[26]

In 1956, the Portuguese ambassador to France, Marcello Mathias, along with Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar, argued in favour of a referendum in Goa to determine its future. This proposal was however rejected by the Ministers for Defence and Foreign Affairs. The demand for a referendum was repeated by presidential candidate General Humberto Delgado in 1957.[16]

Prime Minister Salazar, alarmed by India’s hinted threats at armed action against Portugal’s presence in Goa, first asked the United Kingdom to mediate, then protested through Brazil and eventually asked the United Nations Security Council to intervene.[27] Mexico offered the Indian government its influence in Latin America to bring pressure on the Portuguese to relieve tensions.[28] Meanwhile, Krishna Menon, India’s defence minister and head of India’s UN delegation, stated in no uncertain terms that India had not “abjured the use of force” in Goa.[27] The US ambassador to India, John Kenneth Galbraith, requested the Indian government on several occasions to resolve the issue peacefully through mediation and consensus rather than armed conflict.[29][30]

Eventually, on 10 December, nine days prior to the invasion, Nehru stated to the press: “Continuance of Goa under Portuguese rule is an impossibility”.[27] The American response was to warn India that if and when India’s armed action in Goa was brought to the UN security council, it could expect no support from the US delegation.[31]

On 24 November 1961, Sabarmati, a passenger boat passing between the Portuguese-held island of Anjidiv and the Indian port of Kochi, was fired upon by Portuguese ground troops, resulting in the death of a passenger and injuries to the chief engineer. The action was precipitated by Portuguese fears that the boat carried a military landing party intent on storming the island.[32] The incidents lent themselves to fostering widespread public support in India for military action in Goa.

Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli

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The hostilities between India and Portugal started seven years before the invasion of Goa, when Dadra and Nagar Haveli were invaded and occupied by pro-Indian forces with the support of the Indian authorities.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli were two Portuguese landlocked exclaves of the Daman district, totally surrounded by Indian territory. The connection between the exclaves and the coastal territory of Daman had to be made by crossing about 20 kilometres (12 mi) of Indian territory. Dadra and Nagar Haveli did not have any Portuguese military garrison, but only police forces.

The Indian government started to develop isolation actions against Dadra and Nagar Haveli already in 1952, including the creation of impediments to the transit of persons and goods between the two landlocked enclaves and Daman. In July 1954, pro-Indian forces, including members of organisations like the United Front of Goans, the National Movement Liberation Organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Azad Gomantak Dal, with the support of Indian Police forces, began to launch assaults against Dadra and Nagar Haveli. On the night of 22 July, UFG forces stormed the small Dadra police station, killing Police Sergeant Aniceto do Rosário and Constable António Fernandes, who resisted the attack. On 28 July, RSS forces took Naroli police station.

Meanwhile, the Portuguese authorities asked the Indian Government for permission to cross the Indian territory with reinforcements to Dadra and Nagar Haveli, but no permission was given. Surrounded and prevented from receiving reinforcements by the Indian authorities, the Portuguese Administrator and police forces in Nagar Haveli eventually surrendered to the Indian police forces on 11 August 1954. Portugal appealed to the International Court of Justice, which, in a decision dated 12 April 1960,[33] stated that Portugal had sovereign rights over the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli but India had the right to deny passage to armed personnel of Portugal over Indian territories. Therefore, the Portuguese authorities could not legally pass through Indian territory.


Events preceding the hostilities

Indian military build-up

On receiving the go-ahead for military action and a mandate for the capture of all occupied territories for the Indian government, Lieutenant-General Chaudhari of India’s Southern Army fielded the 17th Infantry Division and the 50th Parachute Brigade commanded by Major-General K. P. Candeth. The assault on the enclave of Daman was assigned to the 1st battalion of the Maratha Light Infantry while the operations in Diu were assigned to the 20th battalion of the Rajput Regiment and the 5th battalion of the Madras Regiment.[34]

Meanwhile, the Commander-in-Chief of India’s Western Air Command, Air Vice Marshal Erlic Pinto, was appointed as the commander of all air resources assigned to the operations in Goa. Air resources for the assault on Goa were concentrated in the bases at Pune and Sambra (Belgaum).[34] The mandate handed to Pinto by the Indian Air Command was listed out as follows:

The destruction of Goa’s lone airfield in Dabolim, without causing damage to the terminal building and other airport facilities.
Destruction of the wireless station at Bambolim, Goa.
Denial of airfields at Daman and Diu, which were, however, not to be attacked without prior permission.
Support to advancing ground troops.
The Indian Navy deployed two warships—the INS Rajput, an ‘R’ Class destroyer, and INS Kirpan, a Blackwood class anti-submarine frigate—off the coast of Goa. The actual attack on Goa was delegated to four task groups: a Surface Action Group comprising five ships: Mysore, Trishul, Betwa, Beas and Cauvery; a Carrier Group of five ships: Delhi, INS Kuthar, Kirpan, INS Khukri and Rajput centred on the light aircraft carrier Vikrant; a Mine Sweeping Group consisting of mine sweepers including Karwar, Kakinada, Cannonore and Bimilipatan, and a Support Group which consisted of Dharini.[35]


Portuguese mandate
In March 1960, Portuguese Defence Minister General Júlio Botelho Moniz told Prime Minister Salazar that a sustained Portuguese campaign against decolonisation would create for the army “a suicide mission in which we could not succeed”. His opinion was shared by Army Minister Colonel Afonso Magalhães de Almeida Fernandes, by the Army under secretary of State Lieutenant-Colonel Francisco da Costa Gomes and by other top officers.[36]

Ignoring this advice, Salazar sent a message to Governor General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva in Goa on 14 December, in which he ordered the Portuguese forces in Goa to fight to the last man: “Do not expect the possibility of truce or of Portuguese prisoners, as there will be no surrender rendered because I feel that our soldiers and sailors can be either victorious or dead.”[37] Salazar asked Vassalo e Silva to hold out for at least eight days, within which time he hoped to gather international support against the Indian invasion. Vassalo e Silva disobeyed Salazar to avoid the unnecessary loss of human lives and surrendered the following day after the Indian invasion.[37]


Portuguese military preparations
Portuguese military preparations began in earnest in 1954, following the Indian economic blockade, the beginning of the anti-Portuguese attacks in Goa and the invasion of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Three light infantry battalions (one each sent from Portugal, Angola and Mozambique) and support units were transported to Goa, reinforcing a local raised battalion and increasing the Portuguese military presence there from almost nothing to 12,000 men.[15] Other sources state that, at the end of 1955, Portuguese forces in India represented a total of around 8,000 men (Europeans, Africans and Indians), including 7,000 in the land forces, 250 in the naval forces, 600 in the police and 250 in the Fiscal Guard, split between the districts of Goa, Daman and Diu.[38] Following the annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, the Portuguese authorities markedly strengthened the garrison of Portuguese India, with units and personnel sent from the Metropole and from the Portuguese African provinces of Angola and Mozambique.

The Portuguese forces were organised as the Armed Forces of the State of India (FAEI, Forças Armadas do Estado da Índia), under a unified command headed by General Paulo Bénard Guedes, who combined the civil role of Governor-General with the military role of Commander-in-Chief. Guedes ended his commission in 1958, with General Vassalo e Silva being appointed to replace him in both the civil and military roles.[38]

The Portuguese government and military commands were, however, well aware that even with this effort to strengthen the garrison of Goa, the Portuguese forces would never be sufficient to face a conventional attack from the overwhelmingly stronger Indian Armed Forces. The Portuguese government hoped however to politically deter the Indian government from attempting a military aggression through the showing of a strong will to fight and to sacrifice to defend Goa.[38]

In 1960, during an inspection visit to Portuguese India and referring to a predictable start of guerrilla activities in Angola, the Under Secretary of State of the Army, Francisco da Costa Gomes, stated the necessity to reinforce the Portuguese military presence in that African territory, partly at the expense of the military presence in Goa, where the then existing 7,500 men were too many just to deal with anti-Portuguese actions, and too few to face an Indian invasion, which, if it were to occur, would have to be handled by other means. This led to the Portuguese forces in India suffering a sharp reduction to about 3,300 soldiers.[38]

Faced with this reduced force strength, the strategy employed to defend Goa against an Indian invasion was based on the Plano Sentinela (Sentinel Plan), which divided the territory into four defence sectors (North, Center, South and Mormugão), and the Plano de Barragens (Barrage Plan), which envisaged the demolition of all bridges to delay the invading army, as well as the mining of approach roads and beaches. Defence units were organised as four battlegroups (agrupamentos), with one assigned to each sector and tasked with slowing the progress of an invading force. Then-Captain Carlos Azaredo, who was stationed in Goa at the time of hostilities, described the Plano Sentinela in the Portuguese newspaper Expresso on 8 December 2001 as “a totally unrealistic and unachievable plan, which was quite incomplete. It was based on exchange of ground with time. But, for this purpose, portable communication equipment was necessary.”[15] The plans to mine roads and beaches were also unviable because of a desperate shortage of mines.[39]


The naval component of the FAEI were the Naval Forces of the State of India (FNEI, Forças Navais do Estado da Índia), headed by the Naval Commander of Goa, Commodore Raúl Viegas Ventura. The only significant Portuguese Navy warship present in Goa at the time of invasion was the sloop NRP Afonso de Albuquerque.[40] It was armed with four 120 mm guns capable of two shots per minute, and four automatic rapid-firing guns. In addition to the sloop, the Portuguese Naval Forces had three light patrol boats (lanchas de fiscalização), each armed with a 20 mm Oerlikon gun, one based in each of Goa, Daman and Diu. There were also five merchant marine ships in Goa.[41] An attempt by Portugal to send naval warships to Goa to reinforce its marine defences was foiled when President Nasser of Egypt denied the ships access to the Suez Canal.[42][43][44]


Ground forces
Portuguese ground defences were organised as the Land Forces of the State of India (FTEI, Forças Terrestres do Estado da Índia), under the Portuguese Army’s Independent Territorial Command of India, headed by Brigadier António José Martins Leitão. At the time of the invasion, they consisted of a total of 3,995 men, including 810 native (Indo-Portugueses – Indo-Portuguese) soldiers, many of whom had little military training and were utilised primarily for security and anti-extremist operations. These forces were divided amongst the three Portuguese enclaves in India.[38] The Portuguese Army units in Goa included four motorised reconnaissance squadrons, eight rifle companies (caçadores), two artillery batteries and an engineer detachment. In addition to the military forces, the Portuguese defences counted on the civil internal security forces of Portuguese India. These included the State of India Police (PEI, Polícia do Estado da Índia), a general police corps modelled after the Portuguese Public Security Police; the Fiscal Guard (Guarda Fiscal), responsible for Customs enforcement and border protection; and the Rural Guard (Guarda Rural), game wardens. In 1958, as an emergency measure, the Portuguese government gave provisional military status to the PEI and the Fiscal Guard, placing them under the command of the FAEI. The security forces were also divided amongst the three districts and were mostly made up of Indo-Portuguese policemen and guards. Different sources indicate between 900 and 1400 men as the total effective strength of these forces at the time of the invasion.[38]


Air defence
The Portuguese Air Force did not have any presence in Portuguese India, with the exception of a single officer with the role of air adviser in the office of the Commander-in-Chief.[38]

On 16 December, the Portuguese Air Force was placed on alert to transport ten tonnes of anti-tank grenades in two DC-6 aircraft from Montijo Air Base in Portugal to Goa to assist in its defence. When the Portuguese Air Force was unable to obtain stopover facilities at any air base along the way because most countries, including Pakistan, denied passage of Portuguese military aircraft, the mission was passed to the Portuguese international civilian airline TAP, which offered a Lockheed Constellation (registration CS-TLA) on charter. However, when permission to transport weapons through Karachi was denied by the Pakistani government, the Constellation landed in Goa at 18:00 on 17 December with a consignment of half a dozen bags of sausages as food supplies instead of the intended grenades. In addition it transported a contingent of female paratroopers to assist in the evacuation of Portuguese civilians.[45]

The Portuguese air presence in Goa at the time of hostilities was thus limited to the presence of two civilian transport aircraft, the Lockheed Constellation belonging to TAP and a Douglas DC-4 Skymaster belonging to the Goan airline Portuguese India Airlines. The Indians claimed that the Portuguese had a squadron of F-86 Sabres stationed at Dabolim Airport—which later turned out to be false intelligence. Air defence was limited to a few obsolete anti-aircraft guns manned by two artillery units who had been smuggled into Goa disguised as football teams.[32]


Portuguese civilian evacuation
The military buildup created panic amongst Europeans in Goa, who were desperate to evacuate their families before the commencement of hostilities. On 9 December, the vessel India arrived at Goa’s Mormugão port en route to Lisbon from Timor. Despite orders from the Portuguese government in Lisbon not to allow anyone to embark on this vessel, Governor General Manuel Vassalo e Silva allowed 700 Portuguese civilians of European origin to board the ship and flee Goa. The ship had capacity for only 380 passengers, and was filled to its limits, with evacuees occupying even the toilets.[32] On arranging this evacuation of women and children, Vassalo e Silva remarked to the press, “If necessary, we will die here.” Evacuation of European civilians continued by air even after the commencement of Indian air strikes.[46]


Indian reconnaissance operations
Indian reconnaissance operations had commenced on 1 December, when two Leopard class frigates, the INS Betwa and the INS Beas, undertook linear patrolling of the Goa coast at a distance of 8 miles (13 km). By 8 December, the Indian Air Force had commenced baiting missions and fly-bys to lure out Portuguese air defences and fighters.[citation needed]

On 17 December, a tactical reconnaissance flight conducted by Squadron Leader I. S. Loughran in a Vampire NF54 Night Fighter over Dabolim Airport in Goa was met with five rounds fired from a ground anti-aircraft gun. The aircraft took evasive action by drastically dropping altitude and escaping out to sea. The anti-aircraft gun was later recovered near the ATC building with a round jammed in its breech.[47]

The Indian light aircraft carrier INS Vikrant was deployed 75 miles (121 km) off the coast of Goa to head a possible amphibious operation on Goa, as well as to deter any foreign military intervention.


Daily Inspiration for Dec. 19: Feeling Guilty about Being Happy




Feeling Guilty about Being Happy


Allow yourself to release feeling any guilt about being happy.

Happiness is an experience we all long for and deserve in our lives. We may wish for the happiness that comes with a much-needed vacation or an exciting new love affair, yet when the actual experience of happiness emerges, we may be too overcome with guilt to enjoy it. If guilt is interfering with your ability to feel joy, you may find relief in looking at the beliefs you hold about yourself and what it means for you to be happy.

Guilt about feeling happy can arise for different reasons. Deep down you may believe that you don’t deserve to be happy because you hurt someone in the past, had more than others growing up, or maybe you received a mean comment from someone you admire. Perhaps it once seemed that painful experiences always followed happy ones; now whenever you begin to feel happy, you find yourself waiting for the other shoe to drop. Happiness may even just feel uncomfortable because you’ve gotten so used to feeling down. The truth is that when you feel too guilty to let yourself enjoy positive emotions, you are denying a part of yourself that has a right to exist. By limiting your life experience to just the negative feelings, you are cutting yourself off from the fullness of life – which includes all of the positive emotions as well. Fortunately, you can begin to shift the way you respond to happiness even in this moment.

From now on, when happiness begins to blossom in your heart, try to accept it, relish in it, ask it to stay. It’s okay to feel happy even if you believe you don’t deserve it. Feeling good is an expression of your wholeness and your connection with life. The next time happiness appears for you, try not to feel guilty about it. Instead, welcome your happiness in like a long-awaited friend.


–Daily OM

The Complete Zodiac Gift-Giving Guide Is Here!

The Complete Zodiac Gift-Giving Guide Is Here!


While the holidays may be the most wonderful time of the year—figuring out what to gift your loved ones can cause a whole lot of stress. Have no fear! We’ve got the perfect gift for everyone on your holiday wish list, all based on astrology. Scroll through to see what each zodiac sign really wants this year.


ARIES: An Experience

Aries like to very much live in the moment. They don’t particularly like material things but prefer to value memories. They are also the sign that truly embraces the motto “Carpe diem.” So, instead of giving them socks or a sweater, go all out with an experience. Concert tickets, skydiving lessons or even a session of hot yoga is something an Aries would love. Look for gifts that will give them a memory they will have for a lifetime (not to mention something they can Instagram about).

TAURUS: Luxury Item

Taurus enjoys the finer things in life. When they buy something, they only get the best because they know they’re worth it. Indulge the Taurus in your life by getting a gift suited to their high-end taste. A nice bottle of wine, fancy chocolates or a cashmere blanket are all perfect gifts for the bull sign. Lest you think you need to spend more than you should, you don’t have to break the bank to gift your Taurus a present. As long as if feels soft or taste good, your pal will love it.

GEMINI: Gift Cards

Gemini is difficult to shop for, mainly because they can’t make up their minds! Their wish list changes so often, it’s impossible to follow. And you might buy something for them, only to find out that they don’t like it in person. Save yourself the headache and buy them a gift card to their favorite store—then they can make up their own mind. If you’re worried that a gift card feels impersonal, put the gift card in a cocktail shaker since Gemini’s love to entertain or add it to a tin of their favorite baked goods.

CANCER: Journal

Cancer is the most sentimental of the signs, so giving them a journal where they can record all their thoughts, feelings, and memories is the perfect gift. A bullet journal or one of those five year journals they have been dreaming about or an old school scrapbooking kit are all thoughtful presents that gives them a wonderful emotional outlet.

LEO: Glam Gifts

The Leo in your life will love anything that helps them feel like they are the King or Queen of the Jungle. Selfie sticks, hair care products to tame that mane, makeup, jewelry and anything that makes them feels sparkly and special is at the very top of their wish list. They want to look and feel glamorous. They also wouldn’t mind anything they can use as a prop for their social media pictures. Leos also love anything with their name on it, so monogram gifts will score you big points with any Leo on your list.

VIRGO: Practical Gifts

A good rule to keep in mind when shopping for a Virgo is “What do I dread buying for myself?” And that’s what you should get a Virgo. This sign loves anything practical. When they buy anything, they want it to be functional and bonus points if it can do at least three other things. The perfect gift for a Virgo would be something they can use every day. Look at your Virgo carefully and figure out what they could use right now. Do they need a new mixer? Are their gloves getting kind of old and tattered? And you can never have too many socks. Heck, Virgo’s would be thrilled if you got them a case of batteries. Practical gifts may not seem cool but the Virgo in your life will love you for it.

LIBRA: Artsy Gifts

Libra is a very creative and artsy sign, so the natural gift would be a piece of art. Research who their favorite artists are or what kind of art they like. However, if you think they can’t fit one more picture on their walls, get them something to nurture their artistic talents. If they are a painter, get them some new paint or some canvas. If they are a writer, give them a journal and some nice pens. Or, give them the tools to get into a new artistic hobby this year.

SCORPIO: Unique Gift

Scorpios are probably the hardest sign to shop for, mainly because they are so darn secretive! We love Scorpios for their mysterious nature, except when it comes to the holidays. What’s the gift solution? Give them a present as unique as they are! Anything from a custom piece of jewelry, a one-of-a-kind painting, to an old antique will make a Scorpio happy.


The jet set of the zodiac, get the Sagittarius in your life something that will encourage their wanderlust. A cute passport holder, a backpack, travel guides or a camera will be perfect for their next adventure. If you are feeling a generous, gift cards to airlines or hotels are excellent gifts. Or, if you know where they are traveling next, buy tickets to a guided tour, local theatre tickets or a cooking class in the place they are traveling to.

CAPRICORN: Career Related Gifts

Capricorns are a hardworking sign, so most of the stuff on their wish list this year involves something to advance their careers. They would love a new briefcase, a faster laptop or just some new work clothes. If they are looking for a new job, buy them a few sessions with a career coach or hire someone to edit their resume and cover letter. Capricorns aren’t all work and no play; however, they also have a great sense of humor. They would also appreciate a sarcastic gag gift to put on their desk at work.


Aquarius are the techies of the zodiac, possibly because they are so out of this world. They always want the latest gadget and latest “big thing” that is being released this time of year. If a new iPhone or gaming system is out of your budget, they will be happy with any accessories to accompany their new tech toy like a video game, wireless headphones, a portable charger or perhaps a gift card for some apps or streaming services. They are sure to love it—at least until the next big thing comes out.

PISCES: Homemade Gifts

Oh Pisces—they are so sentimental, its easy to make them cry with any gift. But if you really want to pull on their heartstrings this year, a handmade gift is the way to go. They’ll swoon over a scrapbook made up of photos of the two of you, a knitted a scarf in their favorite color or even making them their favorite cookie will bring on the waterworks. Pisces will love knowing that you took the time to make something just for them and they will appreciate the thought you put into the gift. Even if it doesn’t come out perfect, they will treasure it forever. —Ellen Ricks

Ellen Ricks is a writer and fashion blogger who loves leopard print. Follow her on Instagram.  

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Your Daily Horoscope for Thursday, December 20

Your Daily Horoscope for Thursday, December 20

By Kelli Fox


March 21- April 19

You’re operating on all cylinders today. With such sharp wits and centered, upbeat energy, you make a great impression on friends and strangers alike. Yes, you’re simultaneously bold and likable, a combination that really helps when it comes to influencing other people while maintaining your friendships with them. You can get what you want without pushing. Some people might even see you as their guru. Good thing you’re one hundred percent up to the task.


April 20-May 20

Whatever you’re involved in today, keep a keen eye on the proceedings. Take notes, too, because your thorough observations will come in handy down the road, when it’s time to make your report. Your careful recounting of events is sure to impress your employer or anyone else listening. Who knows? There might even be a bonus in it for you, sometime in the future. Don’t let that be your carrot, though. Work hard now simply for the sake of hard work.


May 21-June 21

Communication is your strong point, so use it now. It’s time to get a group project off the ground in a big way, and that’s going to require flexibility among your team members. You’ll know instinctively how to present a unified front to your shared enemies. The people you’re working with, whether they’re friends, coworkers or some other group, will admire your energy and drive. Today could be seriously heroic and productive, if you want it to be.


June 22-July 22

You’ve been working hard on a project or toward a personal goal, and today feels like the day when you’ll finally achieve a breakthrough. Don’t get too excited, though. You still might not get the results you expected — but keep the faith, no matter what. You’re doing solid work, and you’ll reach your goal sooner or later. It just might not be today. Remember, if it doesn’t work out this time, you can get it on the next go-round.


July 23-August 22

You’re feeling talkative, aren’t you? Your gregarious side emerges now, and you become a fountain of delightful conversation. Whether you’re at a party, a business meeting or simply standing in line at the grocery store, you’ll engage the people around you with your characteristic warmth and vibrancy. Everyone will enjoy your company. This is a good time for gathering your friends together and have a blast.


August 23-September 22

If there’s any conflict going on in your life right now, it’s only because you lack perspective. You may think you’re experiencing troubles at work or with your sweetie or friends, but really, you’re just temporarily stuck in a narrow world view. One way to decrease tensions is by broadening that view. Stop thinking you have all the answers, or that you need them immediately. It’s okay to float a bit. Open your eyes and ask questions, even open-ended ones.


September 23-October 22

Let’s be honest: You’ve led a bit of a charmed life. You know how to relate to people, and your natural creativity has served you well. But for today, you’re even better than usual at winning friends and influencing people. You can draw heavily on your natural communicative ability. Why? Among other things, you have excellent taste, and everyone knows it. Friends, clients and coworkers are coming to you, asking for your advice on their various projects and situations. This is your time to shine.


October 23 – November 22

Usually, parties and meetings offer great opportunities for networking, socializing, or even a little romance. But today, any attempts you make at small talk could devolve quickly into embarrassing moments that you won’t forget anytime soon. You might decide the universe is against you, but this would be premature on your part. Maybe it’s that you aren’t coming across as genuine. Try broadening what you say, and stick to the bare, honest truth. That’s what people want.


November 23-December 20

You’re a people person by nature, and now, especially, is no time to go it alone. Trying to handle a project on your own might encourage you to start behaving like a tyrant. And that’s just not your style. Be sure to include your friends and partners in your plans today. Comply with their terms and schedules if at all possible. Keep in mind that teamwork matters far more now than progress.


December 21-January 19

Your energy and focus are scattered today, and work — ordinarily your trusty refuge — only brings frustration. Don’t drive yourself crazy by trying ever harder to buckle down. Instead, call a spade a spade, and take a break. An hour of solitude in a coffee shop will do you good. A chat with a friend you’ve been neglecting could make you feel even better. You don’t have to stick to your schedule. Deviating from the plan might actually be very smart.


January 20-February 18

This is your day to shine — to impress an admirer or a client, or to talk your way into a raise, promotion or part in the school play. Whatever your goals or interests are, you can use the energy and high spirits this brief period brings to take big steps forward. Don’t be afraid to knock on many doors, either literally or figuratively. If you feel shy about talking yourself up, just remember: You have skills or information people want.


February 19-March 20

What’s available to you today? Make sure you’re practical in your answer. You’re tense and confused, but relaxing your mind and your expectations will help let the submerged emerge. Know this, at least: Any former divisions between private and public don’t matter now. When you’re talking with your neighbor, don’t worry about revealing too much about your emotional state. You’re sweet and sympathetic enough that other people will want to treat you with the same kindness.


–The Sydney Morning Herald