Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar: Coronation Of Izdubar As King Of The Four Races (Part 25); Assyrian

To Erech’s palaces returns the Sar,
Rich laden with Khumbaba’s spoils of war.
The land of Ur with grandest glories shines–
And gleams with palaces and towers and shrines.
The plain with temples, cities, walls is filled,
And wide canals, and yellow harvests tilled.
Grand Erech to the sight presents no walls
In ruins laid, but glows with turrets, halls;
With splendor proudly shines across the plain.
And now with joy he meets his courtly train;
Their shouts of welcome rend the gleaming skies,
And happiness beams from his people’s eyes.
Within the walls he rides with kingly pride,
And all his chiefs and seers beside him ride;
To his grand palace they now lead the way,
To crown him king of Subartu this day.

Arrayed in splendor on his throne, the Sar
Before him eyes the Kassite spoils of war,
Khumbaba’s crown of gold, and blazing gems,
The richest of the Kassite diadems,
The royal sceptre of all Subartu,
Of Larsa, Ur, Kardunia and Sutu
The Sar upon his brow the crown now bound,
Receives the sceptre while his courts resound
With shouts for Sar-dan-nu of Subartu,
The Sar of Kip-rat arba[1] and Sutu,
Of Sumir, Accad, Nipur, Bar-ili,[2]
And Erech, Larsa, Mairu, and Kus-si,
Of Mal-al-nak, Kitu;–the sky resounds–
For Iz-zu-bar-ili,[3] from earth rebounds;
For Nam-mu-rabi, Bar-bels king of fire.
What king to his great glory can aspire?

The Zig-gur-at-u to the skies
His hands have built, where holy fires
To Samas burn; its flame ne’er dies,
To holiness lead man’s desires.
He opens wide the fiery gates
Of all the gods at Dintir old,
Ka-ding-ir-a.[4] This day completes
His grandeur–may it far be told
Of our great Sar whose godly gate
Wide opens Heaven’s joy for man,
Of Iz-zu-bar-ili the great,
Who rules from Khar-sak to the main.
Within the entrance to the royal rooms,
Queen Ishtar with her train in splendor comes,
Her radiant form with glistening gems ablaze,
And shining crescent with its glorious rays,
Glow with bright Heaven’s unremitting flame;
Thus came the Queen of Love of godly fame.
The richest robe of gods her form enshrines,
With every charm of Heaven and earth she shines;
Of their wide splendors robs the farthest skies,
That she with love her hero may surprise.
Her train she robes with liveries of Heaven,
To her are all the dazzling splendors given.

The glittering court is filled with chiefs and seers,
When Ishtar at the entrance now appears,
The Ner-kalli,[5] her heralds at the door,
As some grand sovereign from a foreign shore.
The goddess proudly enters with her train,
The spirits of the earth, and tossing main,
From mountains, rivers, woods, and running streams;
And every spirit where the sunlight gleams,
Now fill the courts and palaces and halls,
And thousands glowing bright surround the walls;
Each wafting wind brings I-gi-gi[6] that soar
Above An-un-na-ci from every shore,
And herald Ishtar’s presence, Queen of Love,
With music through the halls, around, above.
From lyres and lutes their softest wooings bring,
As Ishtar bows before her lover king.
A halo from the goddess fills the halls,
And shines upon the dazzling jewelled walls.
The Sar and seers in wonder were amazed
At the sweet strains, and glorious light that blazed;
Transfixed in silence stood, as she now spoke,
And sweeter music through the palace woke.
Like fragrant zephyrs, warbling from retreats
Of gardens of the gods, she thus entreats
From Izdubar her welcome, or a glance
Of love; and she the Sar would thus entrance:

“Thy wisdom, Sar, surpasses all mankind,
In thee, O king! no blemish do I find.
The Queen of Heaven favor seeks from thee,
I come with love, and prostrate bend the knee.
My follies past, I hope thou wilt forgive,
Alone I love thee, with thee move and live;
My heart’s affections to thee, me have led,
To woo thee to thine Ishtar’s marriage bed.
O kiss me, my beloved! I adore
Thee! Hear me! I renounce the godly shore
With all its hollow splendor where as queen
I o’er the heavenly hosts, unrivaled reign
In grandest glory on my shining throne;
And yet for thee my heart here pines alone,
I cannot live without my Izdubar!
My husband’s love and simple word shall far
Surpass the godly bond. O let me, king,
Rest on thy breast, and happiness will cling
To all the blissful days which shall be thine.
With glory of the skies, my love shall shine.
O Izdubar, my king! this love below
Is grander here than mortals e’er can know,
For this I leave my throne in yonder skies,
And at the feet of love thy queen now lies.
Oh, let me taste with thee the sweets of love,
And I my love for thee will grandly prove,
And thou shalt ride upon a diamond car,
Lined with pure gold; and jeweled horns of war
Shall stud it round like rays of Samas’ fire.
Rich gifts whate’er my lover shall desire,
Thy word shall bring to thee, my Sar-dan-nu!
Lo! all the wealth that gods above can view,
I bring to thee with its exhaustless store.
Oh, come my love! within the halls, where more
Than I have named is found, all, all is thine;
Oh, come with me within our halls divine!
Amid the fragrant odors of the pines,
And all shrubs and flowers, vines,
Euphrates’ “zir-ri” there shall sing for thee,
And dance around thy feet with zi-mu-ri[7]
And kings and lords and princes I will bring
To bow to thee, beloved, glorious king!
With tribute from the mountains and the plains,
As offerings to thee. Thy flocks shall twins
Bring forth; and herds of fattened, lowing kine
Shall fast increase upon the plains divine.
Thy warrior steeds shall prance with flowing manes,
Resistless with thy chariot on the plain.
Vast spoils, thy beasts of burden far shall bear,
Unrivaled then shall be my king of war;
And victory o’er all, thine eyes shall view,
And loud acclaims shall rend the bright Samu.”

[Footnote 1: “Kip-rat arba,” the four races or regions.]–[Footnote 2: “Bar-ili,” from “bar,” gate, and “ili,” of the gods–Babel, Bab–originates from the Accadian word “bar,” Semitic “bab;” thus Babel was originally called “bar-ili.” See Taylor and Furst. The latter renders it “Bar-(Bir-)Bel,” “town of Belus.”]–[Footnote 3: “Izzu-bar-ili” we believe to be the original name of Izdubar, afterward shortened to Izdubar, and means literally the fire-king of “bar-ili,” or the “fire-king of the gate of the gods.” This identifies him with Nimrod, the founder of Bar-bet or Babylon.]–[Footnote 4: Ka-ding-ir-a (Acc.), “gate of God”–Pinches.]–[Footnote 5: “Ner-kalli,” or “Ner-ekalli,” chief of the palace.]–[Footnote 6: “I-gi-gi,” pronounced “e-gee-gee,” spirits of heaven.]–[Footnote 7: “Zi-mu-ri,” spirits of the light.]

SOURCE: Babylonian and Assyrian Literature; Alcove II, Tablet V Column 1 (1901): Translated by Leonidas Le Cenci Hamilton, M.A.

Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar: The King’s Answer And Ishtar’s Rage (Part 26) Assyrian

Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar: Hand-to-Hand Conflict of the rival Giants–Death of Khumbaba (Part 24); Assyrian


World War Two: Philippines (Prewar Part 1-4B); Japanese Invasion Plans

The Japanese plan for the occupation of the Philippines was but part of the larger plan for the Greater East Asia War in which the Southern Army was to seize Malaya and the Netherlands Indies while the Combined Fleet neutralized the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The Southern Army was organized on 6 November 1941, with General Count Hisaichi Terauchi, who had been War Minister in 1936, as commander.

His orders from Imperial General Headquarters were to prepare for operations in the event that negotiations with the United States failed. Under his command were placed the 14th, 15th, 16th and 25th Armies, comprising ten divisions and three mixed brigades. Southern Army’s mission in case of war would be to seize American, British, and Dutch possessions in the “southern area” in the shortest time possible. Operations against the Philippines and British Malaya were to begin simultaneously, on orders from Imperial General Headquarters. [Southern Army Opns, p. 6. The operations order given by the commander of the Southern Army was destroyed by fire. Certificate of Yozo Miyama, 1st Demob Bureau, Defense Doc 2726, IMTFE.]

Southern Army immediately began to prepare plans for seizure of the southern area. To 14th Army, consisting of the 16th and 48th Divisions and the 65th Brigade, was assigned the task of taking the Philippine Islands. The campaign in the East Indies was to be under the control of 16th Army; the 15th Army would take Thailand. The 25th Army was assigned the most important and difficult mission, the conquest of Malaya and Singapore, and was accordingly given four of the Southern Army’s ten divisions. Air support for these operations was to be provided by two air groups and an independent air unit. The 5th Air Group was assigned to the Philippine Campaign. [The Southern Army Opns, pp. 4-6. An air group was roughly the equivalent of a U.S. numbered air force, and was the largest tactical unit in the Japanese Army Air Force at that time.]

Beginning on 10 November a number of meetings attended by the senior army and navy commanders were held in Tokyo to settle various details in the execution of the plans. The commanders of the 14th, 16th, and 25th Armies, in session with the Premier (who was also the War Minister), the Army Chief of Staff, and General Terauchi, were shown the Imperial General Headquarters operational plans, given an outline of the strategy, and told what their missions would be in the event of war. In the discussions between Army and Navy commanders that followed this meeting a few modifications were made in the general strategy and the specific operational plans. Southern Army published its orders for the forthcoming operations, omitting only the date when hostilities would start.

Specific plans for the seizure of the Philippine Islands were first developed by the Japanese Army’s General Staff in the fall of 1941. As the plans for the southern area were developed, the Philippine plan was modified to conform to the larger strategy being developed and to release some of the forces originally assigned 14th Army to other, more critical operations. The final plan was completed at the meetings between the 14th Army commander, Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma, and the commanders of the 5th Air Group (Lieutenant General Hideyoshi Obata), the 3d Fleet (Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi), and the 11th Air Fleet (Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara), held at Iwakuni in southern Honshu from the 13th to the 15th of November.

The general scheme of operations for the Philippine campaign called for simultaneous air attacks starting on X Day, the first day of war, against American aircraft and installations in the Philippines by the 5th Air Group (Army) and the 11th Air Fleet (Navy). While the air attacks were in progress, advance Army and Navy units were to land on Batan Island, north of Luzon; at three places on Luzon: Aparri, Vigan, and Legaspi; and at Davao in Mindanao. The purpose of these landings was to seize airfields. The air force was to move to these fields as soon as possible and continue the destruction of the American air and naval forces from these close-in bases.

When the major part of American air strength had been eliminated, the main force of the 14th Army was to land along Lingayen Gulf, north of Manila, while another force would land at Lamon Bay, southeast of the capital. These forces, with close air support, were to advance on Manila from the north and south. It was expected that the decisive engagement of the campaign would be fought around Manila. Once the capital was taken, the islands defending the entrance to Manila Bay were to be captured and Luzon occupied.

Imperial General Headquarters and Southern Army expected General Homma to complete his mission in about fifty days; at the end of that time, approximately half of the 14th Army, as well as the Army and Navy air units, were to leave the Philippines for operations in the south. The remaining elements of the 14th Army were then to occupy the Visayas and Mindanao as rapidly as possible. Little difficulty was expected in this phase of the operations and detailed plans were to be made at the appropriate time. The Japanese considered it essential to the success of Southern Army operations to gain complete victory in the Philippines before the end of March 1942.

[Ibid., pp. 6-8; 14th Army Opns, I, 14. Unless otherwise specified, this account of the 14th Army’s plan for the conquest of the Philippines is taken from the 14th Army Opns, I and II. The translation has been checked against the original Japanese study prepared by the 1st Demob Bureau. Statement of Colonel Hattori, 2 Nov 47, ATIS Doc 49125, Statements of Japanese Officials on World War II, GHQ FEC, Mil Intel Sec, IV, 315.]

Forces assigned to the Philippine campaign, small as they were, were required in other more vital areas. The Japanese plan was based on a detailed knowledge of the Philippine Islands and a fairly accurate estimate of American and Philippine forces. The Japanese were aware that the bulk of the American and Philippine forces was on Luzon and that the U.S. Army garrison had been increased since July 1941 from 12,000 to 22,000.

Eighty percent of the officers and 40 percent of the enlisted men were thought to be Americans and the rest, Filipinos. American troops were regarded as good soldiers, but inclined to deteriorate physically and mentally in a tropical climate. The Filipino, though inured to the tropics, had little endurance or sense of responsibility, the Japanese believed, and was markedly inferior to the American as a soldier. The American garrison was correctly supposed to be organized into one division, an air unit, and a “fortress unit” (Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays). The division was mistakenly thought to consist of two infantry brigades, a field artillery brigade, and supporting services. The Japanese knew that MacArthur also had one battalion of fifty-four tanks-which was true at that time-and believed that there was also an antitank battalion in the Islands. The harbor defenses were known to consist of four coast artillery regiments, including one antiaircraft regiment.

The Japanese estimated that the American air force in the Philippines was composed of one pursuit regiment of 108 planes, one bombardment regiment of about 38 planes, one pursuit squadron of 27 planes, and two reconnaissance squadrons of 13 planes. American aircraft were based on two major fields on Luzon, the Japanese believed. They placed the pursuit group at Nichols Field, in the suburbs of Manila, and the bombers at Clark Field. Other fields on Luzon were thought to base a total of 20 planes. The Japanese placed 52 Navy patrol and carrier-based fighter planes at Cavite and 18 PBY’s at Olongapo.

The strength of the Philippine Army and the Constabulary, the Japanese estimated, was 110,000 men. This strength, they thought, would be increased to 125,000 by December. The bulk of the Philippine Army, organized into ten divisions, was known to consist mostly of infantry with only a few engineer and artillery units. This army was considered very much inferior to the U.S. Regular Army in equipment, training, and fighting qualities.

Though they had a good picture of the defending force, Japanese knowledge of American defense plans was faulty. They expected that the Philippine garrison would make its last stand around Manila and when defeated there would scatter and be easily mopped up. No preparation was made for an American withdrawal to the Bataan peninsula. In October, at a meeting of the 14th Army staff officers in Tokyo, Homma’s chief of staff, Lieutenant General Masami Maeda, had raised the possibility of a withdrawal to Bataan. Despite his protests, the subject was quickly dropped.

[Staff officers of the Interrog of General Maeda, 10 May 47, Mil Hist Div, GHQ FEC; statement of General Maeda, 2 Mar 50, ATIS Doc 56234; statement of Lieutenant Colonel Yoshio Nakajima, 6 Feb 50, ATIS Doc 56349; statement of Lieutenant Colonel Monjiro Akiyama, 2 Mar 50, A TIS Doc 56232; statement of Lieutenant Colonel Hikaru Haba, 2 Mar 50, ATIS Doc 56233; statement of Colonel Motoo Nakayama, 21 Mar 50, ATIS Doc 56640. Colonel Nakajima was, at the beginning of the Philippine Campaign, Intelligence Officer, 14th Army, and subsequently its Operations Officer. When Colonel Nakajima was made Operations Officer, Colonel Haba, formerly Assistant Intelligence Officer, 14th Army, was promoted to Intelligence Officer. Colonel Akiyama was 14th Army Air Officer, and Colonel Nakayama, Senior Operations Officer, 14th Army. Copies of these ATIS documents and interrogations are in Interrogations of Former Japanese Officers, Mil Hist Div, GHQ FEC, I and II.]

48th Division also claimed to have discussed the question of Bataan before the division embarked at Formosa. The consensus then was that while resistance could be expected before Manila and on Corregidor, Bataan “being a simple, outlying position, would fall quickly.”

The Japanese originally planned to assign to the Philippine campaign six battalions for the advance landings, two full divisions for the main landings, and supporting troops. So meager were the forces available to Southern Army that General Homma was finally allotted for the entire operation only 2 divisions, the 16th and 48th. Supporting troops included 2 tank regiments, 2 regiments and 1 battalion of medium artillery, 3 engineer regiments, 5 antiaircraft battalions, and a large number of service units. Once Luzon had been secured, most of the air units and the 48th Division, as well as other units, were to be transferred to the Indies and Malaya. At that time Homma would receive the 65th Brigade to mop up remaining resistance and to garrison Luzon. The 16th Division would then move south and occupy the Visayas and Mindanao.

The 14th Army commander had also counted on having the support of a joint Army and Navy air force of 600 planes. But one of the two air brigades of the 5th Air Group and some of the naval air units originally destined for the Philippines were transferred to other operations. The addition of the 24th Air Regiment to the 5th Air Group at the last moment brought the combined air and naval strength committed. [Statement of Colonel Moriji Kawagoe, CofS 48th Div, 9 Mar 50, ATIS Doc 56354; statement of Major Makoto Nakahara, Opns Officer, 48th Div, 13 Max 50, ATIS Doc 56372, ibid. to the Philippine campaign to about 500 combat aircraft.]

Air and Naval Plans

Air operations against the Philippines would begin on the morning of X Day when planes of the Army’s 5th Air Group and the Navy’s 11th Air Fleet, would strike American air forces on Luzon. These attacks would continue until American air strength had been destroyed. For reasons of security, there was to be no aerial or submarine reconnaissance before the attack, except for high altitude aerial photographs of landing sites. [The material on naval plans is taken from Naval Operations in the Invasion of the Philippines, Japanese Studies in World War II, No. 13, 2d Demob Bureau, pp. 1-6. Like other studies in this series, it is filed in OCMH and has been checked against the original. Morison, Rising Sun in the Pacific, pp. 161-63, is useful for the organization of Japan’s naval forces. See also Combined Fleet Top Secret Operations Order 1, in Pearl Harbor Attack Hearings, Part 13, Exhibit 8, pp. 432-84.]

By arrangement between the Japanese Army and Navy commanders, Army air units were to operate north of the 16th degree of latitude, a line stretching across Luzon from Lingayen on the west coast to the San defonso Peninsula on the east. Naval air units were made responsible for the area south of this line, which included Clark Field, the vital Manila area, Cavite, and the harbor defenses. This line was determined by the range of Army and Navy aircraft. The Navy Zero fighters had the longer range and were therefore assigned missions in the Manila area. Carrier planes of the 4th Carrier Division, originally based at Palau, were to provide air support for the landings at Davao and Legaspi. [The 11th Air Fleet had originally planned to use carrier-based fighters to neutralize southern Luzon, but the pilots trained for this mission were transferred with their planes to the Pearl Harbor operation. During the fall of 1941 the improvement of the Zero fighters and the rapid advancement in pilot training made it possible to utilize land-based fighters on Formosa for long-distance sorties against Luzon.]

Once the advance units of 14th Army had landed and secured airfields, the main force of the 5th Air Group was to move up to the fields at Aparri, Laoag, and Vigan, while naval air units would base on the fields at Legaspi and Davao. The airfield near Aparri was mistakenly believed to be suitable for heavy bombers and the bulk of the 5th Air Group was ordered there. It was anticipated that the forward displacement of the air forces would be completed by the sixth or seventh day of operations. During this week a naval task force from the 3d Fleet was to provide protection for the convoys and carry out antisubmarine measures in the Formosa area and in Philippine waters.

Naval surface forces assigned to the Philippines operations were under the 3d Fleet. This fleet, commanded by Admiral Takahashi, was primarily an amphibious force with supporting cruisers and destroyers. Its principal mission was to support the landings in the Philippines by minelaying, reconnaissance, escorting the troops during the voyage to the targets, and protecting them during landing operations. No provisions was made for surface bombardment of shore objectives, presumably in the interests of secrecy.

Because of the many landings to be made at widely scattered points in the Philippine archipelago it was necessary to organize the 3d Fleet into numerous special task forces. For the landing on Batan Island the Third Surprise Attack Force of 1 destroyer, 4 torpedo boats, and other small craft was organized. The naval escort for the landing of the advance units on Luzon consisted of the First, Second, and Fourth Surprise Attack Force, each composed of 1 light cruiser, 6 or 7 destroyers, transports, and other auxiliary craft. The Legaspi Force (Fourth Surprise Attack Force) was to be staged at Palau, and since it could not be supported by the planes of the 11th Air Fleet it included the South Philippines Support Force, comprising the 4th Carrier Division and 2 seaplane carriers with 20 planes each. The units landing at Davao were to be covered by this same force.

To support the main landings Admiral Takahashi created the Close Cover Force, which he commanded directly, composed of 1 light and 2 heavy cruisers, and 2 converted seaplane tenders. Two battleships and 3 heavy cruisers from Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo’s 2d Fleet, then operating in Malayan and East Indian waters, were also to support the landings, which would be additionally supported by 3 of the escort groups. The Lamon Bay Attack Group, in addition to 1 light cruiser and 6 destroyers, included 6 converted gunboats and 1 battalion of naval troops.

Concentration of Forces

Early in November the forces assigned to the Philippine campaign began to move to their designated jump-off points. The 5th Air Group arrived in southern Formosa from Manchuria during the latter part of the month. On 23 November two of the advance detachments stationed in Formosa boarded ship at Takao and sailed to Mako in the Pescadores. Between 27 November and 6 December the 48th Division (less detachments) concentrated at Mako, Takoa, and Kirun, and made final preparations for the coming invasion. The first units of the 16th Division sailed from Nagoya in Japan on 20 November, followed five days later by the remainder of the division. Part of this division concentrated at Palau and the main body at Amami Oshima in the Ryukyus. On 1 December, when General Romma established his command post at Takao, he received final instructions from Southern Army. Operations would begin on 8 December (Tokyo time).

SOURCE: The Fall Of The Philippines by Louis Morton (United States Army Center of Military History)

World War Two: Philippines (Prewar; Part 1-4C); Defense Plans WPO-3 “Orange”

World War Two: Philippines (Prewar (Part 1-4A); Japanese strategy for a war

World News Headlines: 12-21-2018


Tightened security at French and German airports ahead of holidays; French and German authorities said they have been responding to credible threats. However, some airports maintained they were merely taking precautions. German and French airports have tightened their security measures in the run-up to Christmas, authorities confirmed Thursday. At this time of year, airports across Europe receive tips from many other countries around the world, some of them highly credible. According to German public broadcaster ARD, some of these credible tips included information from Moroccan intelligence indicating that an attack was planned at an airport either in France or Germany. Two days after an attack on the Strasbourg Christmas market, police found the very men described by their Moroccan counterparts in a German-licensed vehicle at Paris’ Charles De Gaulle Airport. Another credible tip involved a father and son from the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia that appeared to be casing some of the country’s airports. Police said they had made four arrests related to the possibility that extremists were surveilling German airports. But some airports were keen to downplay the risk of perceived threats, emphasizing that increased security around the holidays is routine.

Ex-Nissan boss Carlos Ghosn rearrested for aggravated breach of trust; Japanese prosecutors have reportedly added new charges against Carlos Ghosn. The move comes after a court rejected a request to extend the former Nissan chairman’s detention over allegations he underreported his income.Japan prosecutors have rearrested former Nissan executive Carlos Ghosn over new allegations of aggravated breach of trust, according to local media. The Kyodo news agency said the new allegations were based on suspicions that Ghosn, who was the chairman of Nissan until the company ousted him in November, made the automaker cover personal investment losses of about 1.85 billion yen ($16.6 million, €14.5 million) in 2008 The new arrest means Ghosn could be detained for another 10 days in a Tokyo jail as prosecutors investigate the new charge. Ghosn’s lawyers were hoping to get him released on bail, possibly as early as Friday, after a Tokyo court rejected a bid by Japanese prosecutors to extend his detention.

German lawmakers meet Julian Assange in London; Two German parliamentarians have become Julian Assange’s first visitors in the Ecuadorean Embassy in London since March. The Left party members say the WikiLeaks founder must be protected from extradition to the US.Two members of the German parliament, the Bundestag, visited Julian Assange in the Ecuadorean Embassy in London on Thursday to pass on their “greetings of solidarity from the [opposition] Left party and his many supporters from Germany,” and to discuss the possibility of a “humanitarian solution” to the WikiLeaks founder’s legal situation. Sevim Dagdelen and Heike Hänsel, who also sit on the Bundestag’s foreign affairs committee, traveled to London as Ecuador increases the pressure to end Assange’s six-year stay in the embassy. “He was really happy to see us, he hugged us tightly when we left,” Dagdelen told DW after the hourlong meeting, which she said was his first visit from parliamentarians in at least eight months. “It was obvious that he was happy about our visit.”

Apple Inc loses to Qualcomm in Munich and pulls older iPhones from German stores; In the latest case in a legal battle between the US chipmaker and US smartphone brand, a German court gave the nod to the chipmaker. It means older iPhones will come off the shelves of Apple stores in Germany. A judge in Munich ruled on Thursday that iPhones which have a combination of chips from Intel and Apple-supplier Qorvo violated one of Qualcomm’s patents in Europe around so-called envelope tracking. The feature helps mobile phones save battery power.
Apple is: “Banned from offering or distributing unlicensed” devices that use the disputed patent, the Munich regional court (Landgericht) ruled, as it also awarded Qualcomm unspecified damages from Apple. The ban on Apple is dependent on Qualcomm paying a security deposit of €668 million ($765 million) as Apple makes its appeal against the ruling. In a statement, the Cupertino computer giant said: “We are of course disappointed by this verdict and we plan to appeal. During the appeal process, iPhone 7 and iPhone 8 models will not be available at Apple’s 15 retail stores in Germany. iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and iPhone XR will remain available in all our stores.”

Driver plows car into pedestrians at German bus stop, killing one; Recklinghausen police have said that several people were injured and one killed in the incident. They have, however, warned that no assumptions should be made at this point. On Thursday afternoon a 32-year-old man drove his car into a group of pedestrians waiting at a bus stop in the German city of Recklinghausen, near Dortmund. The crash injured seven people, including the driver, and killed an 88-year-old woman. The cause of the accident, which took place shortly before 3 p.m. local time (1400 GMT/UTC), is not yet known.
The driver reportedly swerved out of his lane, crossing onto the wrong side of the street before plowing into the crowded bus stop. “Police experts are working intensively on determining the cause. The area around the accident has been closed off,” local police said on Twitter.

German and US NGO workers acquitted in Egypt; The Konrad Adenauer Foundation has ended its seven-year legal battle in Cairo. While Egypt has begun rehabilitating social charities, human rights and pro-democracy groups are still under draconian restrictions. Egypt acquitted at least 40 people, including several German and US nationals. of illegally obtaining funding for their NGOs. One of the affected organizations was the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, the charitable arm of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats (CDU). “This verdict ends a years-long dispute that weighed on our relations with Egypt,” said Germany’s Foreign Ministry in a statement. They added that the foundation has been completely “rehabilitated” and is once again up and running in Cairo. Reports on the case on Thursday offered contradictory information on whether all 43 of those originally convicted had been pardoned, with some news agencies saying only 40 had been acquitted. The ruling ends a seven-year-long legal battlethat began with the 2011 revolution that saw strongman Hosni Mubarak ousted from power. In the unrest that followed, Egyptian authorities had claimed that organizations like Konrad Adenauer Foundation and the US-based Freedom House were receiving illicit funds both from inside and outside Egypt.

Denmark to house foreign criminals on tiny island; Denmark has approved funding to transform a remote island from a contagious diseases laboratory into a detention center that would house migrant criminals who cannot be deported. The move was criticized by the UN.The Danish government will begin holding foreign criminals on a remote island, located approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Copenhagen. The controversial plan was included in the 2019 budget proposal, which the legislature approved on Thursday. Under the measure, some 100 migrant criminals would be sent to Lindholm Island. People with criminal records and those who were denied asylum but cannot be deported due to risk of torture or execution in their home countries would be included. Denmark has taken a tough stance on immigration in recent years. The center-right government, which governs with the anti-immigration People’s Party, has made notable changes to reduce the flow of migrants. These include the reduction of benefits for asylum-seekers, shortening temporary residence permits, stepping up deportations of rejected asylum-seekers and granting power to authorities to seize valuables from migrants to help finance the costs of their stay.

Airbus shares fall on reports of US corruption investigation; Shares in the European aerospace corporation fell after news of a US probe into corruption which could result in fines of several billlion euros. Similar investigations in the UK and France are already underway. Shares in Airbus fell 9 percent on Thursday on the news published in Le Monde newspaper, before recovering to €83.37 ($95.18) in late-afternoon trading, a fall of 4 per cent on the day.
The French daily newspaper reported that the US Department of Justice had opened an official inquiry into Airbus. “Airbus is cooperating with the US authorities in close coordination” with investigators in the UK and France, the company said in a statement. The UK’s Serious Fraud Office and France’s Parquet National Financier have been probing possible bribery in Airbus’s passenger jet business for some time.

FRANCE (France24)

UN Security Council to vote on sending observers to Yemen; The 15-member council has spent several days wrangling over a British-drafted text and the United States, unhappy with Britain’s efforts, came up with its own version on Thursday. The council will vote on Britain’s draft and Washington is not expected to put its text to a vote, diplomats said. The U.S. mission to the United Nations did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

DR Congo presidential election delayed until December 30; Already delayed repeatedly since 2016, the poll is meant to choose a successor to President Joseph Kabila, who is to step down after 18 years in what would be Congo’s first democratic transition. After a meeting with candidates in the capital, the electoral commission (CENI) said it had not been able to provide sufficient ballot papers for Kinshasa after a warehouse blaze last week destroyed much of the capital’s election material. “We cannot organise general elections without the province of Kinshasa, and without the Kinois voters – who represent 10 percent of the electoral body,” CENI president Corneille Nangaa told journalists.

Suspects behind Morocco murders of Scandinavians ‘pledged allegiance’ to IS group; The bodies of Louisa Vesterager Jespersen, 24, from Denmark and Maren Ueland, 28, from Norway, were found on Monday in an isolated area near Imlil, on the way to Toubkal, North Africa’s highest peak and a popular hiking destination. Police arrested a suspect on Tuesday in the tourist hub of Marrakech who they said belonged to a militant group. Three more were picked up later in the city, the Central Bureau for Judicial Investigations said.
Morocco’s general prosecutor on Thursday confirmed the authenticity of a video in which he said the four pledged allegiance to Islamic State and its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.


Ghosn re-arrested on breach of trust; Prosecutors have slapped a fresh arrest warrant on Nissan Motor’s former Chairman. Carlos Ghosn was re-arrested on allegations of breach of trust. The shocking development comes as many were expecting he would post bail. He’s now expected to remain in detention. On Friday, prosecutors alleged Ghosn shifted a private investment loss of over 16 million dollars onto Nissan in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. The Japanese securities watchdog apparently knew about the transaction at the time and questioned its legality. Sources say Ghosn has denied carrying it out. Prosecutors also suspect he had Nissan’s subsidiary transfer nearly 15 million dollars into the account of a person who helped out in the scheme. Ghosn has been locked up in a Tokyo detention center along with his close aid Greg Kelly for nearly a month after the two were arrested. They have since been indicted for allegedly conspiring to underreport Ghosn’s income by tens of millions of dollars over a 5-year period starting in 2010. Both have reportedly denied any wrongdoing. Lawyers for the men were getting ready to file a request for their bail after the court made a rare rejection of a prosecutors’ bid to hold them for 10 more days.

Ghosn aide may be freed on bail on Friday; The lawyer for a close aide of former Nissan Motor chairman Carlos Ghosn has asked the Tokyo District Court to release his client on bail. If approved, Greg Kelly, a former representative director with the firm could be released on bail as early as Friday, after about a month in detention. On Thursday, the court rejected a prosecution request to extend the two men’s detention over charges of underreporting Ghosn’s remuneration.

Putin criticizes US over its nuclear arms policy; Russian President Vladimir Putin has criticized the administration of US President Donald Trump for its negative attitude toward bilateral treaties on nuclear arms control. Putin was speaking at a news conference with reporters from Russia and other countries on Thursday. He was asked about Washington’s intention to walk away from the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and its reluctance to negotiate the extension of the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty, which expires in 2021. Putin said the United States appears to show little interest in arms control treaties and it doesn’t need them. The president said Russia will ensure its own security, expressing his intention to take countermeasures. Putin pointed out the US administration’s dismissal of efforts for nuclear disarmament has led to a trend to lower the hurdle of using nuclear weapons. He added lowering the threshold could lead to a global nuclear catastrophe and called it a threat facing human beings.

China admits detention of 3rd Canadian; China says it has detained a third Canadian citizen for working in the country illegally. Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying told reporters on Thursday that a Canadian woman is undergoing administrative punishment by a police organization. Two Canadian men had been taken into custody this month. Hua said the men are suspected of endangering China’s national security. The moves are seen as retaliation for the arrest of Meng Wanzhou, the Chief Financial Officer of Chinese telecom giant Huawei. Canadian authorities arrested Meng on December 1st at the request of the US, drawing a strong protest from China.