Today’s Extra for Feb. 13: Best Valentine’s Day Gift Ideas for Someone Based on Their Love Language

Best Valentine’s Day Gift Ideas for Someone Based on Their Love Language

Valentine’s Day. Love it or hate it, it’s almost upon us. (I know, wasn’t it just Christmas?) A lot of people think it’s just another excuse for retailers to get us to part with our moolah. But done right, it can actually be really special.

Rather than yet another heart-covered Snoopy card or stuffed animal (yawn), let’s put some thought into celebrating the day of romance this year. Let’s gift our significant other with something that speaks their love language.


If you’re wondering how on earth you’re supposed to figure out your partner’s love language, not to worry. Gary Chapman wrote a book called The 5 Love Languages: The Secret to Love That Lasts.

When the initial head-over-heels-ness of a new relationship wears off and life resumes a sense of normality, we forget to do the small things that let our spouse know we care.

Oftentimes, when we do remember, our efforts fall short of the mark. Not because we didn’t try, but because we used the wrong language. When we learn to express love in our partner’s language, our efforts will almost always be appreciated.

Helpfully, discovering your love language is as simple as taking a quick online assessment. Based on your responses, it then identifies your primary love language, explains what it means and helps you use it to connect more intimately with your person.

Your love language essentially sums up what you value most in a relationship. For some people it’s receiving a gift or token of appreciation, for others it’s spending quality time with a loved one. When you know your partner’s love language it’s suddenly a lot easier to understand why your last gift wasn’t a hit with them.

Words of Affirmation

As it implies, this language uses words to affirm other people. Whether you express your love verbally, via text message or in an old school letter, doesn’t matter. The important thing is to choose your words thoughtfully.

Gift idea: Grab a sheet of paper or open a new Word doc and get writing. Don’t worry about being a literary genius or anything. Just focus on saying how you feel in an honest and heartfelt way. List the things you love most about them, big and small. Let them know you notice these things even if you don’t always say as much.

Then, roll it up, tie it with ribbon and add a wax stamp. You could also wrap it in tissue paper or put it in an envelope covered in geeky stickers. You can give it to them as is, but going the extra mile with the presentation will knock your home run right out of the ball park.

Acts of Service

For these people, actions speak louder than words. There’s no point buying them roses or telling them how much they mean to you, they want you to show them. Something as simple as taking on the lion’s share of the housework when they’re stressed at work will mean the world to them.

Gift idea: Make a romantic Valentine’s Day dinner for the two of you. If you can’t cook, make something basic. The fact that you made the effort is what counts here. Also, and this is important, make sure you do the washing up afterwards.

Not feeling your inner-Nigella? What about making them a ‘Get Out of Housework’ free voucher to be used at their discretion? The fact that you’re willing to risk having to vacuum  and wash dishes at a moment’s notice is going to score you a bunch of points.

Receiving Gifts

For some people, what makes them feel most loved is to receive a gift. The trick is to give them something that shows how much you care. Take the time to make or buy a gift that’s personal, speaks to their tastes and shows you put a lot of thought into it.

Gift idea: Anyone can go to the store and buy a box of chocolates. You need to raise the bar a little higher than that. If hand making chocolate is too much of a stretch, then at least visit a quality chocolatier and put together a collection of their favorite flavors.

If you’re married to an earth-warrior, then make sure your gift is eco-friendly and if your spouse is vegan be sure to give them something that’s vegan friendly. A little effort and forethought goes a long way, is all I’m saying.

Quality Time

This language is all about giving the other person your undivided attention. They love the idea of the two of you hanging out together with no chance of being interrupted. The simple act of putting your phone away when you’re together will speak volumes.

Gift idea: Send the kids to grandma and have a romantic picnic in the lounge. Put on some music and just enjoy each other’s company. Without being too show-offy about it, make a point of letting them know your phone is not only on silent, but in another room entirely. It’s the little things.

Physical Touch

To this person, nothing speaks more deeply than appropriate touch. Getting physical means the world to them. Sex is great, but so is holding hands, hugging and scooching up close on the couch to watch a movie.

Gift idea: Give your love a Valentine’s Day to remember with a massage that shows exactly how you feel. Set the scene with scented candles, soft music and romantic essential oils. Remember, it’s about touch more than technique. Take your time and really get into the experience. Whatever you do, don’t cop out and give them a massage voucher for some fancy spa. That’s not the point.


World War Two: Gilberts & Marshalls (13); Japanese Defenses Marshalls

Before Pearl Harbor: Under the terms of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, Japan was bound to prevent “the establishment of fortifications of military and naval bases” in the former German possessions in the Pacific mandated to her—the Marianas, Palaus, Caroline’s, and Marshalls.

The neutralization of other Japanese-held islands was guaranteed by the Washington Naval Limitations Treaty of 1922, signed by the United States and Japan, as well as by the British Empire, France, and Italy. On 27 March 1933, Japan gave the required two years’ notice of her intention to withdraw from the League, and the official withdrawal was consummated on 27 March two years later. This action, being unilateral, did not relieve Japan of her obligation not to fortify the mandated islands under the terms of the Covenant. However, the League was powerless to enforce the Covenant and after 1935 the islands were for the most part closed to foreign visitors. From 1935 until 1944 the nature and extent of Japanese activities in the mandated islands remained veiled in mystery.

One inevitable result of this policy of exclusion, coupled with the known aggressive intentions of the Japanese Empire on the Asiatic mainland, was in the late 1930’s to raise grave suspicions among the Western powers that Japan was fortifying the islands contrary to her commitments stipulated under the terms of the League Covenant. One Australian commentator put it, “It is believed that Japan has assembled, in these islands, equipment and supplies which would be of great value to her in any policy of aggression.” Evidence brought to light since the close of World War II amply justifies the suspicion.

From 1934 through 1941 the Japanese undertook considerable construction activity in their island possessions, allegedly for nonmilitary purposes. According to the testimony of Captain Hidemi Yoshida, IJN, who was intimately connected with naval construction in the mandates, this program was aimed primarily at the building of “cultural and industrial facilities.” Under the category of “cultural and industrial facilities” were listed such items as ramps and runways for aircraft, wireless stations, direction finders, meteorological stations, and lighthouses. These improvements, Yoshida claimed, were necessary for safe navigation, promotion of commerce, and other peaceful pursuits.

Unquestionably many of these installations could be employed for commercial purposes. It is equally true that their nature was such as to permit an easy conversion to military uses, if the situation so demanded. It also appears certain that the Japanese made a deliberate effort to disguise military construction projects in the cloak of harmless peaceful endeavors. For example, in 1940 the Naval Secretariat set aside the sum of 4,635,750 yen ($1,086,619.80) for lighthouse construction throughout the Palaus, Caroline’s, and Marshalls. Among the items authorized for these “lighthouses” were military barracks, generators, ammunition storage buildings, command posts, lookout stations, roads, and water storage facilities. No mention was made of towers, searchlights, bells, foghorns, or the other paraphernalia usually associated with such aids to navigation. Whatever the extent of Japanese military construction in the Pacific islands was before 1940, it is clear that from that year until the outbreak of war with the Allied Powers in December 1941 the mandated islands were being fortified as rapidly as conditions would permit.

Late in 1939 the 4th Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy was organized and charged with the mission of protecting the mandated area. With headquarters at Truk, the 4th Fleet’s area of command roughly coincided with the area mandated to Japan. After the commencement of hostilities Wake, Guam, the Gilberts, Nauru and Ocean Islands were added. This “fleet” had only a few combat vessels under its command, its primary duties being to build up and defend air and naval bases in Japan’s island possessions. Throughout 1940 the 4th Fleet existed mostly on paper, and did not really start to grow until the end of the year.

About the same time that the 4th Fleet was being activated, the Imperial Navy sent a large team to survey the Marshalls with the object of laying plans for a fairly large-scale construction program. Up until late 1939 far more attention had been devoted to the Caroline’s and Marianas than to the more distant Marshalls. Now, improvements in warships and naval weapons, and especially the advent of heavy land-based bombers, forced the Japanese to re-evaluate the importance of the Marshalls and to concentrate more heavily on their defense.

In January 1941, the 6th Base Force was activated as a subordinate command and assigned to the Marshalls, where it remained to command the Marshalls sector until destroyed by the American invasion of Kwajalein. At the same time, a subordinate unit, the 6th Defense Force, was also activated and arrived in the Marshalls in March. Finally, in September 1941, three guard forces (the 51st, 52nd and 53rd) were activated and ordered to the Marshalls where they were made directly responsible to the 6th Base Force for the defense of Jaluit, Maloelap, and Wotje. Similar units were dispatched to the other mandates at the same time.

Concurrently with this movement of troops and workers into the Marshalls, airfield construction in the area was accelerated. Early in 1941 the 4th Fleet assumed control of all unfinished aircraft installations and also commenced many new projects. Most of the money appropriated for the defense of the mandated islands was allocated to the building of airfields and their aircraft facilities. During the period 16 November 1940 to 31 May 1941, a total of 49,526,396 yen ($11,608,987.22) was appropriated for airfield and seaplane base construction and this figure represented about 70 percent of the total sum appropriated for the erection of defenses in the islands.

Work on other types of installations was also commenced and in most cases completed before the attack on Pearl Harbor. Communications installations were concentrated on the four islands or atolls where four base force headquarters were located—Truk, Saipan, Palau, and Kwajalein.

Barracks were placed on the most important islands and atolls, while office construction was concentrated mostly at Truk, with lesser concentrations at Saipan and Palau. Saipan and Palau were supply centers and staging points for the advance into the Philippines and into the south after the start of the war. Fuel oil and coal storage facilities, including tanks and pumps, were highly important since they extended the effective range of the Japanese fleet beyond the main bases in the homeland. Such facilities had been located at Saipan, Truk, Palau, Ponape, and Jaluit according to earlier appropriations. Later construction projects activated near the close of 1941 under 4th Fleet administration included fueling facilities at Wotje, Taroa, Roi, Eniwetok, and Kwajalein, all in the Marshalls. Submarine bases were established at Truk, Ponape, and Roi. Gun positions were placed on Palau, Saipan, Taroa, Roi, Wotje, and Jaluit in the latter part of 1941. As was the case in fueling facilities, the Marshalls were developed as military bases later than the Marianas and Caroline’s.

First, priority went to Truk, Saipan, and Palau, with concurrent but less important developments of Ponape, Pagan, and Tinian. Later, priority was given to four atolls in the Marshalls—Jaluit, Wotje, Maloelap, and Kwajalein—with minor attention to Majuro and Eniwetok. Water installations, command posts, ammunition storage facilities, and minor fortifications were ubiquitous.

Prewar Japanese records of garrison forces stationed in the Marshalls leave no doubt that extensive military developments were undertaken before Pearl Harbor. The 6th Base Force, which was assigned the mission of defending these islands, reached Wotje early in 1941. It was transferred the following August to Kwajalein, which then became the administrative center of the Marshalls sector of the 4th Fleet’s area of responsibility. The main troop concentrations under the 6th Base Force coincided with the concentration of construction projects on the four atolls of Kwajalein, Wotje, Jaluit, and Maloelap. Mille, which was to be extensively developed during the war, was at this time merely a lookout station. The mission of the 6th Base Force was to defend the Marshall Islands and adjacent sea areas, plan the rapid completion of accelerated military preparations within the area and strengthen preparations for actual combat, plan and supervise all types of measures relating to defense and attack and for supply and transportation service, engage in all types of combat training, and conduct weather observation in the Marshalls area.

The 6th Defense Force, which reached the Marshalls in March 1941, included four gun batteries distributed, one battery apiece, to Wotje, Kwajalein, Maloelap, and Jaluit. Its mission was to construct gun positions and other defense installations on each of these islands; supply ships, special lookout stations, and weather stations; send out antiair and antisubmarine patrols; and conduct accelerated training for all types of warfare.

Still another group assigned to the Marshalls was the 6th Communications Unit, whose prewar missions were to maintain communications and liaison in the Marshalls area, with fleet units, and with the homeland, and to intercept foreign communications. Finally, the 51st, 52nd, and 53rd Guard Forces arrived at Jaluit, Maloelap, and Wotje in October and November 1941 with the general duties of defense of those atolls.

Thus it can be seen that, in the year or more preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Marshalls along with the other mandated islands were becoming rapidly integrated into the Japanese defensive system. Contrary to the Covenant of the League of Nations and to the treaty of Washington, Japan had fortified those islands, established air bases there for military purposes, and garrisoned them with armed troops. With the outbreak of actual hostilities this program was to be rapidly accelerated.

From Pearl Harbor to the Eve of Invasion of the Marshalls

The period from the beginning of the war to the middle of 1943 saw considerable expansion of the 6th Base Force. Wake, after its seizure, was placed under 6th Base Force command and extensively developed. Early in 1942 Makin was made a seaplane base and, after Carlson’s raid, the Gilberts with Nauru and Ocean were strongly garrisoned by forces under 6th Base Force command. During this eighteen-month period, Mille was transformed from a lookout station to a major base, while installations and fortifications on Kwajalein, Jaluit, Maloelap, and Wotje were constantly improved.

In June of 1943 the 66th Guard Force was activated at Yokosuka and assigned to Mille.14 Originally, the Japanese had intended to use this atoll as a staging point for aircraft in a proposed campaign against the Ellice, Fiji, and Samoan Islands, a plan abandoned after the American invasion of the Gilberts. Some air facilities were completed by November 1942, but the atoll was not fully developed until a year later. By that time Mille was one of the best defended atolls and had the largest garrison in the Marshalls if Kwajalein and Roi-Namur are counted separately. The latter half of 1943 was distinguished by a marked increase in the number of troops, especially Army personnel, dispatched to the Marshalls. Up to that time the Marshalls had been garrisoned exclusively by Navy units, but in early 1943 it had become apparent to the Japanese that they were faced with a series of probable defeats so long as their forces continued to be tied up in the Solomon’s-New Guinea area. The deterioration of the Japanese position in the southeast posed a threat to the island garrisons of the Central Pacific, which were considered too weak to ward off American attack. The Japanese responded by drawing Army units from the Philippines, Manchuria, and the homeland and dispatching them to the Central Pacific.

By the end of August 1943 the Japanese position in the Southeastern Pacific Area was such that all thought of offensive operations had to be abandoned. The surrender of Italy on 8 September was a further blow to the Japanese Empire, for it was felt that a powerful portion of the British fleet would be freed to bring pressure on the Indian Ocean front. Until this time, the Japanese defense perimeter had run through the Marshalls, Gilberts, the Southeastern Pacific Area, the Netherlands Indies, and Burma. Now the Solomon’s and New Guinea were cracking, exposing the Gilberts and Marshalls to the ever-increasing danger of American attack.

Hence, the old defensive perimeter had to be abandoned and a new one erected in its place. On 15 September Imperial General Headquarters decided to contract the perimeter to a line running from the Banda Sea through the Caroline’s and Marianas. The new line was to be made impregnable to American assault during the time gained by delaying actions in the Marshalls and Gilberts, and in the Japanese Southeastern Pacific Area. Thus, these areas were written off as a loss as early as September, but the Japanese were determined to make the American advance toward their new perimeter as costly as possible in order to gain time and wear down the American will to fight. It was in accordance with this strategic concept of fighting a delaying action in the Marshalls that Imperial General Headquarters decided to send large numbers of Army reinforcements there in September 1943.

Army units in Japan, the Philippines, and Manchuria were reorganized as amphibious brigades and South Seas detachments, and dispatched to the Central Pacific as fast as possible.18 Even though the Marshalls had been written off as indefensible from the long-range point of view, they received a considerable share of the Army reinforcements because of the Japanese intention to conduct strong delaying actions there. The troops were distributed mostly on the periphery—on the atolls and islands of Wake, Eniwetok, Kusaie, and Mille. Kwajalein, Jaluit, Maloelap, and Wotje already had sizable garrisons, while those on the peripheral islands, except Wake, had been previously quite small.

By January of 1944 Army troops in the Marshalls, Wake, and Kusaie totaled 13,721. The units involved were the 1st South Seas Detachment; the 1st Amphibious Brigade, A Detachment; the 2nd South Seas Detachment; and the 3rd South Seas Garrison Detachment. They were distributed among the islands and atolls as follows: Kwajalein, 933; Jaluit, 620; Maloelap, 404; Wotje, 667; Mille, 2,530; Eniwetok, 2,586; Wake, 2,050; and Kusaie, 3,931.

As of January 1944 their air installations in the area included, in the Kwajalein Atoll, an uncompleted land base on Kwajalein Island, a land base on Roi, and a seaplane base on Burton; elsewhere in the Marshalls, land bases on Maloelap, Wotje, Mille, and Eniwetok, and seaplane bases on Jaluit, Wotje, Majuro, Taongi, and Utirik.

During the month of November 1943 the Japanese lost about 71 planes in the Marshalls, chiefly as a result of carrier and land-based strikes incident to the American invasion of the Gilberts. Nevertheless, they were able to balance almost all of these losses with reinforcements flown from the homeland and from the 3rd Fleet at Truk. The planes from Truk, 32 in number, represented virtually all the remaining carrier air, and most of these fell victim to American attack by the end of November. By 25 January 1944, Roi had about 35 planes; Kwajalein Island, about 10 reconnaissance planes; Maloelap, 50 planes; Wotje, 9; and Eniwetok,. As American aerial attacks on the Marshalls were stepped up in December and January, Japanese air strength dwindled rapidly.

Mille, Jaluit, and Wotje ceased to be effective as air bases. Wotje had from 30 to 35 planes in November, but this force was almost completely destroyed by two American carrier strikes. By 29 January there were only twelve “Kates” on Wotje; that day six failed to return from a mission and the rest were evacuated to Roi. The Japanese managed to keep the air strength at Maloelap at 50 planes throughout November and into December, but by January only 13 fighters were operational; 40 had been damaged and grounded. On 29 January, the American carrier raid reported the destruction of 10 planes in the air, and all that were on the ground. By 1 February, the only remaining Japanese planes in the Marshalls proper were the few on Eniwetok. Thus, by the time of the American invasion, the enemy’s power to resist by aerial attack had wasted away to almost nothing. Complete mastery of the air, so essential to success in amphibious operations, had been assured to the attackers.

The Defenses of Kwajalein Atoll,: January 1944

Kwajalein Atoll had been the hub of Japanese military activity in the Marshalls since August 1941. As headquarters of the 6th Base Force, it was the nerve center of the surrounding bases. Reinforcements coming into the Marshalls almost invariably passed through Kwajalein, to be parceled out from there. Supplies were usually distributed from this atoll, which was the closest major base to Truk and to the supply lines from the homeland. Branches of various departments of the 4th Fleet were located there to supervise supply, transportation, and the more technical aspects of construction. Kwajalein was the center of communications not only for all other bases in the Marshalls, but for the Gilberts, Nauru, and Ocean as well. The air base on Roi commanded all Japanese air forces in the Marshalls and Gilberts. All this gave Kwajalein some of the characteristics of a rear area, with more red tape than bullets, far from the front-line outposts on the periphery of the Marshalls. As a matter of fact, an American amphibious landing on Kwajalein was discounted by most Japanese as only a remote possibility, and it was fortified accordingly. As one Japanese naval commander put it, speaking of the Japanese estimate of American intentions after the Gilberts campaign: “There was divided opinion as to whether you would land at Jaluit or Mille. Some thought you would land on Wotje but there were few who thought you would go right to the heart of the Marshalls and take Kwajalein.”

Japanese island defense doctrine in the campaigns in the Gilberts and Marshalls stressed defense at the beaches. Every attempt was to be made to annihilate the enemy before he could get ashore, and if he did reach the beaches, the defenders were to counterattack before he could consolidate his positions. Since it was assumed that the enemy might be destroyed at the beaches, the island defenses were strung in a thin line along the shores, with little or no defense in depth. This doctrine was the product of the offensive character of Japanese military thought in general, and also was influenced by the geography of coral atolls, which were composed chiefly of thin flat islands surrounding a lagoon.

Most of the islands had very little depth to defend, and the occasional wider islands or wider sections of islands were usually occupied by airstrips. Later, on Iwo Jima, which was larger than most coral islands, the American attack encountered prepared defenses in depth. Later still, on Okinawa, the Japanese abandoned completely the concept of shore defense and retired to prepare defenses some distance away from the landing beaches. This change in Japanese island defense doctrine came about as a result both of experience and of the recognition of geographic realities. But at the time of the Marshalls invasion, Japanese tactical doctrine still stressed beach-line defense to the neglect of defense in depth.

Originally the plan for defending the atoll had been based on the assumption that the attack would come from the sea. After the experience at Tarawa, the Japanese appear to have changed their minds about American intentions and shifted their emphasis from defending the ocean shores to defending the lagoon beaches of the islands. Gun positions were set up along the lagoon, trenches dug, and antitank obstructions erected to prevent or delay a landing over these beaches.

[NOTE 13-31: War Department Mission, Marshall Islands, Japanese Defenses and Battle Damage, 14 Mar 44, p. 10; Japanese Studies in World War II, No. 73, Marshall Islands Operations, pp. 34-36, OCMH./\ The following detailed description of enemy defenses on Kwajalein Atoll is derived, unless otherwise indicated, from JICPOA Bull 48-44, Japanese Defenses, Kwajalein Atoll, 10 Apr 44.]

The three most heavily defended islands of the atoll were Roi-Namur, Kwajalein, and Ebeye (Burton), in that order of strength. Roi-Namur was somewhat better fortified than Kwajalein Island, but neither approached Tarawa as to the size and number of weapons or the construction and concentration of positions. These northern islands contained four 12.7-cm, twin-mount dual-purpose guns that were divided into two batteries of two, one located near the northwest corner of Roi and the other on the northernmost tip of Namur. Four 37-mm. gun positions were established. One was located on the west shore of Roi near the southwest tip of the island, another near the northeastern corner of Roi; the other two were on the southeastern tip and in the center of the east coast of Namur.

Nineteen 13.2-mm. single-mount dual-purpose guns were located in strong points mostly along the ocean shores, from the east coast of Namur to the west coast of Roi. Ten 20-mm. antiaircraft guns were emplaced, most of them along the shore line and near the airfield taxi circles on Roi; three were part of the strong point on the northwest tip of Namur and one was located on the south shore of that island. Machine guns were emplaced in concrete pillboxes, although many of the light machine guns were not permanently emplaced, but shifted from position to position as the battle demanded. The many rifle pits and fire trenches were located in the beach areas of both islands. There were three concrete blockhouses on Roi. One was located on the southwest tip, one in the northwest corner, and one in the northeast corner. Another was in the center of the east shore of Namur. The blockhouses were all located in strong point areas, housed 13-mm. machine guns, and were probably used as command posts.

The reefs off Roi-Namur were not mined, and very few antipersonnel mines were encountered inland. Wire entanglements were found at two points—on the beach around the northeast taxi circle on Roi, and on the narrow bit of land connecting Roi with Namur. The beach around the northeast taxi circle also boasted a tank obstacle in the form of large rocks jutting out of a rock wall. Antitank ditches had been dug throughout the two islands.

The defenses of Roi-Namur were quite clearly organized around a series of seven strong points, four on Roi and three on Namur, all on the ocean side. Starting from the southwest tip of Roi, the first was located along the southern shore of the west coast. The second and third were to the south and north of the northwest taxi circle. The fourth was on both sides of the wire and stone barriers next to the northeast taxi circle. The fifth, sixth, and seventh were on the northwest, north, and east tips of Namur, respectively. From the lagoon side the approaches were covered mostly by nothing heavier than 7.7-mm. machine guns.

Kwajalein Island was less well fortified. A study of enemy defenses, made there by the engineering officer of V Amphibious Corps after the operation was concluded, stated, “The prepared defenses of this island were surprisingly weak. . . .”

On Kwajalein, four 12.7-cm, dual-purpose twin-mount guns were divided into batteries of two, one located at each end of the island. Each battery was protected by 7.7-mm. and 13-mm. machine guns along the nearby beaches. Near each gun were two 150-cm. searchlights. In addition, the northern end of the island was guarded by a twin-mount dual-purpose 13-mm. machine gun on the lagoon shore. Several 7.7-mm. machine guns were in position on the western end and other heavy machine guns were scattered about the center of the island, some mounted on wooden sleds for easy movement to critical points.

On the ocean shore were six 8-cm. dual-purpose guns, divided into two batteries of three guns each. One battery was east of the tank ditch and the other was opposite the center of the airfield. The first had a 360-degree traverse and could fire either to seaward or landward. The other formed the nucleus of a strong point composed of a semicircle of rifle pits facing the beach supported by one heavy and one 13-mm. machine gun, and also included an observation tower, a range finder, and a 110-cm. searchlight.

Two other 8-cm. guns were in position on the lagoon shore, and the blockhouse on the main pier (Nob Pier), which jutted out into the lagoon near the northern tip of the island, had a 13-mm. dual-purpose gun on its roof and firing ports on the ground floor allowing machine guns to fire in all directions.

Other sheltered positions included about forty reinforced concrete pillboxes on the beaches of the ocean shore and at the northern and western ends of the island, and about twelve U-shaped standing pits. Fire trenches encircled the island, just inland from the beach. At intervals along the ocean shore were squad positions with ten to fifteen rifle pits each. These were usually arranged in a semicircle facing the beach and were camouflaged with grass. There was a concrete sea wall along most of the ocean shore and around the northern and western ends of the island. The section at the northern end had posts set into it, probably to act as a tank barricade. East of the area cleared for the airfield was a tank ditch extending halfway across the island, and three smaller tank ditches ran between the ocean shore and the road in the vicinity of the airfield. The lagoon shore was protected by a two-strand barbed-wire fence at the water’s edge. The large tank ditch was supported by trenches, rifle pits, and machine guns.

The fortifications on Burton were much lighter than those on Kwajalein, mostly machine gun positions and rifle pits. These were organized at the beaches with a concentration of dual-purpose machine guns grouped around the seaplane base in the lagoon. At the base of the south seaplane ramp was a 20-mm. antiaircraft machine gun. Near it, and between the two seaplane ramps, were two 13-mm. single-mount machine guns, three 7.7-mm. machine guns, and a concrete pillbox. Two 8-cm. dual-purpose guns were located on the ocean shore. The large number of empty machine gun emplacements would seem to indicate that the defenses of the island had not been completed at the time of the invasion. The few pillboxes found in the vicinity of the seaplane base were small, reinforced concrete shelters, each with two firing ports facing seaward. Most of the fire trenches and rifle pits were on the ocean side at the center of the island and at the north and south ends of the island. The total number of Japanese on Kwajalein, Burton, and other islands in the southern part of the atoll on D Day came to about 5,000 men.

The Army troops on Kwajalein consisted of the Kwajalein and part of the Wotje detachment of the 1st Amphibious Brigade. The Kwajalein detachment, under a Captain Kenzo Tsuyuki, numbered 204 men and consisted of one rifle company and one mortar platoon. The 729 men of the Wotje detachment had arrived on Kwajalein about 10 January 1944 and were awaiting transportation to their assigned location when the invasion began. They were commanded by a Colonel Tarokichi Aso and comprised the 2nd Battalion (less the 1st and 3rd Companies), three signal squads, and an engineer platoon.

The 6th Base Force headquarters in January of 1944 included about 80 military personnel and somewhere in the neighborhood of 200 civilians.36 This unit, the headquarters for all shore and surface forces in the Marshalls, was commanded by Rear Admiral Monzo Akiyama, IJN, who was the highest-ranking officer in the Kwajalein garrison at the time of the American assault. Under the 6th Base Force was the 61st Guard Force, which since before Pearl Harbor had borne the chief responsibility for defending the atoll. The main body of this force was stationed in Kwajalein Island and a detached force was on Roi. The main body was divided into two small battalions, four antiaircraft batteries, and six lookout stations, of which three were on Kwajalein and one each on Bigej (Bennett), Gea (Carter), and Ennylabegan (Carlos). Also attached to the 6th Base Force was one company of about 250 men from the Yokosuka 4th Special Naval Landing Force, which arrived in Kwajalein in October 1942.

The labor troops on Kwajalein and adjacent islands were engaged in the construction of the airfield on Kwajalein and other projects. Fourteen hundred of these were provided by the 4th Fleet Construction Department Detachment and were either Koreans or Japanese unfit for ordinary military duties. Their combat effectiveness was probably close to nil. Another 260 laborers, from Okinawa, were provided by the Sankyu Transportation Company, which was a purely civilian organization. These were used as stevedores and are not considered combat effectives.

The three remaining military units in the area were the 952nd Air Unit, the 6th Communications Unit, and the 6th Submarine Base Force. The air unit, consisting of about 160 men, was stationed on Burton, and when the invasion began the duty of defending the island fell to that unit. Since there were only enough rifles for about half the men and not even one hand grenade apiece, their combat effectiveness cannot be regarded as very important. The 6th Communications Unit handled communications command, code and voice signal, code signal dispatch and reception, and the radio direction finder equipment on Kwajalein and Enubuj (Carlson). No information is available as to the combat potential of this group of 350 men, but it was probably slight. The 6th Submarine Base Force, consisting of about a hundred electricians, mechanics, seamen, doctors, corpsmen, and maintenance men, had some weapons including thirteen machine guns and sixty rifles, but the force was established chiefly for the purpose of providing a rest and recreational depot for submarine crews and is not to be regarded as a combat unit. Altogether, of the enemy personnel in southern Kwajalein, only about 1,820 could be considered combat effectives at the time of the invasion. The remainder can be classified as only partially effective or not effective at all.

The 61st Guard Force Dispatched Force had been on Roi since before Pearl Harbor and constituted the main body of combat troops. It was responsible for operating most of the weapons on Roi-Namur above the small arms category. It was probably under the tactical if not the administrative control of Headquarters 24th Air Force, and itself exercised tactical command over all or part of the 4th Fleet laborers.

The 24th Air Force headquarters commanded all air units in the Marshalls except the 952nd at Burton, which was controlled by the 6th Base Force. This headquarters was commanded by Rear Admiral Michiyuki Yamada, who was responsible to 4th Fleet headquarters at Truk and who was the highest-ranking officer at Roi. On 25 January there were two medium bomber units, one with twelve land-based planes and one with three, and a fighter unit of twenty planes under this headquarters command.

As to the combat effectiveness of these people, it is difficult to hazard anything more than a guess since the extent of military preparedness of the air force personnel is not known. The best estimate would be that on Roi-Namur there were 345 combat effectives of the 61st Guard Force Dispatched Force; 2,150 air force personnel partially effective as combat troops; 357 4th Fleet laborers, ineffective; and about 700 miscellaneous personnel including marooned sailors whose combat effectiveness was probably nonexistent.

It would appear, then, that neither Roi-Namur nor Kwajalein Island was a formidable island fortress in the category of Tarawa or, later, of Iwo Jima. The Japanese had skimped on fortifications of this central atoll in favor of the atolls in the eastern sector of the Marshalls, which they considered more likely to be the objects of attack. By D Day Japanese air power throughout the entire Marshalls area had been reduced to ineffectiveness. Manpower in the islands under attack was of limited military value. On Roi-Namur the bulk of the enemy consisted of air force personnel; on Kwajalein a large percentage was labor troops. Even before American naval guns and aircraft and artillery placed on nearby islands had completed their bombardment of the main defenses, the capacity of the Japanese to ward off the attack was comparatively slight.

The invasion of Kwajalein Atoll was notable for the innovations in amphibious techniques and amphibious equipment used there. To these can be given much of the credit for the ease with which the operation was completed, in contrast to the earlier landings at Tarawa. But equally or more notable was the fact that the strategic planners for the operation, especially Admiral Nimitz, correctly estimated that this was a weak spot in the Japanese defense of the Central Pacific and exploited it accordingly.

The decision to bypass the eastern Marshalls and strike directly at Kwajalein was fully justified by the comparatively weak state of enemy defenses there. Hitting the enemy where he was not was impossible in the Central Pacific, since all the islands and atolls of any strategic importance were fortified. The only alternative was to hit him where he was least able to defend himself, and this was done in the invasion of Kwajalein Atoll.

SOURCE: Seizure of the Gilberts and Marshalls: BY; Philip A. Crowl, & Edmund G. Love (United States Army Center of Military History)

World War Two: Gilberts & Marshall (14); Invasion of Southern Kwajalein

World War Two: Gilberts & Marshalls:(12) Training, Logistics, and Preliminary Air Operations


The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Feb. 13: HOW TO GET LUCKY THE OLD-FASHIONED WAY



By Jeff Brein
In today’s world of dating, sometimes it’s good to be reminded of the basic “do’s” and “don’ts” on a date. Here is some dating advice for anyone traversing that treacherous road to romance.

Meeting someone the old-fashioned way may simply start with walking up to someone and saying a genuine hello. Perhaps you find yourself chatting to someone at a town event or a church social or the mechanic’s shop. A conversation naturally starts and you feel a little spark fly.

Once you’ve found someone who interests you, make plans to meet with each other. Keep it simple.


  1. Meeting for a quick cup of coffee has the same odds of success as a marathon first date. Make it quality, not quantity, time.
  2. Relax and be yourself. You’re not auditioning or on a job interview. Be honest, upfront, and be your true self.
  3. Dress comfortably and appropriately. Wearing a T-shirt that announces your attitude might send the wrong message.
  4. Plan to do something that allows time to talk, such as golfing, bowling, or a long walk or a hike—not target practice at the local firing range. Do something that you will both find pleasurable; part of dating is compatibility.
  5. Know where you’ll go and how long you’ll be there.
  6. Pick up the tab, if the date was your idea. If there is any doubt, discuss it when you first make plans.
  7. Look your date in the eye when you’re talking. Avoid glancing at other body parts.
  8. Show up. If an emergency forces a last-minute cancellation or delay, contact the person. Never leave someone in the lurch.
  9. Ask permission to call or e-mail at the end of the date, if you’re interested in seeing your companion again. If the answer is no, respect that the “relationship” is officially over and move on. If it’s yes, send a brief thank-you note after a date and wait at least 24 hours before making plans for a second date.
  10. Have fun. There is a reason that this activity is called the dating game.


  1. Don’t bring anyone along, including an ex, your children, pets, or parents, unless you’re on a double date or an arranged blind date.
  2. Don’t dowse yourself in perfume or cologne. A bath or shower is adequate—no, essential.
  3. Don’t get on your cell phone—or text! Turn off these devices and concentrate on your partner.
  4. Don’t reveal unnecessary personal information. Don’t talk about your failed relationships, what the fortune-teller told you, or how unfriendly the police were to you when they pulled you over.
  5. Don’t take your medication while on the date. Take it before you meet.
  6. Don’t meet at your home—unless you’re dropping by to pick up your partner.
  7. Don’t flirt with your server, stare at others nearby, or talk about how hot some celebrity is. Focus on your companion!
  8. Don’t discuss politics, sex, religion, or taxes on a first date. You may have differing opinions and want to make your first date comfortable.
  9. Don’t use a coupon for food or services. Go to places you can afford.
  10. Don’t lie, lead on, or tell someone you’re single and/or available when you’re not. Be honest and considerate.


Is it a challenge to simply meet someone?  Tell friends and family that you’re interested and looking.

The “blind” date, that meeting with a stranger often arranged by a well-meaning friend or relative, is generally preferred by people who like surprises, who never get around to meeting others, or who may be “commitment phobic.” Perhaps due to their shock value, horror stories about blind dates tend to outnumber happily-ever-after tales, but good news rarely makes headlines.

If a blind date is arranged for you, remember to thank your friend or family member for any introductions, no matter what happens!

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Feb. 13: LOVE POTIONS: DO APHRODISIACS REALLY WORK?



By Christine Schultz
February 12, 2018
Since the beginning of time, it seems, people have gone above and beyond to try the latest love potion. So, do any of these so-called aphrodisiacs really work? Read on and you’ll be surprised…


History is full of stories of ordinary people using bizarre stimulants for their love live: powder from the horns of rhinos, bat blood mixed with whiskey, crocodile dung … you get the idea. People have hoped for sexual euphoria since ancient times.


What does the word aphrodisiac mean?  It comes from the Greek goddess of love Aphrodite, who has inspired cultures throughout the ages to achieve her legendary heights of delight. For example:

  • Pliny the Elder recommended hippopotamus snout and hyena eyes.
  • Horace touted dried marrow and liver.
  • In Elizabethan times, prunes were so highly regarded as aphrodisiacs that they were served for free in brothels.


What makes us infatuated? There are many factors, but one is the brain chemical called phenylethylamine (PEA). This is a stimulant (related to amphetamine) that the brain releases in the early stages of infatuation. It’s the revver-upper that allows us to stay awake all night and lose our appetites.

PEA races through the system of the thrill seeker, allowing the adventurer to feel alert, self-assured and ready for whatever challenge awaits.


In 1989, The US Food and Drug Administration banned advertisers from promoting pills or potions because testing had shown that none worked no matter what the contents—whether fennel or dried beetle bodies.

However—any that appeared to work did so only because the user believed they would—the stimulant lay only in the users’ mind.

In other words, it’s the imagination that creates its own exciting possibilities and the body that leaps forward to fulfill the fantasies.

Yes, it’s all in the mind!  (Does that surprise you?)

We offer these supposed aphrodisiacs from great minds (and romantics?) of the past:

  • Casanova championed oysters.
  • Napoleon treasured truffles.
  • The Mharajah of Bikaner ingested crushed diamonds.


We know that dark chocolate nibs have some health benefits.

Also, we know that chocolate contains PEA as well as another chemical that’s related to sexual arousal, so you can see where the idea came from. However, the amounts are so small that scientists have been unable to link chocolate with sexual arousal. Once again, it’s all in the mind … or, we just haven’t proven the link. You decide.


If you need an answer, we’ve got one.

Love is the most magnificent of aphrodisiacs. Although it is certainly no easier to get a hold of than some of these potions, it’s a heck of a lot cheaper and more environmentally-friendly.

Before you spend money on the goods, spend the time on your partner. Otherwise nothing will work.


Adapted from an article in the 1996 Old Farmer’s Almanac

Holidays Around The World for Feb. 13: Lim Festival

Lim Festival

January-February; 13th day of first lunar month

The Lim Festival is an alternating-song contest, held in the commune of Lung Giang, about 18 miles from Hanoi, in the Bac Ninh Province of Vietnam. This is a courtship event, in which girls and boys of different villages carry on a singing courtship dialogue. The singers take part in what is a vocal contest with set rules; one melody, for example, can only be used for two verses of the song, and therefore there is considerable improvising. The storylines of the songs tell of daily events. Young men and women practice them while they are at work in the rice fields or fishing. There is also a weaving competition for young women.

Other Lim Festivals takes place in other villages in the province with processions and games such as human chess and wrestling.


Vietnam National Administration of Tourism
80 Quan Su Rd.
Hanoi, Vietnam
84-4-942-1061; fax: 84-4-826-3956

This Day In History for Feb. 13: Thomas Edison Observes the Edison Effect (1880)

Thomas Edison Observes the Edison Effect (1880)

In early 1880, Thomas Edison and his team were hard at work trying to find a light bulbfilament that worked well. He had already settled on a carbonized (burned) bamboo filament, but even this solution was not perfect. After glowing for a few hours, carbon from the filament would be deposited on the inside walls of the bulb, turning it black. This would not do.

Edison tried to understand what was happening. His assistant noticed that the carbon seemed to be coming from the end of the filament that was attached to the power supply, and seemed to be flying through the vacuum onto the walls of the bulb.

Edison determined that not only was carbon flying through the vacuum, but that it carried a charge. That is, electricity was flowing not only through the filament but also through the evacuated bulb. In order to measure this flow, he made a special bulb with a third electrode, to which he could attach an instrument to measure the current. He reasoned that if the current would flow between the two ends of the filament, it would also flow to this third electrode.

While he was proven to be right about the flow, Edison could not explain it, and the third electrode did not prevent blackening of the bulb, so he moved on to other experiments. But he did patent the new device, because he believed that it might have some commercial applications, such as measuring electric current.

Although he did not realize it, Edison had discovered the basis of the electron tube (also called a vacuum tube). Many years later, modified light bulbs would be used not to make light, but to control a flow of electrons through a vacuum. The electron tube would become the basis of modern electronics. Years later, when he was elderly, the discovery of what became known as the “Edison Effect” was remembered, but because Edison had no idea what it was or how it worked, he is rarely given credit for this contribution to the development of electronics.


Inspiration for the Day for Feb. 13: Knowing Your Limits




Knowing Your Limits


There is power in knowing your personal limits – your willingness to accept these limits can give you the means to flourish.

Every human life is defined, to some extent, by limits. No one person is capable of fulfilling every possibility. We are all born with unique aptitudes and sensitivities, and it is these qualities that largely determine the paths we will travel in life. What invigorates, excites, and inspires one individual may exhaust or overwhelm another. When we understand what we as individuals are capable of reasonably handling, we gradually learn to accept that we have control over our wellbeing. Yet determining where our limits lie can be difficult, as it is likely we have been told time and again that the discomfort, fatigue, and stress we felt while engaging in activities outside the range of our comfort zones was all in our heads. If you have never before given thought to the notion of personal limits, creating a list of those tasks and situations that leave you feeling drained can give you insight into your own.

You will know definitively that you are operating within your limits when you have the necessary energy and drive to address your personal and professional commitments. This is not to say you should not push yourself or work to extend the range of your capabilities. The wisdom you gain through dynamic self-examination will give you the tools you need to create an individual life strategy that allows you to achieve your goals without compromising yourself or your needs. The limits you honor by focusing your energy on what you can do rather than what you cannot do will not interfere with your ambitions unless you allow them to interfere. You can thrive within your limits, actively shape your circumstances, and avoid anguish by simply recognizing that certain aspects of life nourish you while others drain you, and doing your best to perceive the fine line between applying yourself diligently and overworking yourself.

You may be surprised to discover that your limits change over time. Your willingness to accept these limits as they reveal themselves to you can smooth your passage through life and give you the means to flourish.


–Daily OM

Your Daily Horoscope for Thursday, February 14

Your Daily Horoscope for Thursday, February 14

By Kelli Fox


March 21- April 19

What’s on your horizon today? Several interesting opportunities are heading your way, so get ready for them. People recognise your creative energy and your natural passion, which means they’re going to want your input. Don’t try to take on too much; be frank with them about what you can and can’t handle. That way, you’ll have enough focus only for endeavours that you really believe in. Of course, you can take on more now than usual.


April 20-May 20

Your inner grace, elegance and modesty are on full display now. Your friends and loved ones enjoy you even more than usual, because you’re so easy to talk to. Of course, this puts you under the radar. You know the old saying, ‘The squeaky wheel gets the grease’ — and you certainly aren’t squeaky at the moment. Sometimes it’s nice to go with the flow instead of having to work against it.


May 21-June 21

You’re starting to realise that the sibling rivalry dynamic you’ve got going with someone isn’t working anymore. In fact, it’s outmoded, and more than a little boring. Focus on what you have in common with this person. This will open some doors. Just think how much you could accomplish if you worked with them instead of wasting time tossing jabs back and forth. Be the bigger person by building a bridge between you.


June 22-July 22

You’re extra witty and affectionate today. This is a great day for chatting with friends or creating art — or, if you can manage it, both. Invite your favourite people over for a cooking, sewing, painting or writing party. You’ll find that a group of people working together puts out incredible creative energy, even if you’re working on separate projects. And don’t forget that even baking a batch of cookies is a creative process.


July 23-August 22

A good mood has you humming. Your nimble grace and positive, loving attitude are your gifts to give the world today. It’s easy to move among your friends, gracing everyone with a smile. They’re all glad to see you, you know. And it’s up to you how you apply this energy. You can use this brief period for a bit of fun and relaxation, or you can accomplish something more meaningful.


August 23-September 22

Everyone has inner demons of one kind or another. Yours happen to be priggish. But, that doesn’t mean you have to give in to them. If anyone can ignore their dark side, it’s you. Therefore, when the urge strikes to use a few barbed, well-chosen words to put someone in their place, resist. When your irritation makes you want to scream, don’t give in. You’ll see: Tolerance and generosity will fill your heart again.


September 23-October 22

Creativity and emotion blend within you now, producing a calm mental state. The road before you is beautifully smooth. It’s easy now for you to think quickly and act without second-guessing yourself. Your life feels charmed as you reach out to others. You’ve found a way to tap into harmony yet again, and you can build something from these moments. Or, you can simply enjoy them for what they are, with a big grin on your face.


October 23 – November 22

Your instinct today might be to hide the truth from someone, but secrecy won’t get you anywhere. Being open, on the other hand, will open you up to some great opportunities. But doing so could be difficult, because you’re feeling vulnerable and insecure. If you’re among trusted friends, your fears are unfounded. But if you’re involved with someone new, maybe you’re right to hold back a bit, until you know what’s going on.


November 23-December 20

You’re playing mind games, and it’s exhilarating to feel a step ahead of everyone else. But being clever isn’t the most important thing now. You need to rise above your mental games today, and connect with people on a genuine level. Real sincerity comes from the heart. So you’re going to have to become a team player, which means abandoning this dream of taking over the world with your brilliant mind.


December 21-January 19

Your goals are important to you, so be aware that indulging in a bad mood will only set you back. Yes, they can be self-indulgent, and this is one of those times. You have a choice to make: being grumpy, or taking a deep breath, raising your chin and moving forward with confidence and energy. If you choose the latter, not only will you feel better but you’ll be open to new experiences with others.


January 20-February 18

A single-minded approach to your goals is bringing you closer to reaching them. The energy you’re displaying is sure to impress anyone who happens to catch you in action. Today you’ll have all the resources you need to make your plan work. Plus, your people-oriented nature is a real gift now, as you gather support. And hey — if you end up influencing someone else’s life in a positive way, so much the better.


February 19-March 20

You’re misty-eyed about old, bittersweet memories. You’re definitely feeling pushed in one direction and pulled in another, and it’s bringing troubled emotional reactions. For today, you may not know if you’re coming or going. But look at it this way: At least you’re here, feeling your way through life with that big, soft heart of yours. Just try not to take everything so seriously. Things will look a lot better in just a few days.


–The Sydney Morning Herald

10 Tips for Attracting Love in Your Life

10 Tips for Attracting Love in Your Life

Prep your home for passion

Stephanie Dempsey

Feng Shui practitioners believe that the best way to attract love to your life is to adjust your environment accordingly. Dingy surroundings, piles of clutter, and self-absorbed artwork can actually drive Cupid from your door.

Here are 10 simple tips for finding your perfect mate, or for increasing the passion in your long-term relationship or marriage.

Create cozy seating arrangements

Single chairs send a loud and clear message to prospective suitors and spouses: back off! If you’re looking for love, create cozy seating arrangements from love seats, sofas, and chairs. Putting chairs at comfortable angles to each other will signal that you’re ready to welcome a relationship.


Replace images of lone figures with pictures of happy couples

Artwork has a tremendous impact on the subconscious. When you surround yourself with photos, paintings, sculptures, and knickknacks of solitary figures, you’ll carry yourself accordingly. Replacing such images with representations of happy couples will make you more receptive to love.


Keep the television out of the bedroom

Nothing kills romance like the drone of late night television. If you have trouble falling asleep, try unwinding by reading love poetry or romantic novels. Your subconscious will shift accordingly, making you a virtual love magnet.


Treat yourself to sensual bedding

That old ratty pillow from college and those serviceable sheets aren’t doing your sex life any favors. Go ahead and splurge on pillows, blankets, and sheets that invite you to linger in bed.


Downsize from a king to a queen

Sleeping on a huge mattress won’t encourage intimacy. Invest in a comfortable queen-sized bed if you’d like to cultivate more love in your life. If you simply can’t make the switch, make sure to sleep on patterned sheets to add some zest to your sex life.


Make space for each other

Avoid making your partner feel crowded out by your possessions by reducing your personal clutter in shared areas of your home, closets, drawers, etc. When you demonstrate you are willing to share your physical space generously with your partner, the space in your hearts can open up, too.


Pull your bed away from the wall

Pushing your bed against the wall effectively crowds out any chance for love to expand in your life. Arrange your bed so that it has enough space to walk on either side. Before you know it, you’ll be cuddling close with your special someone, instead of hugging your pillow for comfort as if you were alone.


Make your “Gua” a shrine to love

Using the front door of your home as a reference point, the far right corner of your home represents relationships and is known as the “Relationship Gua” in Feng Shui. Therefore, you need to keep this area intimate and inviting. A love seat illuminated with adjustable lighting is ideal for this special spot.


Keep the family at bay

Your bedroom represents your romantic life. Therefore, the last images you want to see here are photos of dear old Mom and Dad. Children’s artwork and toys will also undermine your sex life. Celebrate these relationships in other areas of your household, but keep your boudoir a private retreat.


Think pink!

Warm colors like pink and red can enliven your love life considerably. Soft shades like rose, salmon, and coral can attract a gentle partner who is attentive to your needs, while bold colors like scarlet, crimson, and burgundy will draw a passionate adventurer to your side. is Part of Zappallas USA © 2019