Korean War: Delaying Action: Pyongtaek to Chochiwon July 1950 (7)

Elements of the 34th Infantry began arriving at Pusan by ship late in the afternoon of 2 July. The next afternoon two LST’s arrived with equipment. All that night loading went on at the railroad station. Just after daylight of 4 July the 1st Battalion started north by rail; by evening the last of the regiment was following. Colonel Jay B. Lovless commanded the regiment, which had a strength of 1,981 men.

When Colonel Lovless saw General Dean at Taejon early on 5 July the General told him that Lieutenant Colonel Harold B. Ayres (an experienced battalion combat officer of the Italian campaign in World War II), whom Lovless had never seen and who had just flown to Korea from his 1st Battalion at Pyongtaek. Colonel Ayres had arrived at Pyongtaek that morning about 0500 with the 1st Battalion. Dean told Lovless that he would like the 3d Battalion to go to Ansong, if possible, and that the 34th Regimental command post should be at Songhwan-ni. As requested by General Dean, the 3d Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel David H. Smith, went to Ansong, twelve miles east of Pyongtaek to cover the highway there. Colonel Lovless set up his regimental headquarters that day, 5 July, at Songhwan-ni, six miles south of P’yongt’aek, on the main highway and rail line.  

Once south of Pyongtaek , the Korean peninsula broadens out westward forty-five miles and a road net spreads south and west there permitting the outflanking of the Seoul-Taegu highway positions. East of Ansong, mountains come down close to that town, affording some protection there to a right (east) flank anchored on it. Pyongtaek and Ansong were key points on the two principal highways running south between the Yellow Sea and the west central mountains.  

If enemy troops succeeded in penetrating south of Pyongtaek , delaying and blocking action against them would become infinitely more difficult in the western part of Korea. General Dean was expecting too much, however, to anticipate that one battalion in the poor state of training that characterized the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, and without artillery, tank, or antitank weapon support, could hold the Pyongtaek position more than momentarily against the vastly superior enemy force that was known to be advancing on it.

The Retreat From Pyongtaek  

When General Barth reached Pyongtaek from the Osan position the morning of 5 July he found there, as he had expected, Colonel Ayres and the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry. He told Ayres of the situation at Osan and said that probably enemy tanks would break through there and come on down the road. He asked Ayres to send some bazooka teams on ahead to intercept the expected tanks.

 Lieutenant Charles E. Payne with some infantrymen started north. Approaching the village of Sojong they discovered tank tracks in the muddy road where an enemy tank had turned around. Payne stopped the trucks and dismounted his men. A South Korean soldier on horseback, wearing foliage camouflage on his helmet, rode up to them and yelled, “Tanks, tanks, go back!” Payne eventually located the enemy tank on the railroad track about a mile ahead at the edge of Sojong-ni, five miles south of Osan. In an exchange of fire about 1600 between his bazooka teams and the tank at long range, enemy machine gun fire killed Private Kenneth Shadrick. The bazooka teams withdrew, bringing Shadrick’s body with them. The group returned to Pyongtaek and reported the futile effort to Barth and Ayres.

 That evening after dark General Dean and his aide, 1st Lieutenant Arthur M. Clarke, drove to Pyongtaek . There was still no word from Smith and his men, but the presence of enemy tanks south of Osan raised all sorts of conjectures in Dean’s mind. After midnight, he started back to Taejon full of forebodings about Task Force Smith.

 Four survivors of the Osan fight arrived at Ayres’ command post at Pyongtaek shortly after General Dean had left it and told an exaggerated story of the destruction of Task Force Smith. A few minutes later, Colonel Perry arrived from Ansong and made his report of what had happened to Task Force Smith. Barth and Ayres then decided to keep the 1st Battalion in its blocking position but to destroy the highway bridge just north of the town now that enemy tanks must be expected momentarily. Members of the 1st Battalion blew the bridge at 0300, 6 July. General Barth instructed Colonel Ayres to hold as long as he could but to withdraw if his battalion was in danger of being outflanked and cut off. He was “not to end up like Brad Smith.”

 General Barth left the 1st Battalion command post at Pyongtaek about 0130, 6 July, and started south. He arrived at Colonel Lovless’ regimental command post at Songhwan-ni about an hour later. Already Colonel Smith with the remnant (about eighty-six men) of his task force had passed through there from Ansong on the way to Chonan, leaving four badly wounded men with Lovless. Colonel Lovless had not received any instructions from General Dean about General Barth, yet now he learned from the latter that he was giving orders to the regiment, and also independently to its battalions. General Barth told Lovless about the position of his 1st Battalion at Pyongtaek . According to Colonel Lovless, Barth then told him to consolidate the regiment in the vicinity of Chonan. Barth directed that the 3rd Battalion, less L Company (the regimental reserve) which was near Pyongtaek , should move from Ansong to Chonan. Colonel Lovless thereupon directed L Company to act as a rear guard and delay on successive positions when the 1st Battalion should withdraw from Pyongtaek . As events later proved, the company did not carry out that order but closed directly on Chonan when the withdrawal began. Barth left the 34th Infantry command post for Chonan before daylight.

 The men of the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, in their positions at the river line two miles north of Pyongtaek had an uncomfortable time of it as dawn broke on 6 July in fog and rain. With water in their foxholes, the men huddled in small groups beside them as they broke open C ration cans for an early breakfast. Colonel Ayres came down the road and stopped where a group of them manned a roadblock, and then he climbed the hill west of the highway to the A Company command post.

 On the hill, Platoon Sergeant Roy F. Collins was eating his C ration breakfast when the sound of running motors caused him suddenly to look up. He saw in the fog the outline of tanks on the far side of the blown bridge. From the company command post, Colonel Ayres and Captain Leroy Osburn, A Company commander, saw the tanks about the same time. Beyond the first tanks, a faint outline of soldiers marching in a column of twos on the left side of the road and a line of more tanks and trucks on the right side, came into view. Some of those watching speculated that it might be part of the 21st Infantry Task Force Smith coming back from Osan. But others immediately said that Task Force Smith had no tanks. It required only a minute or two for everyone to realize that the force moving up to the blown bridge was North Korean. It was, in fact, elements of the North Korean 4th Division.

 The lead tank stopped at the edge of the blown bridge and its crew members got out to examine the damage. Other tanks pulled up behind it, bumper to bumper, until Sergeant Collins counted thirteen of their blurred shapes. The North Korean infantry came up and, without halting, moved around the tanks to the stream, passing the blown bridge on both sides. Colonel Ayres by this time had ordered the 4.2-inch mortars to fire on the bridge area. Their shells destroyed at least one enemy truck. The enemy tanks opened fire with their tank guns on A Company’s position. American return fire was scattered and ineffective.

 After watching the first few minutes of action and seeing the enemy infantry begin fanning out on either flank, Colonel Ayres told Captain Osburn to withdraw A Company, leaving one platoon behind briefly as a screening force. Ayres then started back to his command post, and upon reaching it telephoned withdrawal orders to B Company on the other (east) side of the highway.

 The 4.2-inch mortar fire which had started off well soon lapsed when an early round of enemy tank fire stunned the mortar observer and no one else took over direction of fire. Within half an hour after the enemy column had loomed up out of the fog and rain at the blown bridge, North Korean infantrymen had crossed the stream and worked sufficiently close to the American positions for the men in A Company to see them load their rifles.

 When he returned to his command post, Colonel Ayres talked with Major John J. Dunn, S-3 of the 34th Infantry, who had arrived there during his absence. About 0300 that morning, Dunn had awakened at the regimental command post to find everyone in a state of great excitement. News had just arrived that the enemy had overrun Task Force Smith. The regiment had no communication with its 1st Battalion at Pyongtaek. The distances between Ansong, Pyongtaek , and Songhwan-ni were so great the command radios could not net. Land lines were laid from Songhwan-ni to Pyongtaek but it was impossible to keep them intact. Retreating South Korean soldiers and civilian refugees repeatedly cut out sections of the telephone wire to improvise harness to carry packs and possessions. The only communication was liaison officers or messengers.

 Accordingly, orders and reports often were late and outdated by events when received. Dunn asked Colonel Lovless for, and got, permission to go forward and determine the situation. Before he started, Dunn asked for any instructions to be delivered to Colonel Ayres. Lovless spread a map on a table and repeated General Earth’s instructions to hold as long as possible without endangering the battalion and then to withdraw to a position near Chonan, which he pointed out on the map. Dunn set out in a jeep, traveling northward through the dark night along a road jammed with retreating ROK soldiers and refugees. In his conversation with Ayres at the 1st Battalion command post, Major Dunn delivered the instructions passed on to him. The decision as to when to withdraw the 1st Battalion was Ayres’; the decision as to where it would go to take up its next defensive position apparently was General Barth’s as relayed by Lovless.

 Colonel Ayres started withdrawing his battalion soon after his conversation with Major Dunn. By midmorning it was on the road back to Chonan. That afternoon it began arriving there. Last to arrive in the early evening was A Company. Most of the units were disorganized. Discarded equipment and clothing littered the Pyongtaek -Chonan road.

 Night Battle at Chonan

 When General Barth arrived at Chonan that morning he found there two troop trains carrying A and D Companies and a part of Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry. They were the parts of the battalion not airlifted to Korea on 1 July with Task Force Smith. Barth put them in a defensive position two miles south of Chonan.  

When General Barth returned to Chonan in the early afternoon the advance elements of the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, were already there. He ordered the 1st Battalion to join elements of the 21st Infantry in the defensive position he had just established two miles south of the town. Lovless had already telephoned from Chonan to Dean at Taejon giving him the Pyongtaek news. Familiar aspects of war were present all day in Chonan. Trains going south through the town were loaded with ROK soldiers or civilians. Everyone was trying to escape southward.  

Dean that evening started for Chonan. There he presided over an uncomfortable meeting in Colonel Lovless’ command post Dean was angry. He asked who had authorized the withdrawal from Pyongtaek . Colonel Ayres finally broke the silence, saying he would accept the responsibility. Dean considered ordering the regiment back north at once, but the danger of a night ambuscade caused him to decide against it. Instead, he ordered a company to go north the next morning after daylight. General Barth remained at Chonan overnight and then started for Taejon. He remained in command of the 24th Division artillery until 14 July when he assumed command of his regular unit, the 25th Division artillery.

 As ordered, the 3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry, had arrived at Chonan from Ansong the afternoon of 6 July and during that night. Colonel Lovless gave its L Company the mission of advancing north of Chonan to meet the North Koreans the morning of the 7th. With the regimental Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon in the lead, the little force started out at 0810. Only some South Korean police were in the silent town. The civilian population had fled. At this point Lovless received a message from General Dean. It read, “Time filed 1025, date 7 July 50. To CO 34th Inf. Move one Bn fwd with minimum transportation. Gain contact and be prepared to fight delaying action back to recent position. PD air reports no enemy armor south of river. CG 24 D.” Pursuant to these instructions, the 3rd Battalion moved up behind L Company.

 Colonel Robert R. Martin had now arrived at Chonan from Taejon. He was wearing low-cut shoes, overseas cap, and had neither helmet, weapons, nor equipment. General Dean and Colonel Martin had been good friends since they served together in the 44th Division in Europe in World War II. Dean had the highest opinion of Martin as a regimental commander and knew him to be a determined, brave soldier. As soon as he was ordered to Korea, General Dean requested the Far East Command to assign Martin to him. Arriving by air from Japan, Colonel Martin had been at Taejon approximately one day when on the morning of 7 July Dean sent him northward to the combat area.

 As the 3rd Battalion moved north out of Chonan it passed multitudes of South Koreans going south on foot and on horseback. Lovless and others could see numerous armed troops moving south on the hills to the west. Lovless asked the interpreter to determine if they were North or South Koreans. The latter said they were South Koreans. Some distance beyond the town, men in the point saw enemy soldiers on high ground where the road dipped out of sight. The time was approximately 1300. These enemy troops withdrew several times as the point advanced cautiously. Finally, about four or five miles north of Chonan enemy small arms fire and some mortar shells came in on the I & R Platoon. The advance halted. It was past midafternoon. An artillery officer reported to Lovless and Martin (the latter accompanied Lovless during the day) that he had one gun. Lovless had him emplace it in a gap in the hills about three miles north of Chonan; from there he could place direct fire in front of L Company.  A liaison plane now came over and dropped a message for Lovless which read, “To CO 34th Infantry, 1600 7 July. Proceed with greatest caution. Large number of troops on your east and west flanks. Near Ansong lots of tanks (4050) and trucks. Myang-Myon large concentration of troops. Songhwan-ni large concentration of troops trying to flank your unit. [Sgd] Dean.”

 Lovless and Martin now drove to the command post of the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, to acquaint Colonel Ayres with this intelligence and the situation north of Chonan. When they arrived there they found Brigadier General Pearson Menoher, Assistant Division Commander, 24th Division, and General Church.

 General Menoher gave Colonel Lovless an order signed by General Dean relieving him of command of the 34th Infantry and directing that he turn over command to Colonel Martin. Martin likewise received an order to assume command. The change of command took place at 1800. Lovless had been in command of the regiment only a month or two before the Korean War started. He had replaced an officer who had failed to bring the regiment to a desired state of training. It appears that Lovless inherited a chaotic situation in the regiment; the state of training was unsatisfactory and some of the officers wholly unfitted for troop command. Before the regiment’s initial commitment in Korea, Lovless had not had time to change its condition appreciably.

 While the change of command scene was taking place at the 1st Battalion command post, Major Dunn had gone forward from the regimental command post to find the 3rd Battalion moving into a good defensive position north of Chonan with excellent fields of fire. While he talked with Colonel Smith, the battalion commander, the I&R Platoon leader drove up in a jeep. There were bullet holes in his canteen and clothing. He reported that an estimated forty enemy soldiers had ambushed his platoon in a small village a mile ahead. The platoon had withdrawn, he said, but three of his men were still in the village.

 Dunn started forward with the leading rifle company, intending to attack into the village to rescue the men. As he was making preparations for this action, Major Boone Seegars, the battalion S-3, came from the direction of the village with several soldiers and reported that he had found the missing men. Dunn then canceled the planned attack and directed the company to take up a blocking position. As the company started back to do this a small group of North Koreans fired on it from the west. The company returned the fire at long range. Dunn kept the company moving and got it into the position he had selected, but he had trouble preventing it from engaging in wild and indiscriminate firing. Friendly mortar fire from the rear soon fell near his position and Dunn went back to find Colonel Smith and stop it. Upon arriving at the 3rd Battalion defensive position he found the battalion evacuating it and falling back south along the road. He could find neither the battalion commander nor the executive officer.

 Dunn went to the command post and explained to the group that the 3rd Battalion was abandoning its position. One of the colonels (apparently Colonel Martin) asked Dunn if the regiment would take orders from him. Dunn replied, “Yes.” The colonel then ordered, “Put them back in that position.”

 Dunn headed the retreating 3rd Battalion back north. Then with Major Seegars, two company commanders, and a few men in a second jeep, Dunn went on ahead. Half a mile short of the position that Dunn wanted the battalion to reoccupy, the two jeeps were fired on from close range. Majors Dunn and Seegars were badly wounded; others were also hit. Dunn crawled to some roadside bushes where he worked to stop blood flowing from an artery in a head wound. An enlisted man pulled Seegars to the roadside. Dunn estimates there were about thirty or forty enemy advance scouts in the group that ambushed his party. An unharmed officer ran to the rear, saying he was going for help.

From his position on a little knoll, Dunn could see the leading rifle company behind him deploy when the firing began, drop to the ground, and return the enemy fire. The men were close enough that he could recognize them as they moved into line. But they did not advance, and their officers apparently made no attempt to have them rescue the wounded men. After a few minutes, Dunn heard an officer shout, “Fall back! Fall back!” and he saw the men leave the skirmish line and move to the rear. This exhibition of a superior force abandoning wounded men without making an effort to rescue them was, to Dunn, “nauseating.” Dunn, who was captured and held thirty-eight months a prisoner in North Korea, said the main enemy moving up, crosses the path of ROK troops and body did not arrive for two hours. Major Seegars apparently died that night.

 The battalion, in withdrawing to Chonan, abandoned some of its mortars. By the time the battalion reached the town its units were mixed up and in considerable disorder. South of the town, Colonel Smith received an order to return to Chonan and defend it. Colonel Martin led a Headquarters Company patrol north of Chonan and recovered jeeps and other abandoned 3rd Battalion equipment.

 By 1700, 7 July, the 3rd Battalion was in a defensive position along the railroad tracks west of Chonan and along the northern edge of the town. Some of the troops organized the concrete platform of the railroad station as a strongpoint. Others mined a secondary road running from the northwest into the town to prevent a surprise tank attack from that direction.

 In the early part of the evening some enemy pressure developed from the west. At 2000 a battery of the 63rd Field Artillery Battalion, newly arrived in Korea, emplaced south of Chonan to support the 34th Infantry. Soon thereafter it fired its first fire mission, employing high explosive and white phosphorus shells, against a column of tanks and infantry approaching the town from the east, and reportedly destroyed two tanks. This enemy force appears to have made the first infiltration into Chonan shortly before midnight.

 After midnight, reports to the regimental command post stated that approximately eighty men and Colonel Martin, who had gone into the town, were cut off by enemy soldiers. Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Wadlington, the regimental executive officer, reported this to General Dean at Taejon, and, at the same time, said the regimental ammunition supply was low and asked for instructions. Dean instructed Wadlington to fight a delaying action and to get word to Martin in Chonan to bring his force out under cover of darkness. Dean learned with great relief from a message sent him at 0220 8 July that Colonel Martin had returned from the town and that the supply road into Chonan was open.

 Sometime before daylight Colonel Martin went back into Chonan. About daylight a 2½-ton truck came from the town to get ammunition. Returning, the driver saw an enemy tank approaching on the dirt road running into Chonan from the northwest. Others were following it. They came right through the mine field laid the day before. Enemy soldiers either had removed the mines under cover of darkness or the mines had been improperly armed; none exploded. The driver of the truck turned the vehicle around short of the road intersection and escaped. (N7-1616 Interv, author with Colonel Stephens, 8 Oct 51; Interv, Mitchell with Smith, 29 Jul 50; Interv, Mitchell with Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. Dawson (CO 63rd FA Bn), 27 Jul 50; Interv, Mitchell with Menninger, 31 Jul 50.]

 This group of five or six tanks entered Chonan and opened fire on the railroad station, the church, several buildings suspected of harboring American soldiers, and all vehicles in sight. In the street fighting that followed, members of the 3rd Battalion reportedly destroyed two tanks with bazookas and grenades. Private Leotis E. Heater threw five grenades onto one tank and set it burning. Enemy infantry penetrated into the city about 0600 and cut off two rifle companies.

 In this street fighting, Colonel Martin met his death about 0800. Martin had obtained a 2.36-inch rocket launcher when the tanks entered Chonan and posted his self in a hut on the east side of the main street. He acted as gunner and Sergeant Jerry C. Christenson of the regimental S-3 Section served as his loader. Sergeant Christenson told Major Dunn a month later when both were prisoners at the North Korean prison camp at Pyongyang that an enemy tank came up and pointed its gun at their building. Colonel Martin aimed the rocket launcher but the tank fired its cannon first, or at the same time that Martin fired the rocket launcher. Its 85-mm. shell cut Martin in two. Concussion from the explosion caused one of Christenson’s eyes to pop from its socket but he succeeded in getting it back in place. On 11 July, the Far East Command awarded Martin posthumously the first Distinguished Service Cross of the Korean War. [N7-1717 Ltr, Dunn to author, 17 Jun 54; Ltr and Comments, Colonel Wadlington to author, 1 Apr 53; Interv, author with Colonel Green (G-3 of ADCOM staff in Korea and temporarily on Dean’s staff), 28 Sep 51; 34th Inf WD, 8 Jul 50; 24th Div WD, 8 Jul 50; FEC GO 12, 11 Jul 50. According to Dunn, Sergeant Christenson died in a North Korean prison camp in December 1950.]

 After Martin’s death, the enemy tanks and increasing numbers of infiltrating enemy soldiers quickly caused confusion in the thinning ranks of the 3rd Battalion. It soon became a question whether any appreciable number of the men would escape from the town. Artillery laid down a continuous white phosphorus screen and under its cloak some of the 3rd Battalion escaped from Chonan between 0800 and 1000. The battalion commander, Colonel Smith, was completely exhausted physically and was evacuated a day or two later. Colonel Wadlington placed Major Newton W. Lantron, the senior officer left in the battalion, in charge of the men at the collecting point. At 1000 the artillery began to displace southward. The 1st Battalion still held its blocking position south of the town.

 Back at Taejon, Dean had spent a sleepless night as the messages came in from the 34th Regiment. In the morning, General Walker flew in from Japan and told Dean that the 24th Division would soon have help—that the Eighth Army was coming to Korea. Walker and Dean drove north to the last hill south of Chonan. They arrived in time to watch the remnants of the 3rd Battalion escape from the town. There they learned the news of Martin’s death.

 Dean ordered Wadlington to assume command of the regiment and to withdraw it toward the Kum River. Just south of Chonan the highway splits: the main road follows the rail line southeast to Chochiwon ; the other fork runs almost due south to the Kum River at Kongju. Dean ordered the 21st Infantry to fight a delaying action down the Chochiwon road; the 34th Infantry was to follow the Kongju road. The two roads converged on Taejon. Both had to be defended.

 In the afternoon, a count at the collecting point showed that 175 men had escaped from Chonan, all that were left of the 3rd Battalion. The 34th Regimental Headquarters also had lost many officers trapped in the town. Survivors were in very poor condition physically and mentally. The North Korean radio at Pyongyang claimed sixty prisoners at Chonan. The 3rd Battalion lost nearly all its mortars and machine guns and many individual weapons. When the 34th Infantry began its retreat south toward the Kum in the late afternoon, enemy troops also moving south were visible on the ridge lines paralleling its course.

 The enemy units that fought the battle of Chonan were the 16th and 18th Regiments of the N.K. 4th Division, supported by tank elements of the 105th Armored Division. The third regiment, called up from Suwon, did not arrive until after the town had fallen. Elements of the 3rd Division arrived at Chonan near the end of the battle and deployed east of the town. [N7-2020 ATIS Res Supp Interrog Rpts, Issue 94 (N.K. th Div), p. 45; Ibid., Issue 96 (N.K. 3rd Div), p. 31.]

 The 21st Infantry Moves Up

 The 21st Infantry Regiment of the 24th Division had now crossed from Japan to Korea. Colonel Stephens, commanding officer of the regiment, arrived at Taejon with a trainload of his troops before noon on 7 July. Stephens, a bluff, rugged soldier, reported to General Dean for instructions. Within the hour Dean sent him northward to take up a delaying position at Chochiwon, support the 34th Infantry, and keep open the main supply road to that regiment.

 At Chochiwon all was confusion. There were no train schedules or train manifests. Supplies for the 24th Division and for the ROK I Corps troops eastward at Chongju arrived all mixed together. The South Korean locomotive engineers were hard to manage. At the least alarm they were apt to bolt south with trains still unloaded, carrying away the supplies and ammunition they had just brought up to the front. American officers had to place guards aboard each locomotive.

 Colonel Stephens placed his 3rd Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Carl C. Jensen, in position along the highway six miles north of Chochiwon. A little more than a mile farther north, after they withdrew from their Chonan positions, he placed A and D Companies of the 1st Battalion in an advanced blocking position on a ridge just east of the town of Chonui. Chonui is approximately twelve miles south of Chonan and three miles below the point where the Kongju road forks off from the main highway. [N7-2323 21st Inf WD, 7-8 Jul 50; Ltr, with sketch map showing positions of A and D Companies at Chonui, Brigadier General Richard W. Stephens to author, 24 Mar 52.]

 Late in the day on 8 July, General Dean issued an operational order confirming and supplementing previous verbal and radio instructions. It indicated that the 24th Division would withdraw to a main battle position along the south bank of the Kum River, ten miles south of Chochiwon, fighting delaying actions at successive defensive positions along the way. The order stated, “Hold Kum River line at all costs. Maximum repeat maximum delay will be effected.” The 34th Infantry was to delay the enemy along the Kongju road to the river; the 21st Infantry was to block in front of Chochiwon . Dean ordered one battery of 155-mm. howitzers of the 11th Field Artillery Battalion to Chochiwon for direct support of the 21st Infantry. Also in support of the regiment were A Company, 78th Heavy Tank Battalion (M24 light tanks: Chaffee), less one platoon of four tanks, replacing the 24th Reconnaissance Company tanks, and B Company of the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion. The 3rd itself was to prepare roadblocks north of Kongju along the withdrawal route of the 34th Infantry and to prepare all bridges over the Kum River for demolition.

 Messages from General Dean to Colonel Stephens emphasized that the 21st Infantry must hold at Chochiwon , that the regiment must cover the left flank of the ROK forces eastward in the vicinity of Chongju until the latter could fall back, and that he could expect no help for four days. General Dean’s intent was clear. The 34th and 21st Infantry Regiments were to delay the enemy’s approach to the Kum River as much as possible, and then from positions on the south side of the river make a final stand. The fate of Taejon would be decided at the Kum River line.

 The Fight at Chonui

 On the morning of 9 July, the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry, completed moving into the positions north of Chochiwon, and Colonel Jensen began registering his 81-mm. and 4.2-inch mortars. Engineers blew bridges in front of Chonui. By noon the 21st Regimental Headquarters received a report that enemy tanks were moving south from Chonan.

 In midafternoon, Captain Charles R. Alkire, in command at the forward blocking position at Chonui, saw eleven tanks and an estimated 200-300 enemy infantry move into view to his front. He called for an air strike which came in a few minutes later. Artillery also took the tanks under observed fire. Five of the eleven tanks reportedly were burning at 1650. Enemy infantry in Chonui came under 4.2-inch mortar and artillery fire. Observers could see them running from house to house. The men on the low ridge east of Chonui saw columns of black smoke rise beyond the hills to the northwest and assumed that the planes and artillery fire had hit targets there. Aerial observers later reported that twelve vehicles, including tanks, were burning just north of Chonui. At dusk another air report stated that of about 200 vehicles on the road from Pyongtaek to Chonui approximately 100 were destroyed or burning. The third and fourth tactical air control parties to operate in the Korean War (Air Force personnel) directed the strikes at Chonui. [N7-2626 21st Inf WD, 9 Jul 50; 24th Div WD, G-2 Jnl, entries 315, 091900 and 317, 091950 Jul 50; Ibid., G-3 Jnl, entries 211, 091820, and 217, 091945 Jul 50; Ltr, Stephens to author, 17 Apr 52; ATIS Res Supp Interrog Rpts, Issue 4 (Enemy Forces), p. 39. Captured North Koreans said later this aerial and artillery action destroyed twenty of their tanks north of Chonui. New York Herald Tribune, July 12, 1950, Bigart dispatch; USAF Hist Study 71, p. 25. L.Booth]

While this heavy bombardment of the enemy column was still in progress, Colonel Stephens arrived at the forward position about dusk and announced he was going to stay overnight. [N7-2727] In their front, burning Chonui relieved the blackness of the night. Enemy patrols probed their position. Unless all signs failed there would be action on the morrow.

[N7-2727 New York Herald Tribune, July 12, 1950, article by H. Bigart, “From a Foxhole in Korea.” This account is a delayed dispatch written by Bigart on 10 July. He occupied a foxhole with Stephens, Alkire, and 1st Lieutenant Earl Babb, commanding officer of A Company, on the ridge east of Chonui. Bigart kept a log of events as they occurred, describing what he saw and heard from his foxhole and consulting his watch for each recording.]

 About 500 men of A and D Companies and fillers for B and C Companies who had arrived at Pusan too late to join Task Force Smith for the Osan action comprised the composite battalion of the 21st Infantry at the Chonui position. They occupied a three-quarter mile front on a low ridge 500 yards east of Chonui and on a higher hill 800 yards south of the town. Rice paddy land lay between this high ground and Chonui. The railroad and highway passed between the ridge and the hill. Still another hill westward dominated the left flank but there were too few troops to occupy it.

 From the low ridge east of Chonui one normally could see the road for a mile beyond the town, but not on the morning of 10 July. The day dawned with a ground fog billowing up from the rice paddies. With it came the North Koreans. At 0555 the American soldiers could hear enemy voices on their left. Fifteen minutes later those on the ridge at the center of the position heard an enemy whistle at the left; then firing began in that direction. Soon, some of the men near Colonel Stephens began shooting blindly into the fog. He promptly stopped them. At 0700, enemy mortar fire began falling on the ridge.

 Lieutenant Ray Bixler with a platoon of A Company held the hill on the left. The rate of small arms fire increased and those in the center could hear shouting from Bixler’s platoon. It was apparent that the main enemy attack centered there, coming from the higher hill beyond it. A concentration of friendly registered mortar fire covered the little valley between the two hills and in the early part of the morning prevented the enemy from closing effectively with Bixler’s platoon. But an enemy force passed to the rear around the right flank of the battalion and now attacked the heavy mortar positions. At the same time, enemy tanks came through Chonui on the highway and passed through the infantry position. The men on the ridge could hear the tanks but could not see them because of fog.

 At 0800 the fog lifted. Chonui was still burning. Four tanks came into view from the north and entered the village. Stephens radioed for an air strike. Then the men heard tank fire to their rear. The enemy tanks that had passed through the lines earlier were joining their flanking infantry force in an attack on the American heavy mortar position. Stephens had already lost wire communication with the mortar-men; now he lost radio communication with them. The mortars fell silent, and it seemed certain that the enemy had overrun and destroyed them. Although artillery still gave support, loss of the valuable close-in support of the 4.2-inch mortars proved costly.

 North Korean infantry came from Chonui at 0900 and began climbing the ridge in a frontal attack against the center of the position. The artillery forward observers adjusted artillery fire on them and turned them back. Men watching anxiously on the ridge saw many enemy fall to the ground as they ran. The T34’s in Chonui now moved out of the town and began spraying the American-held ridge with machine gun fire.

 Shortly after 1100, intense small arms fire erupted again at Lieutenant Bixler’s position on the left. The absence of the former heavy mortar fire protecting screen enabled the enemy to close with him. The fog had lifted and men in the center could see these enemy soldiers on the left. Bixler radioed to Stephens at 1125 that he needed more men, that he had many casualties, and asked permission to withdraw. Stephens replied that he was to stay—”Relief is on the way.” Five minutes later it came in the form of an air strike. Two American jet planes streaked in, rocketed the tanks without any visible hits, and then strafed the enemy infantry on the left. The strafing helped Bixler; as long as the planes were present the enemy kept under cover. Soon, their ammunition expended, the planes departed. Then the enemy infantry resumed the attack.

 While the air strike was in progress, survivors from the overrun recoilless rifle and mortar positions in the rear climbed the ridge and joined the infantry in the center of the position. At 1132, according to Bigart’s watch, friendly artillery fire began falling on the ridge. Apparently the artillerymen thought that enemy troops had overrun the forward infantry position and they were firing on them. Enemy fire and tanks had destroyed wire communication from the battle position to the rear, and the artillery forward observer’s radio had ceased working. There was no communication. Stephens ran to his radio jeep, 100 yards to the rear of the foxholes, and from there was able to send a message to the regiment to stop the artillery fire; but it kept falling nevertheless.

 As the men on the ridge crouched in their foxholes under the shower of dirt and rocks thrown into the air by the exploding artillery shells, Stephens at 1135 received another report from Bixler that enemy soldiers surrounded him and that most of his men were casualties. That was his last report. The enemy overran Bixler’s position and most of the men there died in their foxholes.

 Even before the friendly artillery fire began falling, some of the men on the north (right) end of the ridge had run off. About the time of Bixler’s last radio message, someone yelled, “Everybody on the right flank is taking off!” Stephens, looking in that direction, saw groups running to the rear. He yelled out, “Get those high priced soldiers back into position! That’s what they are paid for.” A young Nisei from Hawaii, Corporal Richard Okada, tried to halt the panic on the right but was able to get only a few men together. With them he formed a small perimeter.

 At 1205 Colonel Stephens decided that those still on the ridge would have to fall back if they were to escape with their lives. On a signal from him, the small group leaped from their foxholes and ran across open ground to an orchard and rice paddies beyond. There they learned, as thousands of other American soldiers were to learn, that crossing flooded rice paddies in a hurry on the narrow, slippery dikes was like walking a tightrope. While they were crossing the paddies, two American jet planes strafed them, thinking them enemy soldiers. There were no casualties from the strafing but some of the men slipped knee-deep into mud and acquired a “lifelong aversion to rice.” Stephens and his small group escaped to American lines. [N7-32]

 In this action at Chonui, A Company had 27 wounded and 30 missing for a total of 57 casualties out of 181 men; D Company’s loss was much less, 3 killed and 8 wounded. The Heavy Mortar Company suffered 14 casualties. Of the total troops engaged the loss was about 20 percent. [N7-33]

 Upon reaching friendly positions, Stephens ordered Colonel Jensen to counterattack with the 3rd Battalion and regain the Chonui positions. Jensen pressed the counterattack and regained the ridge in front of the town, but was unable to retake Bixler’s hill south of the railroad. His men rescued about ten men of A and D Companies who had not tried to withdraw under the shell fire.

 [N7-32 Bigart, “From a Foxhole in Korea,” op. cit.; 24th Div WD, G-3 Jnl, entry 255 gives Stephens’ message to Dean immediately after his return to American lines.]

 [N7-33 Dr. J. O’Sullivan, the Rand Corp., Casualties of United States Eighth Army in Korea, Battle of Chochiwon, 10-11 July 1950.]

 Jensen’s counterattack in the afternoon uncovered the first known North Korean mass atrocity perpetrated on captured American soldiers. The bodies of six Americans, jeep drivers and mortar men of the Heavy Mortar Company, were found with hands tied in back and shot through the back of the head. Infiltrating enemy soldiers had captured them in the morning when they were on their way to the mortar position with a resupply of ammunition. An American officer farther back witnessed the capture. One of the jeep drivers managed to escape when the others surrendered. [N7-34]

 American tanks on the morning of 10 July near Chonui engaged in their first fight of the Korean War. They performed poorly. In the afternoon, tanks participated in the 3rd Battalion counterattack and did better. One of them got in a first shot on an enemy tank and disabled it. Two American light tanks were lost during the day. [N7-35]

 Elements of the N.K. 4th Division had pressed on south after the capture of Chonan and they had fought the battle of Chonui. Leading elements of the N.K. 3rd Division, following the 4th by one day, apparently came up to Chonui late on the 10th. They found the town such a mass of rubble that the reserve regiment bypassed it. [N7-36]

 On the afternoon of 10 July American air power had one of its great moments in the Korean War. Late in the afternoon, a flight of jet F-80 planes dropped down through the overcast at Pyongtaek, twenty-five air miles north of Chonui, and found a large convoy of tanks and vehicles stopped bumper to bumper on the north side of a destroyed bridge. Upon receiving a report of this discovery, the Fifth Air Force rushed every available plane to the scene— B-26’s, F-80’s, and F-82’s—in a massive air strike. Observers of the trike reported that it destroyed 38 tanks, 7 half-track vehicles, 117 trucks, and a large number of enemy soldiers. This report undoubtedly exaggerated unintentionally the amount of enemy equipment actually destroyed. But this strike, and that of the previous afternoon near Chonui, probably resulted in the greatest destruction of enemy armor of any single action in the war.

 [N7-34 24th Div WD, G-2 Jnl, entry 420, 101445 and entry 424, 101505 Jul 50; Ltr, Stephens to author, 17 Apr 52; Bernard, MS review comments, 24 Feb 57; New York Herald Tribune, July 11, 12, 1950, Bigart dispatches.]

 [N7-35 21st Inf WD, 10 Jul 50; Interv, author with Stephens, 8 Oct 51; Ltr, Stephens to author, 17 Apr 52; TAS, Employment of Armor in Korea—the First Year (Ft. Knox, 1952), p. 49. Signal Corps Photo 50-3965, taken 10 July 1950, shows a tank named “Rebels Roost,” captioned as the first American tank to see action in Korea.]

 [N7-36 ATIS Res Supp Interrog Rpts, Issue 94 (N.K. 4th Div), p. 46; Ibid., Issue 96 (N.K. 3rd Div), p. 31; ORO-R-1 (FEC), The Employment of Armor in Korea, vol. I, p. 138.]

 Perhaps a word should be said about the close air support that aided the ground troops in their hard-pressed first weeks in Korea. This support was carried out by United States Air Force, Navy, Marine, and Australian fighter planes and some U.S. fighter-bombers. Beginning early in the war, it built up as quickly as resources would permit. On 3 July the Far East Air Forces established a Joint Operations Center at Itazuke Air Base, on Kyushu in Japan, for control of the fighter planes operating over the Korean battlefield. This center moved to Taejon in Korea on 5 July, and on 14 July to Taegu, where it established itself near Eighth Army headquarters. By 19 July, heavy communications equipment arrived and a complete tactical air control center was established in Korea, except for radar and direction-finding facilities. Advance Headquarters, Fifth Air Force, opened at Taegu on 20 July.

 The forward element in the control system of the close air support was the tactical air control party, consisting of a forward air controller (usually an officer and an experienced pilot), a radio operator, and a radio repair man who also served as jeep driver. Six of these parties operated with the 24th Division in Korea in the early days of the war. As soon as others could be formed, one joined each ROK corps and division, and an Air Liaison Officer joined each ROK corps to act as adviser on air capabilities for close support.

 The Fifth Air Force began using T-6 trainer aircraft to locate targets on and behind enemy lines. The controllers in these planes, using the call sign “Mosquito,” remained over enemy positions and directed fighter planes to the targets. Because of the call sign the T-6’s soon became known in Army and Air Force parlance as Mosquitoes. The Mosquito normally carried an Air Force pilot and a ground force observer. The plane was equipped with a Very High Frequency radio for contact with tactical air control parties and fighter aircraft in the air. It also had an SCR-300 radio for contact with front-line ground troops. The ground force observer and the pilot in the Mosquito, the control party, and the forward infantry elements co-ordinated their information to bring fighter aircraft to targets where they delivered their strikes, and also to direct ground fire on enemy targets in front of the infantry. [N7-388 “Air War in Korea,” Air University Quarterly Review, IV, No. 3 (Spring, 1951), 56; Hq X Corps, Analysis of the Air-Ground Operations System, 28 Jun-8 Sep 50, Staff Study, 25 Dec 50; Major Louis H. Aten, Debriefing Rpt 75, Arty School, Ft. Sill, Okla, 5 Mar 52.]

 In the early part of the war the F-51 (Mustang), a propeller-driven fighter, predominated in the Air Force’s close support effort. This plane had shown to good advantage in World War II in low-level close support missions. It had greater range than the jet F-80 and could use the rough, short fields in Korea. Most important of all, it was available. For close support of Marine troops when they were committed later, a tried and tested plane, the Marine F4U Corsair, was used. The F-51 was capable of carrying 6 5-inch rockets and 2x110gallon napalm tanks, and it mounted 6x.50-caliber machine guns. The F-80 could carry 2×110-gallon napalm tanks, and mounted 6x.50-caliber machine guns with about the same ammunition load as the F-51. It could also carry 2×5-inch rockets if the target distance was short.

 Both the F-51 and the F-80 could carry 2,000 pounds of bombs if the mission required it. The F4U could carry 8×5-inch rockets, 2×110-gallon napalm tanks, and it mounted 4×20-mm. cannon with 800 rounds of ammunition. If desired it could carry a 5,200-pound bomb load. The F-51 had a 400-mile operating radius, which could be increased to 760 miles by using external gas tanks. The F-80’s normal radius was 125 miles, but it could be increased to 550 miles with external tanks. The F4U had a shorter operating range. With external tanks it reached about 335 miles. [N7-3939: X Corps Study, p. 14; Operations Research Office, Close Air Support Operations in Korea, ORO-R-3 (FEC), pp. 13-14.]

Chochiwon  

Just before midnight of 10 July Colonel Jensen began to withdraw the 3rd Battalion from the recaptured ridge east of Chonui, bringing along most of the equipment lost earlier in the day. When the battalion arrived at its former position it received a surprise: enemy soldiers occupied some of its foxholes. Only after an hour’s battle did K Company clear the North Koreans from its old position.

 In a message to Colonel Stephens at 2045 General Dean suggested withdrawing the 3rd Battalion from this position. But he left the decision to Stephens, saying, “If you consider it necessary, withdraw to your next delaying position prior to dawn. I am reminding you of the importance of the town of Chochiwon . If it is lost, it means that the SKA [South Korean Army] will have lost its MSR [Main Supply Route].” An hour later, in talking to a regimental staff officer, Dean authorized falling back four miles to the next delaying position two miles north of Chochiwon , but ordered, “Hold in your new position and fight like hell. I expect you to hold it all day tomorrow.”

 Meanwhile, Task Force Smith, reequipping at Taejon, had received 205 replacements and on 10 July it received orders to rejoin the 21st Regiment at Chochiwon. Smith arrived there with B and C Companies before dawn of 11 July. A and D Companies had reequipped at Chochiwon and they joined with B and C Companies to reunite the 1st Battalion. Colonel Smith now had his battalion together in Korea for the first time. At 0730, 11 July, the 1st Battalion was in position along the highway two miles north of Chochiwon. Four miles north of it Colonel Jensen’s 3rd Battalion was already engaged with the North Koreans in the next battle.

 At 0630 that morning, men in the 3rd Battalion position heard tanks to their front on the other side of a mine field, but could not see them because of fog. Within a few minutes four enemy tanks crossed the mine field and loomed up in the battalion area. Simultaneously, enemy mortar fire fell on the battalion command post, blowing up the communications center, the ammunition supply point, and causing heavy casualties among headquarters troops. Approximately 1,000 enemy infantry enveloped both flanks of the position. Some forward observers had fine targets but their radios did not function. In certain platoons there apparently was no wire communication. Consequently these forward observers were unable to call in and direct mortar and artillery fire on the North Koreans.

 This attack on the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry, was one of the most perfectly co-ordinated assaults ever launched by North Koreans against American troops. The North Koreans who had been driven from the 3rd Battalion’s position shortly after midnight, together no doubt with other infiltrators, apparently had provided detailed and accurate information of the 3rd Battalion’s defenses and the location of its command post. The attack disorganized the battalion and destroyed its communications before it had a chance to fight back. Enemy roadblocks behind the battalion prevented evacuation of the wounded or resupplying the battalion with ammunition. For several hours units of the battalion fought as best they could. Many desperate encounters took place. In one of these, when an enemy machine gun placed a band of fire on K Company’s command post, Private Paul R. Spear, armed with only a pistol, charged the machine gun emplacement alone, entered it with his pistol empty and, using it as a club, routed the enemy gunners. Enemy fire seriously wounded him. [N7-4343 21st Inf WD, 11 Jul 50; 24th Div WD, G-3 Jnl, entry 292, 110650 Jul 50; Bernard (1st Plat Ldr L Co at time), MS review comments, 24 Feb 57. General Order 55, awarded the Distinguished Service Cross to Private Spear. EUSAK WD, 7 Sep 50.]

 The North Koreans overran the 3rd Battalion. Before noon, survivors in small groups made their way back toward Chochiwon . Enemy fire killed Colonel Jensen, the battalion commander, and Lieutenant Leon J. Jacques, Jr., his S-2, when they tried to cross a stream in the rear of their observation post. The battalion S-1 and S-3, Lieutenants Cashe and Lester, and Captain O’Dean T. Cox, commanding officer of L Company, were reported missing in action. The 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry, lost altogether nearly 60 percent of its strength in this action. Of those who escaped, 90 percent had neither weapons, ammunition, nor canteens, and, in many instances, the men had neither helmets nor shoes. One officer of L Company who came out with some men said that after he and others had removed an enemy machine gun blocking their escape route many uninjured men by the side of the road simply refused to try to go on. One noncom said, “Lieutenant, you will have to go on. I’m too beat up. They’ll just have to take me.” A remnant of 8 officers and 142 men able for duty was organized into a provisional company of three rifle platoons and a heavy weapons company. But by 15 July a total of 322 out of 667 men had returned to the battalion. Four tanks of A Company, 78th Heavy Tank Battalion, were lost to enemy action north of Chochiwon on 10 and 11 July. [N7-44AR] The 21st Infantry on 10 and 11 July north of Chochiwon lost matériel and weapons sufficient to equip two rifle battalions and individual and organic clothing for 975 men.

 [N7-44AR: Ltr, Stephens to author, 24 Mar 52; Bernard, MS review comments, 24 Feb 57; 21st Inf WD, 11 Jul 50; Ibid., 12 Jul 50, Incl III, Activities Rpt, 3rd Bn; 24th Div WD, 11 Jul 50. When it regained this ground on 29 September 1950, the 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, found many American dead. See Hist, 5th Cav Regt, 1st Cav Div, Msg 49, 291825 Sep 50.]

 At Chonui the 3rd Division had passed the 4th on the main highway. It struck the blow against the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry. The 4th Division turned back from Chonui and took the right fork toward Kongju, following the retreating 34th Infantry.

 Toward evening of the 11th, after he had full information of the fate of the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry, General Dean ordered A Company, 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion, to prepare every possible obstacle for the defense of the Chochiwon area and to cover, if necessary, the withdrawal of the regiment. Dean also started the 19th Infantry Regiment and the 13th Field Artillery Battalion from Taegu and Pohang-dong for Taejon during the day.

 That night the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry, rested uneasily in its positions two miles north of Chochiwon. It had to expect that the North Koreans would strike within hours. At dawn an enemy patrol approached C Company’s position, and members of the battalion saw hostile movement on both flanks. At 0930 an estimated enemy battalion, supported by artillery fire, attacked Smith’s left flank. Very quickly a general attack developed by an estimated 2,000 enemy soldiers. Colonel Stephens decided that the understrength 1st Battalion, with its large percentage of replacement and untried troops, would have to withdraw. At noon, 12 July, he sent the following message to General Dean: “Am surrounded, 1st Battalion left giving way. Situation bad on right. Having nothing left to establish intermediate delaying position am forced to withdraw to river line. I have issued instructions to withdraw.” [N7-4747 21st Inf WD, 12 Jul 50; 24th Div WD, G-3 Jnl, entry 353, 121200 Jul 50; Interv, author with Colonel Charles B. Smith, 7 Oct 51; Interv, author with Stephens, 8 Oct 51.]

 Colonel Smith disengaged the 1st Battalion by moving one company at a time Regimental trucks loaded the troops near Chochiwon. While the infantry were displacing southward, enemy artillery began shelling the regimental command post in Chochiwon. The retreat was orderly and there was no close pursuit. By 1530 the 1st Battalion occupied new defensive positions on the south bank of the Kum River where the highway crossed it at Taepyong-ni. The 21st Infantry Regiment completed its withdrawal across the Kum at 1600, but stragglers were still crossing the river five hours later. A thin line of approximately 325 men held the new blocking position at the river—64 men from the 3rd Battalion, the rest from the 1st Battalion.

 In the series of battles between Chonui and Chochiwon the understrength two-battalion 21st Infantry Regiment had delayed two of the best North Korean divisions for three days. It was the most impressive performance yet of American troops in Korea, but the regiment paid heavily for it in loss of personnel and equipment.

 The 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry, meanwhile, had covered the retreat on the Kongju road and fought a series of minor delaying actions against the leading elements of the N.K. 4th Division which had taken up the pursuit there. Four light M24 tanks of the 78th Tank Battalion joined the battalion, and D Company of the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion prepared demolitions along the road. In the afternoon of 11 July, enemy action destroyed three of the four tanks, two of them by artillery fire and the third by infantry close attack when the tank tried to rescue personnel from a litter jeep ambushed by enemy infiltrators.  

Remnants of the 3rd Battalion had led the retreat. Reorganized as a composite company and re-equipped at Taejon, it returned to Kongju on the 11th. The next day the 63rd Field Artillery Battalion and the 34th Infantry crossed the Kum. The last of the infantry and Colonel Ayres, the 1st Battalion commander, crossed at dusk. General Dean’s instructions were to “leave a small outpost across the river. Blow the main bridge only when enemy starts to cross.” To implement this order Colonel Wadlington had L Company hold the bridge and outpost the north bank for 600 yards.

SOURCE: South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu; BY: Colonel Roy E. Appleman (United States Army Center of Military History)

Korean War: Central Mountains and on the East Coast July 1950 (8)

Korean War: American Ground Forces Enter the Battle (6)

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The Old Farmer’s Almanac for March 8: SEE WHEN DST STARTS AND ENDS, PLUS THE HISTORY OF DST

 

5 TIPS TO ADJUST TO THE TIME CHANGE!

HOW DAYLIGHT SAVING AFFECTS YOUR SLEEP AND TIPS TO ADJUST
By Catherine Boeckmann

When does Daylight Saving Time 2019 begin and end? Find dates here—as well as the history of Daylight Saving Time, which highlights the seemingly endless debate about saving daylight and changing our clocks.

The Old Farmer’s Almanac (around since the beginning of time or, at least, Benjamin Franklin’s day) answers your frequent questions …

WHAT IS DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME?

Daylight Saving Time (DST) is the practice of moving the clocks forward one hour from Standard Time for the summer months, and changing them back again in the fall. The general idea is that this allows us all to make better use of natural daylight. However, DST has many detractors.

Note that the term is “Daylight Saving Time” and not “Daylight Savings Time” with an “s” at the end of “Saving.” (The word “saving” is singular because it acts as part of an adjective rather than a verb.)

WHEN IS DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME IN 2019?

To remember which way to set their clocks, folks often use the expression, “Spring forward, fall back.”

DST begins on Sunday, March 10, 2019, at 2:00 A.M. Remember to “spring forward” in the spring and set your clocks forward one hour (i.e., losing one hour).

DST ends on Sunday, November 3, 2019, at 2:00 A.M. At this time, we “fall back” in the fall by setting clocks back one hour (i.e., gaining one hour).

Note: Since the time changes at 2:00 A.M., we generally change our clocks at Saturday bedtime.

DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME DATES

(The exceptions to DST are Arizona, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.)

Year Daylight Saving Time Begins Daylight Saving Time Ends
2019 Sunday, March 10 at 2:00 A.M. Sunday, November 3 at 2:00 A.M.
2020 Sunday, March 8 at 2:00 A.M. Sunday, November 1 at 2:00 A.M.
2021 Sunday, March 14 at 2:00 A.M. Sunday, November 7 at 2:00 A.M.

THE HISTORY OF DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME

Does changing the clocks really provide benefits? We’ll let you be the judge.

BLAME BEN?

Benjamin Franklin’s “An Economical Project,” written in 1784, is the earliest known proposal to “save” daylight. It was whimsical in tone, advocating laws to compel citizens to rise at the crack of dawn to save the expense of candlelight:

Every morning, as soon as the Sun rises, let all the bells in every church be set ringing: and if that is not sufficient, let cannon be fired in every street to wake the sluggards effectually… . Oblige a man to rise at four in the morning, and it is probable that he will go willingly to bed at eight in the evening.”

DST’S TRUE FOUNDER?

The first true proponent of Daylight Saving Time was an Englishman named William Willet. A London builder, he conceived the idea while riding his horse early one morning in 1907. He noticed that the shutters of houses were tightly closed even though the Sun had risen. In “The Waste of Daylight,” the manifesto of his personal light-saving campaign, Willet wrote, “Everyone appreciates the long, light evenings. Everyone laments their shrinkage as the days grow shorter; and nearly everyone has given utterance to a regret that the nearly clear, bright light of an early morning during Spring and Summer months is so seldom seen or used… . That so many as 210 hours of daylight are, to all intents and purposes, wasted every year is a defect in our civilization. Let England recognise and remedy it.”

Willet spent a small fortune lobbying businessmen, members of Parliament, and the U.S. Congress to put clocks ahead 20 minutes on each of the four Sundays in April, and reverse the process on consecutive Sundays in September. But his proposal was met mostly with ridicule. One community opposed it on moral grounds, calling the practice the sin of “lying” about true time.

WORLD WAR I LED TO ADOPTION OF DST

Attitudes changed after World War I broke out. The government and citizenry recognized the need to conserve coal used for heating homes. The Germans were the first to officially adopt the light-extending system in 1915, as a fuel-saving measure during World War I. This led to the introduction in 1916 of British Summer Time: From May 21 to October 1, clocks in Britain were put an hour ahead.

The United States followed in 1918, when Congress passed the Standard Time Act, which established the time zones. However, this was amidst great public opposition. A U.S. government Congressional Committee was formed to investigate the benefits of Daylight Saving Time. Many Americans viewed the practice as an absurd attempt to make late sleepers get up early. Others thought that it was unnatural to follow “clock time” instead of “Sun time.” A columnist in the Saturday Evening Postoffered this alternative: “Why not ‘save summer’ by having June begin at the end of February?”

The matter took on new meaning in April 1917, when President Woodrow Wilson declared war. Suddenly, energy conservation was of paramount importance, and several efforts were launched to enlist public support for changing the clocks. A group called the National Daylight Saving Convention distributed postcards showing Uncle Sam holding a garden hoe and rifle, turning back the hands of a huge pocket watch. Voters were asked to sign and mail to their congressman postcards that declared, “If I have more daylight, I can work longer for my country. We need every hour of light.” Manhattan’s borough president testified to Congress that the extra hour of light would be a boon to home gardening, and therefore increase the Allies’ food supply. Posters chided, “Uncle Sam, your enemies have been up and are at work in the extra hour of daylight—when will YOU wake up?”

With public opinion in its favor, Congress officially declared that all clocks would be moved ahead one hour at 2:00 A.M. on March 31, 1918. (Canada adopted a similar policy later the same year.) Americans were encouraged to turn off their lights and go to bed earlier than they normally did—at around 8:00 P.M.

FARMERS DID NOT FAVOR DST

Many Americans wrongly point to farmers as the driving force behind Daylight Saving Time. In fact, farmers were its strongest opponents and, as a group, stubbornly resisted the change from the beginning.

When the war was over, the farmers and working-class people who had held their tongues began to speak out. They demanded an end to Daylight Saving Time, claiming that it benefited only office workers and the leisure class. The controversy put a spotlight on the growing gap between rural and urban dwellers. As a writer for the Literary Digest put it, “The farmer objects to doing his early chores in the dark merely so that his city brother, who is sound asleep at the time, may enjoy a daylight motor ride at eight in the evening.”

The Daylight Saving Time experiment lasted only until 1920, when the law was repealed due to opposition from dairy farmers (cows don’t pay attention to clocks). No fewer than 28 bills to repeal Daylight Saving Time had been introduced to Congress, and the law was removed from the books. American had tolerated Daylight Saving Time for about seven months.

DST RETURNS

The subject did not come up again until after the attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941, and the United States was once again at war.

During World War II, Daylight Saving Time was imposed once again (this time year-round) to save fuel. Clocks were set one hour ahead to save energy.

After the war (which concluded with Japan’s final surrender on September 2, 1945), Daylight Saving Time started being used on and off in different states, beginning and ending on days of their choosing.

LOCAL DIFFERENCES AND INCONSISTENCY

Inconsistent adherence to time zones among the states created considerable confusion with interstate bus and train service. To remedy the situation, Congress passed the Uniform Time Act in 1966, establishing consistent use of Daylight Saving Time within the United States: Clocks were to be set ahead one hour on the last Sunday in April and one hour back on the last Sunday in October.

That was the rule, but some state legislatures took exception via a loophole that had been built into the law. Residents of Hawaii and most of Arizona did not change their clocks. Residents of Indiana, which straddles the Eastern and Central time zones, were sharply divided on Daylight Saving Time: Some counties employed it, some did not.

In 1986, the U.S. Congress approved a bill to increase the period of Daylight Saving Time, moving the start to the first Sunday in April. The goal was to conserve oil used for generating electricity—an estimated 300,000 barrels annually. Still, some resistance remained:

  • In 1997, a bill was introduced to end Daylight Saving Time in Nevada.
  • In 2001, the California legislature requested that its state be allowed to enact Daylight Saving Time year-round in order to eliminate rolling blackouts caused by the electricity crisis in that state.

Neither of these proposed changes came to pass.

DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME TODAY

The current daylight saving period was established with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which went into effect in 2007. As a result, most Americans now spring forward (turn clocks ahead and lose an hour) on the second Sunday in March (at 2:00 A.M.) and fall back (turn clocks back and gain an hour) on the first Sunday in November (at 2:00 A.M.).

However, even today, farmers’ organizations lobby Congress against the practice, preferring early daylight to dry their fields and a Standard Time sunset for ending their work at a reasonable hour. Some farmers point out that the Daylight Saving Time is deceptively misnamed. “It is a gimmick that changes the relationship between ‘Sun’ time and ‘clock’ time but saves neither time nor daylight,” says Katherine Dutro, spokesperson for the Indiana Farm Bureau.

Most of Canada is on Daylight Saving Time; only portions of Saskatchewan and small pockets of British Columbia remain on Standard Time year-round. However, the practice has its detractors. In the words of a current-day Canadian poultry producer, “The chickens do not adapt to the changed clock until several weeks have gone by, so the first week of April and the last week of October are very frustrating for us.” Similarly, one Canadian researcher likened an increase in traffic accidents to the onset of Daylight Saving Time. Other experts insist that the extra hour of daylight reduces crime.

 

–Old Farmer’s Almanac

 

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for March 8: DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME 2019: WHY DO WE HAVE DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME?

 

DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME 2019: WHY DO WE HAVE DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME?

THE STRANGENESS OF DAYLIGHT SAVING

This weekend brings the long-awaited start of Daylight Saving Time, which suddenly fills our evenings with brightness. The way our clocks “spring ahead” is a strange business.

DST begins on Sunday, March 10, 2019, at 2:00 A.M. We are told to “spring forward” in the spring and set our clocks forward one hour (i.e., losing one hour).

It means that this Saturday night, you cannot have an appointment with anybody at 2:30 AM because that simply does not exist. Or, you could boast that in solidarity for World Peace, you will remain balanced on one leg from 1:59 until 3:01 AM.  Mr. Spock and other logic-loving Vulcans still might not be too enthusiastic, for the way our clocks “spring ahead” is downright illogical.

It didn’t have to be; In fact Daylight Time starts off being a wonderfully sensible idea.

WHY WE CHANGE OUR CLOCKS

In a nutshell, we modify our clocks so that an hour of brightness that would fall in the generally unusable realm of five in the morning gets transferred to a time when we’re all awake.

  • Changing the clocks does not create extra daylight; however, it causes the Sun to rise and set at a later time by our man-made clocks. When we spring forward an hour this Sunday, we add 1 hour of natural daylight to our afternoon schedule.
  • A century ago, DST was supposed to save energy because it used less artificial light. However, today, the amount of energy saved is negligible or even non-existent, due to modern society’s use of computers, TV, air conditioning units, etc. When the state of Indiana decided to introduce DST in 2006, a study found that the measure actually increased energy use in the state.

But being human we apparently found it impossible to make the project fully rational, so we’ve added a wild, screwy twist.

  • We advance the clocks now, 11 days before the spring equinox. So far, so good.
  • Common sense then demands that we set them back again when the Sun and length of day symmetrically return to their present positions, which will happen soon after the autumn equinox, specifically October 1. Instead, however, Daylight Time is bewilderingly set by Congress to end over a full month later, on November 3.
  • If for some reason we couldn’t bear to give up November’s date, then the start of Daylight Time, for balance and logic, ought to be the first week of February! Nobody has ever offered a syllable of justification for the current system; It just is, like raisin bran and the bow tie.

It used to be worse. Before 1986, Daylight Time began even later, on the last Sunday in April, which made even less sense. Alternatively, one might opt out of the whole thing, the way Arizona and Hawaii do. And Africa. And most of Asia. Or one could keep fooling around with it, the way Russia did when it had year-round Daylight time until 2014, and then switched to year-round standard time.

Odds are, no one’s finished screwing with this.

 

ABOUT THIS BLOG

Welcome to “This Week’s Amazing Sky,” the Almanac’s hub for everything stargazing and astronomy. Bob Berman, longtime and famous astronomer for The Old Farmer’s Almanac, will help bring alive the wonders of our universe. From the beautiful stars and planets to magical auroras and eclipses, he covers everything under the Sun (and Moon)! Bob, the world’s mostly widely read astronomer, also has a new weekly podcast, Astounding Universe!

Published on The Old Farmer’s Almanac

Today’s Holidays Around the World: International Women’s Day

March 8

Not only is this day commemorating women one of the most widely observed holidays of recent origin, but it is unusual in that it began in the United States and was adopted by many other countries, including the former U.S.S.R. and the People’s Republic of China. This holiday has its roots in the March 8, 1857, revolt of American women in New York City, protesting conditions in the textile and garment industries, although it wasn’t proclaimed a holiday until 1910.

In Great Britain and the United States, International Women’s Day is marked by special exhibitions, films, etc., in praise of women. In the former U.S.S.R., women received honors for distinguished service in industry, aviation, agriculture, military service, and other fields of endeavor.

 

CONTACTS:
United Nations, Global Teaching and Learning Project
United Nations HQ, Rm. 931-B
New York, NY 10017
212-963-8589; fax: 212-963-3358
http://www.un.org
SOURCES:
AnnivHol-2000, p. 41
BkFest-1937, p. 284
BkFestHolWrld-1970, p. 73
FolkWrldHol-1999, p. 205
OxYear-1999, p. 111
(c)

This Day in History, March 8: US President Ronald Reagan Dubs the USSR an “Evil Empire” (1983)

US President Ronald Reagan Dubs the USSR an “Evil Empire” (1983)

Speaking to a convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Florida on this day in 1983, President Ronald Reagan publicly refers to the Soviet Union as an evil empire for the second time in his career. He had first used the phrase in a 1982 speech at the British House of Commons. Some considered Reagan’s use of the Star Wars film-inspired terminology to be brilliant democratic rhetoric. Others, including many within the international diplomatic community, denounced it as irresponsible bombast.

Reagan’s aggressive stance toward the Soviet Union became known as the Reagan Doctrine. He warned against what he and his supporters saw as the dangerous trend of tolerating the Soviets’ build-up of nuclear weapons and attempts to infiltrate Third World countries in order to spread communism. Advocating a peace through strength policy, Reagan declared that the Soviets must be made to understand we will never compromise our principles and standards [nor] ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire. To do so would mean abandoning the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.

Reagan proposed a policy that went beyond the Truman Doctrine of containment, urging active intervention. He vowed to increase U.S. military spending and to use force if necessary to roll back communist expansion in Third World nations. His administration provided military aid to Nicaraguan groups fighting the leftist Sandinista government and gave material support to the Afghan mujahideen in their ongoing war against Soviets. At the same time, he reassured Americans that he would pursue an understanding with totalitarian powers and cited the United States’ effort to limit missile development as a step toward peace.

Reagan’s doctrine came at the same time as a surge in international and domestic protests against the U.S.-Soviet arms race. His opponents blamed the administration for causing the largest increase in American military spending since the beginning of the Cold War, a policy that swelled the nation’s budget deficit.

The Soviet economy ultimately collapsed in the late 1980s, ending decades of communist rule in Russia and Eastern Europe. Americans disagreed as to the cause: while economists and Reagan’s critics claimed the Soviet empire had buckled under the weight of its own bloated defense spending and a protracted war in Afghanistan, Reagan and his supporters credited his hard-line anti-communist policies for defeating Soviet communism.

Get A Jump on Tomorrow, Your Horoscopes for Saturday, March 9th

Moon Alert

Caution: after noon EST today (9 AM PST) avoid shopping or important decisions. The Moon is in Aries.

Aries (March 21-April 19)

Don’t get your belly in a rash when talking to parents, bosses, VIPs and the police today because you might be tempted to do this. It will not behoove you to mouth off at anyone. (Believe me.) Therefore, guard against knee-jerk reactions, even if you’re annoyed. Stay chill.

Taurus (April 20-May 20)

You might be doing a slow boil about something today. You’re not happy but you feel you can’t speak up because you’ll sound petty or it will be inappropriate. (Yeah, you’re stuck between a rock and a hard place.) Fortunately, you are someone who waits to choose your time to speak.

Gemini (May 21-June 20)

Don’t get embroiled with an argument with a friend or a member of a group today because it’s just not worth it. This is also a poor day to volunteer for anything or to try to redo anything that’s important. Check the Moon Alert above. Easy does it.

Cancer (June 21-July 22)

Avoid arguments with parents, bosses and the police today because they could be nasty. Furthermore, you will not achieve anything because for most of this day, it’s a Moon Alert, which means whatever you initiate will just fade off into the ether. Be smart.

Leo (July 23-Aug. 22)

Avoid touchy subjects like politics, religion and racial issues today because you’ll get in trouble. You might go head-to-head with someone in a nasty way. You might have big travel plans today or be hopeful about a legal outcome.

Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22)

Disputes about shared property, inheritances and wills might arise today. You might also be tempted to give away too much money. Whatever the case, this is actually a poor day for financial decisions – factoid. Postpone big decisions until Monday.

Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 22)

This is a tricky day because for most of this day, there is a Moon Alert. (See above.) People are excitable and quick to argue, so keep this in mind. It’s also easy to be too optimistic about something or overextend yourself. Don’t promise more than you can deliver.

Scorpio (Oct. 23-Nov. 21)

Do not make suggestions about improvements and reforms at work today. Don’t tell someone how they can do something better because it could trigger resentment or an argument. Avoid big plans today – wait until Monday. Check the Moon Alert above.

Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21)

Romantic couples must be patient with each other today because jealousy and a tendency to argue is lurking beneath the surface. Likewise, parents must be patient with their kids. And yet, fun times and exuberant occasions are also possible. It’s a tricky day. (See Moon Alert.)

Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19)

You might have big ideas about how to make home improvements today; however, someone might not agree. Don’t push issues today because arguments can arise. It’s also easy to overestimate something. In addition, today is a Moon Alert! (Wait until Monday to act.) Oy vey.

Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18)

Do not promise more than you can deliver to anyone today although you might be tempted to do so. Furthermore, do not be quick to jump into an argument to try to prove your point. It’s not worth it. Because of the Moon Alert today, just coast. Restrict spending to food and gas.

Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20)

This is a poor day to spend money on anything other than food, gas or entertainment. Guard your possessions and your cash against loss and theft. Don’t make financial promises or agreements – wait until Monday. You’ll be glad you did. Check the Mon Alert above.

If Your Birthday Is Today

Actress Brittany Snow (1986) shares your birthday today. You are intuitive and tuned into the vibrations of the universe. You are also playful and humorous. This year you have responsibilities to family and yourself because service to others is important. Therefore, take care of yourself so that you are a strong resource. Nurture relationships you value. Tap into your personal creativity and hobbies. Make your home a welcome place.

–GeorgiaNicols

Born on March 8, Happy Birthday Pisces!

happy belated birthday to you dear Mira..from Piedad

For those born on March 8th….

Happy Birthday, Fellow Pisces!

IF YOUR BIRTHDAY IS March 8, you are one amazing individual! You have the gift of mystic abilities. Your psychic perception runs deep. The astrology sign for 8th March is Pisces and you enjoy having this quality.

You may use it to enrich the lives of fellow human beings. You are responsive to the needs of others and you can be seen serving meals to the homeless. This ability to see the best in people makes it easy for you to believe in love.

The 8th March birthday meaning shows you to be sensitive and sometimes shy. Being you, Pisces, you get your feelings hurt a lot. You cannot be so vulnerable when people are only being honest with you or just joking around. You have to laugh at life sometimes, and even at yourself.

Amongst your friends and family, few are close to you. Those of you with birthday March 8 are great friends. You love your little circle of support and are totally devoted to them. However, Pisces, you have your favorite picks.

They are usually the ones that give back as some people will take advantage of your kindness. You must say no to your friends and sometimes, especially no to your family.

Pisces 8 March birthdays usually have a hard time trusting people. You feel that trust like love is something given or earned over time. It does not require rushing in.

If you are involved with someone who is born on this day, you have found someone who is romantic, attuned to his/her partner’s desires, and needs. You have remarkable intuition, Pisces. Yes indeed… you have an awesome gift of imminent powers.

Once a Piscean has found that someone special who deserves to be treasured, you will be a committed and dutiful lover. Your somewhat timid nature could pose a problem for your partner if he/she is the same way. Look for your opposite to compliment you Pisces, as you can be accommodating when it counts the most say your birthday personality.

Most Pisceans do not work for the money – you work for the reward. The best career you could have would be one that combines your dedication and creativity. Maybe you would be interested in human services or an information technologist as a possible profession. To those born on this day 8 March, meeting the immediate and long-term goals are more important than salary.

On the other hand, Pisces zodiac birthday 8th March realize that you want to live a certain way and you have to be able to afford your spending habits so maintaining status financially is important.

When it comes to money, Pisceans could go either way. You will likely be thrifty or you will max out your credit cards. Whichever the case may be, you will manage to overcome any financial burdens.

If yours is an 8 March birthday, you may suffer with bad feet and skin disorders. You could have inherited this condition or it could be a general nuisance. Perhaps an old injury is giving you chronic pain.

Try using holistic health care methods to possibly treating your problem areas. Treat yourself to an oatmeal bath or one with sea salts. Do not forget the candles and wine. You might as well pamper yourself.

According to the March 8 birthday astrology analysis, you are not authoritarians when it comes to parenting. Looking back at your past, you tend to be more lenient with your own children. As a child, Pisces, you were the outcast. You were different and you were perhaps treated as so.

To tell you the truth, you do not know what to think or how to behave toward your family members as a result of this treatment. Pisces, you do not want to subject your children to any special or indifferent treatment and will go through great lengths to see that they are treated equally.

Your birthday horoscope shows that you may have your preference but the group most likely to be entertained by you is your closest friends and family members. Those of you born on March 8 tend to take a relaxed approach to child rearing.

You are likely to be detached from your own parents and want to avoid a second generation of dysfunctional behavior. Of course, you are at your best when helping others, personally or professionally. Pisces, cover up when out in the sun. Protect yourself. You are subject to skin problems.

 

Famous People And Celebrities Born On March 8

Alan Hale, Jr., Lester Holt, Boris Kodjoe, Gary Numan, Freddie Prinze, Jr., Aidan Quinn, Kenny Smith, Nick Zano

 

This Day That Year – March 8 In History

1586 – A new Dutch chief legal advisor appointed; Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
1813 – The Royal Philharmonic’s first concerto
1817 – The NY Stock Exchange is established on this date
1924 – Castle Gate Utah; coal mine explosion kills 171 people

 

March 8  Meen Rashi (Vedic Moon Sign)
March 8 Chinese Zodiac RABBIT

 

March 8 Birthday Planet

Your ruling planet is Neptune that stands for love, fantasies, mercy, and spiritual awakening.

March 8 Birthday Symbols

The Two Fishes Are The Symbol For The Pisces Zodiac Sign

March 8 Birthday Tarot Card

Your Birth Day Tarot Card is Strength. This card symbolizes confidence, courage, resilience, and willpower. The Minor Arcana cards are Nine of Cups and King of Cups.

March 8 Birthday Compatibility

You are most compatible with people born under Zodiac Sign Capricorn: This will be a patient yet passionate match.
You are not compatible with people born under Zodiac Sign SagittariusThis relationship will be full of adventure.

March 8 Lucky Numbers

Number 2 – This number stands for diplomacy, equilibrium, and sensitivity.
Number 8 – This number symbolizes authority, materialism, power, and reputation.

Lucky Colors For March 8 Birthday

Red: This is a regressive color that symbolizes determination, anger, willpower, and courage.
Green: This color signifies growth, stability, rejuvenation, and compassion.

Lucky Days For March 8 Birthday

Thursday – This day is ruled by Jupiter and stands for abundance, happiness, charm, and sincerity.
Saturday – This day is ruled by Saturn and represents difficulties, perseverance, patience and long-term gains.

March 8 Birthstone Aquamarine 

Aquamarine is a gemstone that helps you get in touch with your inner spiritual self.

Ideal Zodiac Birthday Gifts For People Born On The 8th Of March:

An aquarium for the man and a cashmere scarf for the woman.

 

–SunSigns.org

Your Daily Horoscopes for Friday, March 8

Moon Alert

We have the “all clear” today to shop and do business. The Moon is in Aries.

Aries (March 21-April 19)

This is an excellent day to do research because you have the energy for this. Your mind will be steady, focused and will pay attention to detail. You will be very productive because you have the patience and endurance to finish what you begin.

Taurus (April 20-May 20)

You can benefit from others today, especially older people or people who are more experienced than you. Listen to their advice because you can learn something. (After all, you don’t have to reinvent the wheel. Why not stand on the shoulders of those who have done this before?)

Gemini (May 21-June 20)

Bosses and authority figures will be impressed with you today because you are diligent and productive. Whatever you do, you will have a serious, respectful attitude and care about the results. You have the wisdom to see the long range benefits of the effort you put out today.

Cancer (June 21-July 22)

You’ll find it easy to study today or finish important papers for school projects because you will stay focused on the job. Likewise, you can finish writing projects connected with publishing and the media. Work connected with medical or legal matters will be productive.

Leo (July 23-Aug. 22)

Recently, you have been focused on red-tape issues connected with wills, inheritances, shared property and insurance matters. Today will be an exceptionally productive day for you to finish this kind of work. Listen to the advice of someone who is more experienced.

Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22)

This is the perfect day to sit down with a spouse, partner or close friend and have a serious, practical discussion about the division of labour or how to share expenses. People will be receptive to doing this, which means you will make strides. Try it!

Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 22)

Some Fridays make people want to slack off; however, not this Friday. Quite the opposite. You will be productive at work today because you are focused, energetic and conscientious. You won’t overlook details and you’ll finish what you begin. Bravo!

Scorpio (Oct. 23-Nov. 21)

This is a productive day to practice or hone your skills, especially if you are in the arts. Whether you need to play arpeggios and scales or memorize your lines or perfect your painting technique – you will have the patience to do so. It’s also a good day to practice for sports events or to teach kids.

Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21)

Listen to the advice of an older family member today because what they have to say will likely benefit you. You will see ways to strengthen, repair and solidify your home base today, which will be helpful! You might also be in a position to give sensible advice to a family member.

Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19)

You have an orderly state of mind today, which will allow you to make concrete plans and execute them in a practical way. Whatever you do, you will do carefully with no loose ends. Your powers of concentration are great and you won’t overlook anything. (I’m impressed.)

Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18)

You will be frugal and practical with your money today whether this is regarding your personal spending habits or business decisions. Above all, you will avoid waste and loss. You will be very careful in decisions regarding spending money.

Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20)

It’s easy to demonstrate self-discipline today because you’re in the right frame of mind. For example, you’re prepared to defer your present gratification and wait for another day for your rewards. This is why you will choose to work and accomplish as much as possible today.

If Your Birthday Is Today

Actor Aidan Quinn (1959) shares your birthday today. You’re a perfectionist; and you are cautious about others until you get to know them. This is a year of change, new opportunities and lots of fast action! Expect to encounter stimulating situations! Grab opportunities to travel and expand your world. Embrace change and explore new opportunities. Let your personal freedom be one of your goals this year.

–GeorgiaNicols

Your Daring Dating Horoscopes for the Weekend of March 8th

Your Daring Dating Horoscopes for the Weekend of March 8th

David Wells, Astrologer

From The Astrology Room

 

Aries
Seeking relationship advice from your friends isn’t such a bad idea, if they know you well enough to be critical without overdoing it? This week you’re getting feedback, take it as it’s intended and use it to find your way to someone new as the dating sites and random nights aren’t working.

Taurus
There are options this week T, does that sound even slightly romantic, options? It could be if you see it as someone who understands you have a choice and he or she goes out of their way to help you pick them? They’re trying to find the right person, they think it’s you. That’s romance.

Gemini
As long as you ruler is in reverse, and he is, it’s better to leave yourself plenty of time to get to first dates, coffee with mates or that hot new club where hot new club goers go-go. It’s not biggie but getting dressed up, making the effort and not getting in could be annoying. Pay attention to details and timing.

Cancer
With Saturn so close to Pluto some would say its real soulmate time for you Cancer. It certainly isn’t outside the realms of possibility, but give it a week or two before you decide? Falling head over heels is something that could happen but get yourself the right way up before deciding if it’s permanent.

Leo
Venus opposite you and Jupiter in your new love sky is as good as it gets for signs, for omens, for reasons to get out there and see what’s going on. It’s also great for marriage counselling, relationship advice generally, just in case you’re already in a relationship but it doesn’t quite feel like it.

Virgo
Happily making things about you isn’t going to happen. You’re really not as adept as some when it comes talking about themselves with ease, with confidence and without taking a breath. But you must reveal a little of your wants, your needs; your desires. Someone is interested, show them around.

Libra
Next week the Sun moves into your relationship sky. This week Venus is in your new love sky. That’s a combo aching to be exploited as you take something new and move it into something a bit more established, a bit more about dating than just testing out the waters. Armbands off Libra, jump in.

Scorpio
As you sit there watching the coming and going of your mates, their dates, their break-ups and make-ups, isn’t it a good feeling to know you’re not going to be bothered by all of that? This time it will be different, you’re sure about what you do and don’t want. You may be right. Time to find out.

Sagittarius
Honestly Sagittarius, still a bit slow on the dating front. That’s the last time I will say that for a good few months so make the most of it but putting your feet in for some maintenance, or your hair up for a new do. Mind you, there’s some gossip around, look who’s suddenly single? Still Interested?

Capricorn
Mars is offering you some relationship advice but it’s coming through your tough ruler Saturn. This set up is something that’s not taking any nonsense but isn’t what you’d called the most romantic of line ups. Soften the edges, consider a pause before you march in and plant a flag.

Aquarius
Venus in your sign offers you some sort of VIP pass, a way through to love interests and the world of dating without doing too much hard work. You don’t really need to know that Aquarius, all you need to do is sashay your way to the front of the queue because surprise, surprise your name is on the list.

Pisces
The pressure of an ex, some hangover from your relationship with him or her or joint friendships, such cheery things to think about. But think about them you must Pisces as you’re asked to finally cut the chords that bind from all of it. Once done you’re free to explore the world of dating like never before.