Home Remedies That Really Work
Note: When applying these home remedies, remember to be really nice to your family and friends. You never know when you might need them to empty your bedpan.
Note: When applying these home remedies, remember to be really nice to your family and friends. You never know when you might need them to empty your bedpan.
Solar Cycle 24 is approaching its end, which will mean the beginning of Solar Cycle 25. What does that mean for Earth’s weather—and for us?
Fig. 1 (below) is a graph from the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center showing Cycle 24’s very low level of solar activity—the lowest in more than two centuries, even lower than the level in the early 1900s and comparable to the very low levels of solar activity that occurred in the early 1800s (the period referred to as the “Dalton Minimum,” which coincided with the “Little Ice Age”).
As shown in Fig. 2 (below), these three periods have brought the lowest solar activity levels since the Maunder Minimum, the period from about 1645 to 1715, when solar cycles apparently stopped and sunspots were exceedingly rare.
As you may know, we at The Old Farmer’s Almanac use solar activity as the primary driver of our long-range weather forecasts. We believe that changes in the Sun’s output, although relatively small, are sufficiently amplified in Earth’s upper atmosphere to strongly influence Earth’s weather patterns.
One of the most significant relationships that we have found is that periods of low solar activity are associated with colder temperatures, averaged across Earth. Our viewpoint is a controversial one, as most scientists believe that the magnitude of changes in solar activity are insufficient to have a significant effect on Earth’s weather, and they view as coincidence that past periods of exceptionally low solar activity have historically corresponded with cold periods.
However, an increasing amount of research seems to be giving credence to our theory: Although the changes in magnitude of solar activity are small, there is a mechanism in the upper atmosphere that can amplify these changes, causing larger ripples in the lower portion of Earth’s atmosphere, where weather occurs.
Historically, all of the periods in the known sunspot record that have had low activity have also had relatively cool temperatures, averaged across the globe. The Maunder Minimum coincided with an exceptionally cold period in many parts of the globe. We believe that with low solar activity continuing for at least the next 10 to 30 years, global temperatures will be cooler than they would otherwise be.
Despite the recent low solar activity, April 2018 was the third warmest April ever recorded, averaged across the globe, behind only April 2017 and April 2016. Incredibly, April was the 400th consecutive month in which temperatures averaged across the entire Earth were warmer than the month’s 20th-century average temperature.
So why, you might ask, have Earth’s temperatures been so consistently warm when our forecast methodology, which is based primarily on solar activity, says that they should be cool?
The answer is that solar activity is not the only factor in Earth’s weather.
For example, one factor that all atmospheric scientists believe can make Earth colder for as much as a few years is a volcanic eruption that spews ash into the middle and upper portions of the atmosphere. While this has not been a major factor in recent years, it has been at times in the past and could be again in the future.
Another factor is increased urbanization. The heat from buildings and human activities in cities makes them warmer than the surrounding countryside—something known as “the urban heat island effect.” However, most atmospheric scientists believe that this is a local effect that does not significantly raise Earth’s average temperatures.
It is important to note that although Earth, on average, has been warming for decades, not every place is or will be warmer than normal each season. Remember: Other factors are at play, including the normal variation in weather that occurs from day to day and year to year.
The most significant factor (in addition to solar activity) that has been affecting our weather in recent years has been the increase in greenhouse gases—most notably, carbon dioxide and methane—which most (but not all) atmospheric scientists believe has been making Earth progressively warmer. We have been incorporating the influence of these increases into our forecasts as a factor that will offset much of the cooling from our current period of low solar activity.
If we are correct in these factors, what this means is that the current period of low solar activity has been partially offsetting the greenhouse warming that has been occurring. This suggests that when the current period of exceptionally low solar activity ends and solar activity returns to a more normal level—perhaps in 30 years or so—we will see a rapid jump in the Earth’s average temperatures. Until that time, we would expect the general warming trend to continue, but as a slow warming in which some months set new records for global warmth but many do not.
Published on Old Farmer’s Almanac
There have many arguments about whether or not variations in the Sun’s activity affect our weather and climate. The Old Farmer’s Almanac’s long-range forecasts are based predominantly upon solar activity, with their basis being that changes in activity on the Sun do indeed directly cause changes in weather patterns on Earth.
Although our seasonal forecasts have been far more accurate than any others made with a similar time frame, until recently nearly all meteorologists and climatologists have not believed that it was even possible for changes in solar output to affect Earth’s weather, let alone control it to a large extent, as we believe is the case.
The reason for their skepticism has to do with the energy output from the Sun, which is known as the solar constant. Technically, it is not really a constant—it does change significantly over billions of years. It also varies over days and years, but as these variations are a tiny fraction of its value, the scientific consensus has been that any changes in solar energy on a shorter-than-geological-era scale are much too small to have any effect on Earth’s weather.
A defining feature of science that helps to make it so valuable is that as new information comes to light, scientific consensus changes, and what was once believed to be incorrect can become the new truth.
Several years ago, a research paper was published by some Russian meteorologists who believed that they had discovered and defined a mechanism by which tiny changes in solar output could have an effect on Earth’s weather. They postulated that these changes affected the top of Earth’s atmosphere, an area known as the thermosphere, which was thin enough for these small changes to have an effect on it—and that these changes were then enhanced by orders of magnitude as they reflected into the troposphere, the lowest portion of the atmosphere, where our weather occurs.
Recently, others have picked up on this research, and its concepts seem to be moving into the scientific mainstream.
The SABER instrumentation aboard the TIMED satellite launched 17 years ago has provided data on the infrared emissions from carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO), two substances that play a key role in the energy balance of air in the thermosphere. By measuring the infrared glow of these molecules, SABER can assess the temperature at the very top of the atmosphere.
Martin Mlynczak, at NASA’s Langley Research Center, has developed something called the Thermosphere Climate Index (TCI), which measures the temperatures at the top of Earth’s atmosphere. Although SABER has been in orbit for only 17 years, Mlynczak and his colleagues recently calculated TCI going all the way back to the 1940s. “SABERtaught us to do this by revealing how TCI depends on other variables such as geomagnetic activity and the Sun’s UV output—things that have been measured for decades,” he explained. (See the accompanying graph of TCI data, courtesy of NASA.)
As 2019 begins, the Thermosphere Climate Index is on the verge of setting a Space Age record for cold, which reflects the historic low in solar activity in the current cycle.
So, recent data has proven that temperatures in the uppermost portion of the atmosphere vary substantially, in parallel with solar activity. Recent research proposes a mechanism by which these changes can have a significant effect on weather patterns in the lower atmosphere. While these changes in scientific consensus may not come close to the importance of the refinements of Newtonian mechanics made by Einstein early in the 20th century, they do, at the very least, add scientific credibility to the forecast methodology that we use to make your long-range forecasts here at The Old Farmer’s Almanac.
Have you ever heard of the Year Without a Summer? In 1816, a volcanic eruption and cooling Sun brought about snow, sleet and frost. The world experienced a sudden drop in temperatures and an uptick in erratic weather patterns, causing massive food shortages across the Northern Hemisphere. Here’s the story behind the Great Cold Summer of 1816.
Even now, this year is sometimes called “Eighteen Hundred and Nearly Frozen to Death.”
Nobody, apparently, had an immediate answer, but many conjectured that the curious weather was due to the positions of the planets, the distance between Earth and the Moon, or sunspots.
At the time, Earth was already experiencing the concluding decades of the Little Ice Age, due to a period of relatively low solar activity from 1790 to 1830 known as the Dalton Minimum. May 1816, in particular, had had the lowest sunspot number (0.1) to date since record-keeping on solar activity had begun. As you may know, we at The Old Farmer’s Almanac use solar activity as the driver of our long range weather forecasts, and one factor we’ve found is that periods of low activity are associated with colder temperatures, averaged across Earth.
But it was not only solar activity that contributed to the summerless year.
A 13,000-foot-high volcano on the island of Sumbawa, near Bali, Indonesia, was the primary cause of the Year Without a Summer. The eruption happened in April of 1815 and was one of the greatest volcanic eruptions in history. Its toll: perhaps as many as 90,000 lives.
Mt. Tambora ejected immense amounts of volcanic ash into the upper atmosphere, where it was carried around the world by the jet stream. The volcanic dust covered Earth like a great cosmic umbrella, dimming the Sun’s effectiveness during the whole cold year. This resulted in a further reduction in solar irradiance, which brought record cold to much of the world during the following summer. Such an eruption would explain the appearance of the 1816 Sun as “in a cloud of smoke.”
To which must be added the speculation surrounding a complete eclipse of the Sun on May 26, 1816, and of the Moon on June 9 and the “greater number of conjunctions of the planets than usual,” which would favor, wrote Robert B. Thomas, editor of this Almanac, “old maids and bachelors.”
According to an apocryphal story that goes back to as early as 1846, Thomas had predicted for July 13, 1816, “Rain, Hail, and Snow”—all three of which, greatly to his amazement, did fall on this day.
The unusual cold played havoc with agricultural production in many parts of the world, directly or indirectly creating crop failures, dramatic increases in food prices, famines, cultural disruptions, and epidemics of cholera and other diseases. There were major weather events across the United States (which numbered 18 states at the time, with Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and Louisiana having been added to the original 13).
In the United States, among the hardest hit were the people of New England. All through July, heavy frosts and occasional ice storms were commonly seen. Most people took off their winter clothing, only to have to put it on again. So many young (and old) birds were frozen that but a few were found around New England in the following 3 years.
Suicides were also not uncommon: Drought, financial panic, and lack of food goaded many to desperation.
In sum, as one anonymous poet put it:
The trees were all leafless,
the mountains were brown,
The face of the country was scathed with a frown;
And bleak were the hills,
and the foliage sere
As had never been seen at
that time of year.
A variety of almanacs and magazines have published their thoughts on the event, too:
“The Sun’s rays seemed to be destitute of heat throughout the summer; all nature was clad in a sable hue.” –Albany (N.Y.) Almanac, 1852
“During the entire season, the Sun arose each morning as though in a cloud of smoke, red and rayless, shedding little light or warmth and setting at night as behind a thick cloud of vapor, leaving hardly a trace of its having passed over the face of the Earth.” –American Magazine of History
“What would happen if the Sun should become tired of illuminating this gloomy planet?” –North American Review, 1816
Juan Santamaría is remembered as a national hero in Costa Rica. The country had been threatened in 1856 by William Walker, an American imperialist who planned to use his mercenary army to conquer Central America and use its citizens for slave labor. Walker had already taken control of Nicaragua and organized a similar invasion of Costa Rica.
Santamaría, a 19-year-old drummer boy from the town of Alajeula, was part of the makeshift militia that fought Walker’s forces. On April 11, 1856, Santamaría volunteered for a dangerous assignment. There are conflicting stories about his actions, which either set fire to Walker’s fort or his ammunitions store. In any event, Santamaría was killed in the process, and Walker’s forces were eventually repelled.
Juan Santamaría Day is actually a week-long festival of parades, concerts, dancing, and marching bands throughout the country, with the biggest celebrations in Alajeula. The official holiday, when schools, government offices, and businesses are closed, is usually on April 11, the anniversary of Santamaría’s death. But the official date has been changed in recent years. If April 11 occurs during Easter week or on a weekend, the national holiday is celebrated on the closest Monday.
Embassy of Costa Rica
2114 S St. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
202-234-2945 or 202-234-2946; fax: 202-265-4795
The second Palm Sunday tornado outbreak occurred on April 11–12, 1965, in the Midwest U.S. states of Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois and Iowa, with 47 tornadoes (32 significant, 17 violent, 21 killers). It was the second-biggest outbreak on record at the time. In the Midwest, 271 people were killed and 1,500 injured (1,200 in Indiana). It was the deadliest tornado outbreak in Indiana history, with 137 people killed. The outbreak also made that week in April 1965 the second-most-active week in history, with 51 significant and 21 violent tornadoes.
The tornadoes occurred in a swath 450 miles long (724 km) from Cedar County, Iowa, to Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and a swath 450 miles long (724 km) from Kent County, Michigan, to Montgomery County, Indiana. The outbreak lasted 11 hours and is among the most intense outbreaks, in terms of number, strength, width, path, and length of tornadoes, ever recorded, including four “double/twin funnel” tornadoes.
The outbreak was one of the deadliest, and most violent ever documented, with 17 confirmed violent tornadoes (F4-F5 intensity) all of which were rated F4, the second-largest number of violent twisters in one outbreak, after the Super Outbreak of 1974. There had been a short winter that year and, as the day progressed, the temperature rose to 83 °F (28 °C) in the affected area. The tornado outbreak began on Palm Sunday, an important holy day for most Christians. Thus, many people were attending church services, which may explain why some tornado warnings were never received. Read More….
There is nothing in your life that can’t be overcome; whatever the problem, there’s always a solution.
When our next best course of action seems unclear, any dilemmas we face can appear insurmountable. Yet there is nothing we cannot overcome with time, persistence, focused thought, help, and faith. Whatever the situation or problem, there is always a solution. And if you remember to look within, even as you search around you for the “right” course of action, you will be able to center yourself, clear your mind, and see that nothing has to be impossible.
The first step in overcoming any obstacle is to believe that it can be overcome. Doing so will give you the strength and courage to move through any crisis. The second step is to make a resolution that you can prevail over any chaos. Enlist your support network of family and friends if necessary. The more minds there are to consider a problem, the more solutions can be found. Don’t discount ideas just because they seem impractical or “unrealistic,” and don’t keep searching for the “best” alternative. Often there is no “best” choice, there is only a choice to make so we can begin moving beyond whatever is obstructing our path. At the very least, making a choice, even if isn’t the ideal one, can give you a sense of peace before you have to figure out what your next course of action will be.
If you feel overwhelmed by the scope of your troubles, you may want to think of other people who have turned adversity into triumph. We often gain a fresh perspective when we remember others who have overcome larger obstacles. It can be inspiring to hear of their victories, helping us remember that there is always light at the end of every tunnel. It is during our darkest hours that we sometimes need to remind ourselves that we don’t have to feel helpless. You have within and around you the resources to find a solution to any problem. And remember that if a solution or choice you make doesn’t work, you are always free to try another. Believe that you can get through anything, and you will always prevail.
Until 7 PM EDT today (or 4 PM PDT) we have the “all clear” to shop and do business. The Moon is in Cancer.
Behind-the-scenes research will go well today because you will work carefully and be mindful of details. Secret and clandestine meetings will also go well in an orderly fashion – all bases covered. There’s no moss growing on you!
Listen to the advice of someone older or more experienced because they will benefit you today. If dealing with groups, follow the rules and go with the prevailing tenor of things. This is a good time for serious discussions with others, especially those in power.
Bosses, parents and people in authority will approve of you today because you are willing to do what is necessary. You will respect your duties and obligations and be mindful of your responsibilities. (Needless to say, you will earn Brownie points with the powers that be.)
This is an excellent day to study anything that requires discipline and focus. It’s also a good day for legal outcomes and appeals to universities. Officials related to other countries might give you the approval you need. You will be careful with travel plans.
Financial decisions and matters related to wills and inheritances will be decided in your favour today. Although you are conscious of your responsibility to others and willing to be of service, nevertheless, you have paid your dues. Do not pass go and do not collect $200.
This is an excellent day to sit down with a partner, spouse or close friend so that you can have a discussion that leads to a conscious understanding of what you expect from each other. It’s cards on the table time but in a very pleasant, receptive way.
People will be supportive to you on the job today because you are conscientious, dependable, reliable and willing to work to benefit others. That’s right – you’re a quiet hero! Nevertheless, others will notice this – and they will remember.
Artists, musicians and athletes can hone their craft and skills today because they have the patience as well as the motivation to practice. “How do you get to Carnegie Hall?” “Practice.” This is a theme for your day. It will be a productive day teaching children as well.
This is a sensible day to explore real-estate deals. If shopping for a family member or your home, you will buy something attractive but practical. Incidentally, if you’re shopping later in the day, keep the Moon Alert in mind (see above). A discussion with an older family member will be down to earth.
In conversations with others today, you will be clear about what you expect from them. Likewise, you must discover what they expect from you. This is a solid day for business affairs and signing important papers except for later in the day, once the Moon Alert begins.
Business and commerce are favoured today. Whatever you do will be practical and even predictable. You might be grateful for someone’s advice or vice versa, they might be grateful for yours. Group standards will be more important to you today than your own.
You might be attracted to older people today or someone who you hope will guide you. Whatever you do today will be carried out with discipline and thoroughness, which is why you can rely on yourself today. You will feel gratified to give someone some practical help.
Actor Andy Garcia (1956) shares your birthday today. You are ambitious and have high expectations for yourself and others. Now is the time to clarify future goals because you are entering a year of exciting changes and new beginnings! Start to define what you want for yourself in the next several years. Be pro-active and ready to act. This year you will feel more robust and physically energetic.
IF YOU ARE BORN ON April 11, you are open-minded, intuitive, and empathetic. These are all great qualities to have. You have an idealistic and enthusiastic approach to life, my dear Arian.
You have strong opinions and ethics, however, concerning civil matters. What impresses people about you Aries is your cool, calm and collected attitude.
The April 11th birthday personality reeks with integrity. We can smell you a mile away. Those of you born on this day are highly respected by the community and are likely to become great leaders.
You, Aries, the 11 April birthday horoscope shows you to be responsible individuals. What could be determined as negative qualities, in your case, are your abilities to be edgy and stubborn.
This Aries birthday person finds love and friendship in the same person. You are on the right track. Your lover should be your friend but sometimes you flip the coin and are lovers before you are friends.
You have the capacity to be very passionate and caring. Additionally, those born on this birthday can be nurturing. This could work out in someone’s favor if he or she was understanding and like-minded.
You see, when Arians are in love, the relationship can be quiet the fairy tale. The 11th April birthday meanings show that you do not let your independence stand in the way of being very affectionate… playful indeed…and spontaneous!
You never know when this devoted Arian will sweep you off your feet. If you are trying to catch a Ram, be sure to use loyalty, security, and generosity as your weapons. More than anything this zodiac birthday Aries wants to have a dream wedding, the lavish lifestyle and the opportunity to do some traveling.
The April 11 birthday astrology also shows that you like people who can relate to your way of thinking and who has a set of independent goals. You have set your course and surrounded yourself with those that you admire.
If today is your birthday, you are likely to be logical and practical. You have a fair sense of justice too. You are that person who will make a difference in the world!
You have a talent for managing money as a career choice. You have a way of getting people to spill the beans. All these are skills that could be used in a profession of your picking.
Most of the time, a person with an April 11 birthday can make sound decisions and can resolve most issues. When personal conflicts arise and you do not deal with them accordingly, it takes the form of illness. Yes… it does so stop worrying about things you cannot change, let people know how you feel (you are grown now) and feel better. It is just that simple.
You, my dear Ram, are positively glowing with confidence. You feel great and it shows. You take care of yourself and you enjoy exercise. Arians born on today, sleep better knowing that you have put your best foot forward today. Work, family, friends, relationships… you did it all!
You even came home and cook a deliciously healthy meal. Who does that? You do… Aries the Ram, that is who! However, after the meal, you should probably brush your teeth. Most of you born on this day are cavity prone or prone to having gum diseases. Get regular check-ups to avoid any chance of ruining that contagious smile.
The April 11 birthday personality are open-minded and enthusiastic Arians. You take care of yourself and you enjoy cooking for the occasion. Perhaps, you should decide if a friend should be a lover and vice-versa.
In either case, it could end up being a lasting and loving partnership. You are great with financial matters and could easily be a financial planner. You, yourself, cannot resist a bargain but you are careful to read the fine print. Arians born on this day should see the dentist as prescribed.
David Banner, Ian Bell, Jennifer Esposito, DJ Fresh, Vincent Gallo, Ethel Kennedy, Joss Stone, Meshach Taylor, Jason Varitek
1775 – In Germany, people are executed for using witchcraft
1876 – In Sudan, Sir Charles Gordon puts an end to religious tolerance
1890 – Ellis Island becomes a post for immigration
1912 – RMS Titanic heads for NY departing out of Queenstown, Ireland
April 11 Mesha Rashi (Vedic Moon Sign)
April 11 Chinese Zodiac DRAGON
Birthday Planet: Your ruling planet is Mars that symbolizes that is known as the planet of action and shows your energy, passion, and motivation.
The Ram Is The Symbol For The Aries Star Sign
Your Birthday Tarot Card is Justice. This card symbolizes important judgments surrounding your life. The Minor Arcana cards are Four of Wands and Knight of Pentacles
You are most compatible with people born under Zodiac Sign Aries: This can be a fiery and stimulating match.
You are not compatible with people born under Zodiac Sign Libra: This love match will be flirtatious to start with, but will not go much beyond that.
Number 2 – This number signifies balance, endurance, intuition, and understanding.
Number 6 – This number signifies conventions, honest, trustworthy and resourcefulness.
Blue: This color stands for idealism, reliability, predictability, and persistence.
Scarlet: This color signifies intensity, strength, fervor, and excitement.
Monday – This is the day of Moon that helps you understand your emotions and feelings for all those around you.
Tuesday – This is the day of planet Mars that signifies action and willpower needed to overcome obstacles.
Your lucky gemstone is Diamond which is a symbol of miracles, inspiration, courage, and innocence.
Skydiving classes for the man and scuba diving classes for the woman.