The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 13: NOVEMBER 2018 NIGHT SKY GUIDE

 

NOVEMBER 2018 NIGHT SKY GUIDE

BEST NIGHT SKY EVENTS OF NOVEMBER 2018
Bob Berman
Mid-November, the Moon pairs up with Saturn and Mars. Venus gets brighter. And another meteor shower heads our way. See what’s up tonight in our November 2018 Sky Watch!

SKY WATCH NOVEMBER 2018

by Bob Berman, as featured in The Old Farmer’s Almanac

Our astronomy editor, Bob Berman, sets you up for the best in night sky sightseeing each month, with special tips for finding bright planets and stars, eclipses, meteor showers, and other celestial objects and events.

In late autumn, after most of the leaves have fallen, the forest suddenly becomes transparent. The contours of the land leap out in 3-D, exposing all kinds of subtleties. And many of them are small, bashful—the kind of sights that require us to look up, instead of down. Above our heads, beyond the changed colors of the lingering leaves, we’ll see the night sky as it changes throughout November.

BRIGHT PLANETS

Morning Planets

  • The action switches to the predawn sky as planet Venus has transitioned out of the evening sky and into the morning sky. It’s the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon.
  • The Moon meets returning Venus on the 6th. Look towards sunrise in the eastern sky around 6 A.M.
  • Venus hovers near Virgo’s Spica from the 6th to the 12th and stands 25 degrees high by month’s end.
  • Every day, Venus gets brighter. By mid-month, Venus’ disk will be about 10% illuminated by sunshine. By the month’s end, Venus’ disk will be 25% illuminated in sunshine.

Click here for a free, printable star chart to navigate Venus and the night sky!

Evening Planets

  • On the 1st, Jupiter meets Mercury low in the west; both soon vanish.
  • Mars stands about a third of the way up the southern sky at nightfall. The red planet, having resumed its normal eastward motion against the stars, speeds from Capricornus into Aquarius. Just 12 arcseconds wide and at magnitude zero, it is dimming, losing half its width and is now too small to show useful detail in telescopes.
  • Saturn shines clear above the southwestern horizon at nightfall. The ringed planet shifts lower in the sky each night, preparing to depart the night sky soon.
  • The Moon floats left of ever-lower Saturn on the 11th.
  • The Moon and Mars pair up on November 13 to 16.

METEOR SHOWERS

November boasts two meteor showers.

  • The Taurid meteor showers are visible between November 9 and 12. While this is a minor shower with about 5 meteors per hour, the Taurids are known for bright fireballs—a particularly bright meteor. Seeing one is quite a thrill. Even better, the Moon is now in a waning crescent phase. Rising shortly before sunrise, that means no moonlight to ruin the prime time viewing hours, centered on about 12:30 a.m. local time. See Moon rise and set times here.
  • The Leonids meteor shower peaks on the night of Saturday, November 17 and early the following morning, November 18. A modest shower, the Leonids bring about 10 meteors per hour at their peak. Due to a bright waxing gibbous Moon this year, viewers will see fewer meteors. Check your Moon phase. The best time to look is before dawn around 3 A.M. so you have to set that alarm!

See our 2018 Meteor Shower Calendar (and get ready for the biggest shower of the year in December!).

NOVEMBER’S MOON

November’s Moon was called the Beaver Moon by both the Algonquin tribes and colonial Americans. The Native Americans used the monthly Moons and nature’s signs as a sort of calendar to track the seasons. Why this name? Back then, this was the month to set beaver traps before the swamps froze, to ensure a supply of warm winter furs. The November full Moon was also called the Full Frost Moon by other Native Americans.

November’s full Moon rises November 23, 12:39 A.M. EST.

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This Day in History for November 13: Daredevil Sam Patch’s Final, Fatal Stunt (1829)

Daredevil Sam Patch’s Final, Fatal Stunt (1829)

Sam Patch (1799[1]November 13,1829),known as “The Yankee Leaper”, became the first famous American daredevil after successfully jumping from a raised platform into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls in 1829.

Biography

Early life

Sam Patch was born to Mayo Greenleaf Patch and Abigail McIntire and wasthe fifth child of the family that included Molly, Greenleaf, Nabby, Samuel (diedas an infant), Samuel, and Issac.[1]

Sam was raised in Pawtucket, Rhode Island[2]where he working as a child laborer spinning cotton in a mill.[3] When he not working, he entertaine
other boys by jumping off the mill dam. By his early 20s he wasworking at a mill in Paterson, New Jersey, and was jumping off ever-higherspots. He was beginning to attract crowds for his well-advertised stunts. OnSeptember 30, 1827,[2] he jumped off the 70-foot Passaic Falls in New Jersey, pleasing a large crowd that had gathered. He repeated this jump atleast two more times. On August 11, 1828 Patch jumped 100 feet at Hoboken, New Jersey. He became known in the press as “Patch the New JerseyJumper.”[2] Patch continued his career jumping from bridges, factory walls, andship’s masts.

Niagara Falls

In the fall of 1829, Patch gained fame by leaping into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls. Patch was the starattraction at an event designed to draw visitors to the falls. A 125-foot ladder was extended over the river below Goat Islandopposite the Cave of the Winds. Less than an hour before the scheduled noon jump, a chain securing the ladder to the cliffwall snapped, breaking 15 feet from the ladder. Rescheduled for 4 PM, Patch jumped on time. A boat circled near the entrypoint, but Patch did not appear. When he was finally spotted on the shore, a great roar went up from the crowd.

Bad weather and the delay in his arrival drew a disappointingly small crowd for this jump, so Patch announced he wouldrepeat the feat a second time October 17.[2] A few days later, 10,000 gathered to watch him keep his word.

Following his feat at Niagara falls, Sam Patch achieved nationwide fame. His name became a household word[4] and hisslogan “some things can be done as well as others” became a popular slang expression across the nation.

Rochester

Shortly after, Patch went to Rochester, New York, to challenge the 99-foot High Falls of the Genesee River. On Friday,November 6, 1829, in front of an estimated 7,000 to 8,000 spectators,[5] Patch went out onto a rock ledge in the middle of thefalls. He first threw a pet bear cub over the falls and the cub managed to swim safely to shore. Patch then successfully jumpedafter the bear.[2]

Last jump

His first jump into the Genesee River raised a disappointing amount of money,[2] so he decided to repeat the stunt one weeklater on November 13, 1829 (Friday the 13th). This time, he increased the height of the jump to 125 feet by constructing a 25-foot stand.[2] Accounts from the 8,000 present differ on whether he actually jumped or fell, but he did not achieve his normalfeet-first vertical entry.[5] A loud impact was heard and he never surfaced. Rumors were passed that he had hidden in a caveat the base of the falls, and was enjoying all the excitement he had created. But his frozen body was found in the ice inCharlotte (Rochester) early the next spring by Silas Hudson. Local ministers and newspapers were quick to blame the crowdfor urging him to jump, and put the guilt of his death on them.[2]

He was buried in Charlotte Cemetery, near where his body was found.[6] A wooden board (now gone) was placed over hisgrave. It read: “Sam Patch – Such is Fame”.[2]

Legacy

Sam’s legacy continued to build in the years following his death. He became a popular folk hero in both written poems andstories as well as the hero of a series of theatrical plays by actor Danforth Marble entitled Sam Patch the Yankee Jumper,followed by Sam Patch at Home, a London Tour of Sam Patch in Franceand Sam Patch the Jumper (1844). PresidentAndrew Jackson named his horse Sam Patch in Sam’s honor.

Sam’s legacy continues into the 21st century with media references including;

  • The band Piñataland chronicled Patch’s 1827 jump on a song titled “The Fall of Sam Patch” on their 2008 album Songsfor the Forgotten Future Vol. 2.

Literary references

“Sam Patch’s Fearsome Leap,” a tale in Grandfather Stories by Samuel Hopkins Adams, is a reconstructed first-hand account of the day of Patch’slast leap. It is not clear whether Adams based the tale on a real first-handaccount or wrote it as historical fiction.

Patch appears as a “daring moral hero” in the works of Hawthorne and Melville,[1] and also appears in the poem “Paterson” by William Carlos Williams.

References

  1. a b c Johnson, Paul. Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper (New York: Hilland Wang, 2003) ISBN 0-8090-8388-4.
  2. a b c d e f g h i Rosenberg-Naparsteck, Ruth (Summer 1991). “The Real Simon Pure Sam Patch” (PDF). Rochester History (RochesterPublic Library) LII (3). ISSN 0035-7413Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  3. ^ Wilson, James Grant; John Fiske (1888). “Patch, Samuel”Appletons’ cyclopaedia of American biography IV669Retrieved 4January 2012.
  4. ^ Smith, Seba; Smith, Elizabeth Oakes Prince (December, 1856). “Life and Death of Sam Patch”United StatesMagazine (J. M. Emerson & Co.): 567–570Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  5. a b “Sam Patchs Last Leap” (PDF). New York TimesAugust 12, 1883Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  6. ^ Thomas, W. Stephen; Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck (October 1988). “Sleep City The Sesquicentenneial History of Mt. Hope Cemetery” (PDF). Rochester History (Rochester Public Library) L (4): 4. ISSN 0035-7413RetrievedDecember 31, 2007.

Inspiration for the Day for Nov. 13: How Long

How Long

BY MADISYN TAYLOR

When we take the time to sit with our emotions fully, it will become apparent that the emotion was a catalyst for much needed healing.

Our emotions color our lives with varying palettes. Sometimes we feel a strong emotion in reaction to something that has happened, but emotions also visit us seemingly out of the blue, flooding us unexpectedly with joy or grief or melancholy. Like the weather, they come and go, influencing our mental state with their particular vibration. Sometimes a difficult emotion hangs around longer than we would like, and we begin to wonder when it will release its hold on us. This is often true of grief stemming from loss, for example, or lingering anger over a past event.

Usually, if we allow ourselves to feel our emotions fully when they come up, they recede naturally, giving way to another and another. When an emotion haunts us, it is often because we are afraid of really feeling it. Emotions like despair and rage are powerful, and it is natural to want to hold them at bay. Certainly, we don’t want to let them take us over so that we say or do things we later regret. When we are facing this kind of situation, it can be helpful to ask the spirit, “How long do I need to sit with these emotions, how long do I need to feel these emotions before they can pass?” If you ask sincerely and wait, an answer will come. Setting a time limit on your engagement with that difficult emotion may be just the technique you need to face it fully.

When you have a sense of how much time you need to spend, set a timer. Sit down and make yourself available to the emotion that has been nagging you. All you have to do is feel it. Avoid getting attached to it or rejecting it. Simply let it ebb and flow within you. Emotions are by their nature cyclical, so you can trust that just as one reaches its apex it will pass. Each time you sit with its presence without either repressing or acting out, you will find that that difficult emotion was the catalyst for much needed emotional healing.

Source

DailyOM

How You Spend Money, According to Your Zodiac Sign

How does your sign handle money?

Woman Coins

How does your horoscope sign spend money? For example, what would you buy if you won the lottery and had to spend it all within 48 hours? Fashionable Gemini might splurge on a closet full of shoes, while Taurus might stock the cellar with fine wine. What would YOU buy? Look to Astrology for insight about the spending styles of every sign.

Aries (March 21 – April 19)

To an Aries, everything that passes through those hot little hands of yours is a toy. And money is a particularly fun toy. It gets you whatever you want, the second you want it — which, as the commercial says, is in your book, “priceless.” Of course, whether or not you’re close to the limit on the plastic you’re carrying around doesn’t matter … impulse is your middle name. That goes double when you’ve got some extra Benjamins in your pocket.

 

Taurus (April 20 – May 20)

Quality or quantity? Lots of us spend hours of our lives mulling that over. You, however, have the answer deeply imbedded in the back of your quality-conscious brain: both. Fortunately, you’re a money-magnet, and an expert at finding objects, experiences and people who answer those descriptions, so why settle? When you find what you want (after lots of highly pleasurable comparison shopping), you plunk down the cash or plastic, smile a thank you and toddle off happily to enjoy yourself.

 

Gemini (May 21 – June 20)

Unlike your Taurus neighbors, you don’t want just one, special, unusual thing, experience or friend — you’re a collector. You like lots of what you like. In fact, if “variety is the spice of life” wasn’t written by, or for, a Gemini — well, then it wasn’t written at all. So when it comes to laying down a stack of bills, pulling out your ATM or deciding whether or not to wreak major havoc on your Visa, if the decision involves a collection, a medley or an assortment, you’re in.

 

Cancer (June 21 – July 22)

Home, kids and family. Those are the keywords most often associated with your sign. What’s not often mentioned is the fact that you also suffer, occasionally, from bouts of guilt — when you feel like you haven’t paid enough attention to any or all of those matters. So when it comes to spending your hard-earned pesos, it’s easiest for you to do it — to justify it, that is — when you’re making your home more of a nest than it already is (as if that’s possible), or buying a gift for a loved one.

 

Leo (July 23 – August 22)

Royalty deserves the best and nothing less. You, Leo, just so happen to be the lion, the sign of royalty. Why else would there be all those lions on those ancient coats of arms? That means when it comes to spending, you don’t hesitate to pull out all the stops — for yourself, sure, but even more so for the ones you love, since you’re also famous for treating those closest to your heart (also ruled by Leo) even more like royalty. Careful, though. Spending like royalty means you’ve got to earn like royalty … or end up in the gallows.

 

Virgo (August 23 – September 22)

You’ve probably got a great big jar of silver coins, another one full of strictly pennies, some bills tucked away in a coffee can, and a real savings account somewhere. Or if you’re superstitious, there may be a tightly-wrapped bundle of cash in any number of other places. Regardless of where it is, right down to the penny, you’re quite sure of exactly what’s there. When you decide to spend any of it, there’s got to be a very good, logical reason for it — and a terrific sale going on.

 

Libra (September 23 – October 22)

Spending on yourself? Well, yes — but only for beauty products, beauty procedures or the latest fashions, and only to keep your significant other (current or prospective) happy and interested. Spending on others? Especially the ones you love best? That’s easy. You love them, which entitles them to the very best, and nothing less. It doesn’t matter whether it’s their birthday, a holiday or just a Wednesday. If you see something that you’re sure will make them smile, you’ll buy it. Take it easy on the plastic, though. Remember, your charming company is the greatest gift of all.

 

Scorpio (October 23 – November 21)

Your nature is intense — no doubt about that. It’s been written about for centuries — and it doesn’t take an astrologer to tell you that. That goes for every action you take, from picking up groceries to investing in a mutual fund. So when you take off on a shopping trip, unlike your Aries or Aquarius cousins, you definitely don’t need anyone to go along with you, holding onto your plastic, cash, checkbook or hand. You’re definitely equipped to handle it on your own.

 

Sagittarius (November 22 – December 21)

As your friend Shakespeare once said, Sag, “Here’s the rub” — when it comes to spending money, it’s like every other department of life: unbridled. Whether it’s in your hand, in your account, en route next week or on sale tomorrow doesn’t matter. If you see it and you want it, you want it now. Right now, or not at all. Fortunately, your planet Jupiter will be in your sign for over a year, so you’ll likely be able to do that. Still, just because you may have a bit extra to toss around, try not to do it indiscriminately.

 

Capricorn (December 22 – January 19)

Separating yourself from the money you make isn’t often an easy job — okay, it’s never an easy job, because you very rarely have an easy job. As such, with everything else you do, spending more than a quarter on the paper may involve charts, diagrams, months of research, and lots and lots of comparison shopping. Don’t let anyone talk you down, either. You’re one of the three smartest shoppers in the zodiac, so you’ll invariably end up with what you want.

 

Aquarius (January 20 – February 18)

You’ve heard the expression “impulse buyer.” You’ve probably also learned by now that you, along with a couple of other signs, definitely fall into that category. More importantly, though, before you fall prey to impulse spending for any reason, consider one thing: is what I’m about to buy unique? If so, and you really love it, you’ll hock everything but Grandma’s jewelry to buy it. If it’s what everyone else is wearing, doing, or a place everyone else is going to, forget it. Individuality is what’s most important.

 

Pisces (February 19 – March 20)

You’re motivated by one thing, for the most part: emotions. In fact, to be perfectly blunt, at times you can be a salesperson’s dream: the impulse buyer. That doesn’t mean you spend irrationally, but when an item or experience triggers a pleasant emotional memory, it’s obvious — and any salesperson worth their salt will pick that up from the second the bell on the door jingles. Protect yourself from them. Think of them as sharks (not far from the truth) and bring a shopping chaperone along if you’re planning to spend more than $50. Either that, or shop online — with your chaperone in a chair by your side.

 

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The Daily Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 13th

The Daily Horoscopes for Tuesday, November 13th

Claire Petulengro, Astrologer

From The Astrology Room

 

ARIES (March 21st-April 20th)
A strong sign such as you needs to look the future straight in the eye and just give it a wink. You know as well as I do, that you spent much of this year trying to keep up with the competition. Setting your own standards and believing in your own visions promises success.

TAURUS (April 21st-May 21st)
Don’t speak for the sake of it but use your time and energy to focus on what you want the end result to be, rather than how things appear to others on this very emotive day. News from far away gives you reason to get more excited about this Christmas than most.

GEMINI (May 22nd-June 21st)
Are you making changes for the sake of it, or do you really like this new path which is opening up to you? Being honest about where you see yourself in the months ahead can help you make choices you won’t have to back out of at a later date.

CANCER (June 22nd-July 23rd)
Try to have more faith in yourself and where you see your life going in the months ahead. Some would suggest that you are allowing jealousy to force your hand. Doing the right thing will ensure you put your life on its best path yet in the days and weeks ahead.

LEO (July 24th-August 23rd)
You may not realise it, but your words and actions over the last few weeks could be responsible for some really major changes your close ones will be making. Talk to them, before it’s too late and before you both say and do things which cannot be taken back.

VIRGO (August 24th-September 23rd)
New invites make your life a more interesting place to be. You no longer worry about how things look to those around, but you are willing, ready and able to speak and act only from the heart. Some of you have proposals coming your way. Prepare to be impressed.

LIBRA (September 24th-October 23rd)
Don’t compromise yourself Libra. You’re all you’ve got. Knowing what you really want from deals done at this time is half the battle. Take time out to check forms you need to fill out. I see that events this week will demand you have tied up all you started this month asap.

SCORPIO (October 24th-November 22nd)
Don’t cancel any of the arrangements you have made for yourself, but stick to plans. I know and you will too soon enough, that you have the support you thought was missing. You just have to ask for it. Time spent with family reveals who really stretched the truth recently.

SAGITTARIUS (November 23rd-December 21st)
I know it has proven hard to get on with loved ones as you would like, but events which unfold over the coming days will prove to you that you have what it takes to move your career up to the next level. You just need to find a little more faith in yourself and who you are. Ring now to end your week on a high.

CAPRICORN (December 22nd-January 20th)
I know there are many challenges you have to face this year, but what you don’t know is that you have help in hidden places. Try to be fair in family issues which have been causing such a difficult air. Time is the key to the atmosphere mellowing for you and those involved.

AQUARIUS (January 21st-February 19th)
No one is allowed to dull your sparkle. Don’t let them think they can or you will only be giving them power. Playing fair in business can put you ahead of the competition, especially if you promise to give them the time they have been asking for to complete current projects.

PISCES (February 20th-March 20th)
The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. Knowing how far is too far to go with financial disputes can make all the difference as to whether you are in or out of pocket.

 

For Claire’s in-depth horoscope for this week, call 0905 072 0237
Calls cost 77p/min from a BT landline

To book a private tarot, horoscope or clairvoyant reading with Claire over the telephone, click here.
Phone consultations cost UK£55, US$83 for 20mins, UK£90, US$135 for 40mins.

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The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 11: Sky Watch for November

SKY MAP (STAR CHART): NOVEMBER 2018

VENUS AT ITS BRIGHTEST
Jeff DeTray from AstronomyBoy.com
The ancient Romans worshiped her as the goddess of love and beauty. Frankie Avalon recorded a #1 hit song about her. She is the brightest thing in the sky after the Sun and Moon. We’re talking about Venus, once thought to be Earth’s planetary twin.

In the second half of November, Venus will be as bright as it ever gets. To see the Venus show, you’ll need to wake up before sunrise and look toward the east-southeast. Venus will be—by far – the brightest object in the sky. Venus never ventures very far from the Sun, so it’s best viewed only a few times a year, when the planetary geometry is just right and then only shortly after sunset or shortly before sunrise. On these occasions, Venus is known as either the Evening Star or the Morning Star.

Venus and Earth DO have some things in common, though not as much as once thought. They are the second and third closest planets to the Sun. Being closer to the Sun means a year on Venus—the time it takes to revolve once around the Sun—lasts 224.7 days compared to Earth’s 365 days. The two planets are composed mainly of rocky material and are nearly the same size, with Venus just slightly smaller. If you weigh 125 pounds on Earth you would weigh about 113 pounds on Venus. Venus comes closer to Earth than any other planet, a mere 24 million miles, and that’s the main reason why it’s so bright.

Because of its similarities to Earth, Venus became the subject of some very fanciful (and quite incorrect) theories. Among the most popular was the supposed existence of complex life on Venus. It was imagined that because it is closer to the Sun than Earth, Venus might simply a warmer, wetter version of our planet. Some believed Venus to be a world of rain forests and jungles, replete with giant trees, dinosaurs, and even intelligent Venusians.

As our scientific knowledge advanced, astronomers learned that Venus is not just warm, it’s excruciatingly hot. The surface temperature reaches 872 degrees Fahrenheit, hot enough to melt lead. Venus is also a world of volcanoes, and the whole planet is wrapped in a thick atmosphere comprised mostly of carbon dioxide. This dense atmosphere insulates the planet, preventing heat from escaping and resulting in a runaway greenhouse effect. Venus is an intensely inhospitable place. So much for the rain forest theory!

When the age of space exploration began, Venus’ close proximity meant it became the very first target for interplanetary spacecraft. America’s Mariner 2 was the first successful probe, flying past Venus in 1962. The first successful landing did not come until 1970 when the Soviet Venera 7 spacecraft touched down. Due to the extreme conditions on the planet, it is highly unlikely that a manned landing on Venus will ever be attempted.

This month’s sky map shows Venus where it appears early on Thanksgiving morning, blazing near the bright star Spica in the constellation Virgo the Virgin. The map is accurate any time during the last two weeks of November, so bundle up if necessary and enjoy Venus at its best!

In the words of Frankie Avalon’s “Venus” from 1959:
  Hey, Venus! Oh, Venus!
Make my dreams come true
!

 

VENUS, PLANET OF PARADOX

Bob Berman
Sister planet. Nearest neighbor. Goddess of love. How appealing the planet Venus sounds!

VENUS’ ODDITIES

Few who gaze longingly at Venus are aware of the planet’s oddities.

  • Venus’ surface never budges from about 850°F, day and night.
  • The air is suffocatingly dense, packed with 50 times greater pressure than a pressure cooker.
  • Its atmosphere provides no oxygen whatsoever.
  • Venus’ day is longer than its year. Venus spins on its axis in 243 Earth-days but orbits the Sun in 225 Earth-days.
  • Its clouds are made of white sulfuric acid. Because of this, Venus is deceivingly reflective as a mirror; fully 76 percent of the sunlight gets bounced away from the shiniest planet in our solar system.
  • Beneath clouds of concentrated acid droplets lies clear compressed air that distorts everything into fun-house-mirror images.

Interestingly, the Venusian surface is brightly lit despite being eternally overcast. With illumination that equals Earth’s on a cloudy day, even inexpensive disposable cameras would take correctly exposed photos there, a situation encountered on no other planet.

Of course, no budding photographer or human being is likely to go to Venus. Ever. It’s touching that we named the most luminous “star” after the love goddess. For all eternity, our nearest planet—that dazzling beacon in the western sky—will tantalize with a warning label: Look but don’t touch.

Source

The Old Farmer’s Almanac

This Day In History: Veteran’s Day

Veteran’s Day

Veterans Day (originally known as Armistice Day) is an official United States public holiday, observed annually on November 11, that honors military veterans; that is, persons who served in the United States Armed Forces. It coincides with other holidays, including Armistice Day and Remembrance Day, celebrated in other countries that mark the anniversary of the end of World War I; major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, when the Armistice with Germany went into effect. At the urging of major veteran organizations, Armistice Day was renamed Veterans Day in 1954.

Veterans Day should not be confused with Memorial Day, a U.S. public holiday in May; Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans, while Memorial Day honors those who died while in military service.[1] It is also not to be confused with Armed Forces Day, a minor U.S. remembrance that also occurs in May, which specifically honors those currently serving in the U.S. military.

 

History

On November 11, 1919, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issued a message to his countrymen on the first Armistice Day, in which he expressed what he felt the day meant to Americans:

ADDRESS TO FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN
The White House, November 11, 1919.

A year ago today our enemies laid down their arms in accordance with an armistice which rendered them impotent to renew hostilities, and gave to the world an assured opportunity to reconstruct its shattered order and to work out in peace a new and juster set of international relations. The soldiers and people of the European Allies had fought and endured for more than four years to uphold the barrier of civilization against the aggressions of armed force. We ourselves had been in the conflict something more than a year and a half.

With splendid forgetfulness of mere personal concerns, we remodeled our industries, concentrated our financial resources, increased our agricultural output, and assembled a great army, so that at the last our power was a decisive factor in the victory. We were able to bring the vast resources, material and moral, of a great and free people to the assistance of our associates in Europe who had suffered and sacrificed without limit in the cause for which we fought.

Out of this victory there arose new possibilities of political freedom and economic concert. The war showed us the strength of great nations acting together for high purposes, and the victory of arms foretells the enduring conquests which can be made in peace when nations act justly and in furtherance of the common interests of men.

To us in America the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service, and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of nations.

WOODROW WILSON[2]

The United States Congress adopted a resolution on June 4, 1926, requesting that President Calvin Coolidge issue annual proclamations calling for the observance of November 11 with appropriate ceremonies.[2] A Congressional Act (52 Stat. 351; 5 U.S. Code, Sec. 87a) approved May 13, 1938, made November 11 in each year a legal holiday: “a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be thereafter celebrated and known as ‘Armistice Day’.”[3]

In 1945, World War II veteran Raymond Weeks from Birmingham, Alabama, had the idea to expand Armistice Day to celebrate all veterans, not just those who died in World War I. Weeks led a delegation to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, who supported the idea of National Veterans Day. Weeks led the first national celebration in 1947 in Alabama and annually until his death in 1985. President Reagan honored Weeks at the White House with the Presidential Citizenship Medal in 1982 as the driving force for the national holiday. Elizabeth Dole, who prepared the briefing for President Reagan, determined Weeks as the “Father of Veterans Day.”[4]

U.S. Representative Ed Rees from Emporia, Kansas, presented a bill establishing the holiday through Congress. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, also from Kansas, signed the bill into law on May 26, 1954. It had been eight and a half years since Weeks held his first Armistice Day celebration for all veterans.[5]

Congress amended the bill on June 1, 1954, replacing “Armistice” with “Veterans,” and it has been known as Veterans Day since.[6][7]

The National Veterans Award was also created in 1954. Congressman Rees of Kansas received the first National Veterans Award in Birmingham, Alabama, for his support offering legislation to make Veterans Day a federal holiday.[citation needed]

Although originally scheduled for celebration on November 11 of every year, starting in 1971 in accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, Veterans Day was moved to the fourth Monday of October (October 25, 1971; October 23, 1972; October 22, 1973; October 28, 1974; October 27, 1975; October 25, 1976, and October 24, 1977). In 1978, it was moved back to its original celebration on November 11. While the legal holiday remains on November 11, if that date happens to be on a Saturday or Sunday, then organizations that formally observe the holiday will normally be closed on the adjacent Friday or Monday, respectively.[citation needed]

Observance

Because it is a federal holiday, some American workers and many students have Veterans Day off from work or school. When Veterans Day falls on a Saturday then either Saturday or the preceding Friday may be designated as the holiday, whereas if it falls on a Sunday it is typically observed on the following Monday. When it falls on weekend many private companies offer it as a floating holiday where employee can choose some other day. A Society for Human Resource Management poll in 2010 found that 21 percent of employers planned to observe the holiday in 2011.[8]

Non-essential federal government offices are closed. No mail is delivered. All federal workers are paid for the holiday; those who are required to work on the holiday sometimes receive holiday pay for that day in addition to their wages.

In his Armistice Day address to Congress, Wilson was sensitive to the psychological toll of the lean War years: “Hunger does not breed reform; it breeds madness,” he remarked.[9] As Veterans Day and the birthday of the United States Marine Corps (November 10, 1775) are only one day apart, that branch of the Armed Forces customarily observes both occasions as a 96-hour liberty period.

Election Day is a regular working day, while Veterans Day, which typically falls the following week, is a federal holiday. The National Commission on Federal Election Reform called for the holidays to be merged, so citizens can have a day off to vote. They state this as a way to honor voting by exercising democratic rights.[10]

Spelling of Veterans Day

While the holiday is commonly printed as Veteran’s Day or Veterans’ Day in calendars and advertisements (spellings that are grammatically acceptable), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs website states that the attributive (no apostrophe) rather than the possessive case is the official spelling “because it is not a day that ‘belongs’ to veterans, it is a day for honoring all veterans.”[11]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Kelber, Sarah Kickler (May 28, 2012). “Today is not Veterans Day”Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Supplement to the Messages and Papers of the Presidents: Covering the Second Term of Woodrow Wilson, March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1921”. Bureau of National Literature. 11 November 2015.
  3. Jump up^ “Veterans Day History”. Veteran’s Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
  4. Jump up^ Zurski, Ken (November 11, 2016). “Raymond Weeks: The Father of Veterans Day”. Unremembered History. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  5. Jump up^ Carter, Julie (November 2003). “Where Veterans Day began”VFW Magazine. Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012.
  6. Jump up^ “History of Veterans Day”. United States Department of Veterans Affairs. November 26, 2007. Archived from the original on July 28, 2006. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
  7. Jump up^ “The History of Veterans Day”. United States Army Center of Military History (CMH). October 3, 2003. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
  8. Jump up^ Society for Human Resource Management (November 4, 2010). “2011 Holiday Schedules SHRM Poll”. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010.
  9. Jump up^ Smith, Andrew F. (2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 290. ISBN 0-19-530796-8. Retrieved November 12,2010.
  10. Jump up^ Sutter, John D. (November 12, 2012). “Election Day should be a federal holiday”CNN. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  11. Jump up^ Veterans Day Frequently Asked Questions, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Updated July 20, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.