Your Daily Cosmic Calendar for December 11

Your Daily Cosmic Calendar for December 11

Following the important monthly lunar conjunction with Vesta in Aquarius (12:45am) — energizing investment planning as well as safety-security matters, insurance rates and coverage, and soul-sister ties — the cosmos reverts to the disagreeable nature it had for the first eight days of this month. Mercury makes an adjustment-requiring, 150-degree liaison with outside-the-box rebel-leader Uranus (3:39am) while the sun forms a tension-generating, 45-degree tie to Vesta (11:22am) and Ceres confounds Chiron via their connection of 135-degrees (1:29pm). Ambiguity and irritability are temporarily in the driver’s seat even though the moon attempts to make things right by contacting benevolent Jupiter in a constructive, 60-degree alliance (6:35am).

[Note to readers: All times are calculated as Pacific Standard Time. Be sure to adjust all times according to your own local time so the alignments noted above will be exact for your location.]

Copyright 2018 Mark Lerner & Great Bear Enterprises, Ltd. 

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Today’s Funny: Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night

Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night


Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

— Dylan Thomas

 

Turok’s Cabana

Today’s Extra: Why Is ADHD on the Rise?

Why Is ADHD on the Rise?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a medical condition characterized by symptoms like inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It can persist into adulthood and affect a person’s social, academic and professional life.

The cause of ADHD is unknown. ADHD is linked to genetics and brain biology, but these factors don’t explain the dramatic rise in ADHD diagnoses over the past 2 decades. A 2018 study found that the estimated prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents in the United States (US) rose from 6.1 percent in 1997 to 10.2 percent in 2016. That means 1 in every 10 children in the US has now been diagnosed with ADHD.

Researchers continue to debate what has caused this trend, but these are some of their key findings on what may be contributing to the rise in ADHD diagnoses.

1. DIFFERENT CLINICAL DEFINITIONS

ADHD has no known cause or biological markers to assist with diagnosis. This has caused different definitions of the condition to arise, which can affect the number of diagnoses. A 2015 study found that the estimates of ADHD prevalence vary greatly depending on what definitions and criteria for ADHD are used.

Another study found that the definition of ADHD in the US is different than internationally. Psychiatrists and doctors in the US use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) for diagnosing psychiatric disorders.

Whereas, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is preferred internationally.

The ICD has a much narrower definition of ADHD than the DSM, which may be one reason why ADHD is diagnosed less often in other countries. Although, the study found that the DSM definition is catching on, which may be fueling a rise in ADHD diagnoses globally.

2. FOOD ADDITIVES

No evidence exists that any food additives cause ADHD, but research has shown a few that may increase hyperactivity and make the condition worse. These are some food additives to watch out for:

  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Artificial colors and dyes
  • Caffeine
  • Sugar
  • Pesticides
  • High-fructose corn syrup

Most of these are added to junk foods and soft drinks, which are best avoided whether you have ADHD or not. A well-balanced, whole foods diet is consistently recommended by health professionals for everyone, and it has also been shown to be helpful for those with ADHD.

3. LACK OF EXERCISE

Children in Western countries are getting far less exercise than they did a few decades ago. This lack of exercise may contribute to the rise in ADHD. When you exercise, the neurotransmitter dopamine is released. Among other benefits, dopamine enhances attention and focus. Medications used for ADHD do the exact same thing—they increase the amount of dopamine your body produces.

Research has shown that children with ADHD who exercised regularly did better on attention tests, and had less impulsivity and aggression. This was true even for children who weren’t taking medications. Other studies have discovered that exercise also improves working memory, academic performance and flexibility when switching between tasks.

4. DIGITAL DEVICE USE

A 2018 study concluded that teens who are heavy users of digital devices are twice as likely to show symptoms of ADHD. The study followed nearly 2600 teenagers for two years and focused on the mental health consequences of modern digital diversions, such as social media, streaming video, text messaging, music downloads and online chatrooms.

Researchers chose to study teenagers because adolescence is a common time for ADHD diagnosis, and they specifically started with teenagers who did not have pre-existing ADHD symptoms. Considering that 43 percent of high school students use digital media three hours or more per day, the study’s findings could highlight a concerning trend that’s contributing to the rise in ADHD symptoms.

5. GREATER AWARENESS & PROMOTION

ADHD advocacy groups spread and promote information about ADHD, as well as pharmaceutical companies that produce medications for ADHD. This is helpful for raising awareness about the condition and encouraging those who may have ADHD to seek professional help and get properly diagnosed.

Providing public information about ADHD and possible treatments is important, but experts warn that this wide spread promotion could have a downside. Now you can easily fill out a self-test online that may falsely conclude you already have ADHD. Or you may read an advertisement that suggests you can simply take a drug and ADHD symptoms will disappear.

Some doctors are concerned this could trivialize a serious condition and lead to unnecessary diagnoses. Extensive drug advertisements may also promote the use of medications instead of other treatment methods. In addition, research has found that the current abundance of information, and sometimes misinformation, may put pressure on doctors to diagnose ADHD more often.

ADHD is far more complex than a simple online quiz can tell you. If you have any concerns that you or someone you love has ADHD, speak to your doctor or a psychiatrist who specializes in ADHD. And keep in mind there are many other effective treatments for ADHD to try before medications.

6. MODERN EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

In his book The A.D.H.D. Explosion: Myths, Medication, Money, and Today’s Push for Performance, Dr. Stephen Hinshaw’s research suggests that the US education system and government-dictated academic standards may contribute to the country’s higher rates of ADHD diagnoses.

For example, when the US introduced the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, education funding suddenly became dependent on collective student test scores in each state. Dr. Hinshaw found that there was a surge in ADHD diagnoses soon after the Act was introduced.

Research has shown that treatment of ADHD can improve academic performance. Dr. Hinshaw believes many schools pushed for more ADHD diagnoses so children could receive treatment, which could boost test scores and local funding. After 2007, when the Act was changed, the rate of diagnoses tapered off in the same schools.

ADHD is a serious medical condition, but we need to be careful that we aren’t over-diagnosing ADHD simply because a child is not performing well in school. Perhaps we need to look at other ways of educating children who naturally have more energy and creativity.

Sir Ken Robinson gave an excellent TED talk discussing how important it is to build an education system that encourages all children to flourish, rather than trying to fit everyone into the same mold. Check out his talk here.

 

Published on Care2

Moon Phase Calendar For Monday, Dec. 10

Moon Phase Calendar

Monday – 10th December 2018

 

Current Moon Phase: Waxing Crescent

Moon is Currently in the Sign of Capricorn

 

Moon in Capricorn:

You might have a strong need for being useful to the society and you look for justification in the outside world. You may underestimate what you want from yourself and for yourself. Shyness may be accompanied by resentment of the fact that others ignore you. Do not seek approval from the outside, it will not help you get rid of your doubt and it is harmful to you. You have to trust your inner values.

Organs influenced by Capricorn Moon Sign:

Organs: Knees, joints, backbone, spinal muscles, patella, bones, tendons and ligaments, skin, hair, spleen, the organ of balance.

These organs are now more sensitive so provide them with extra care.

Surgical operations:

Surgical operations are not recommended during the Waxing Moon.

The Old Farmer’s Almanac: Some Bird Recipes for Your Feathered Friends

 

Bird Recipes for Your Feathered Friends

Most people put out a bird seed mix, which birds do appreciate. However, if you really want to impress your avian friends, here are a few recipes we recommend:

************

WHAT IS SUET?

Suet is essentially a solidified mix of fats, which birds eat to stay warm. Particularly in winter, suet is a valuable bird food.

  • You can use almost any seed or grain, mixed with beef fat, lard, or natural peanut butter. A basic suet combines equal parts of beef fat and assorted birdseed.
  • Put it in a tuna or cat food can to chill (or freeze) until it’s hard enough to hold its shape, then release it into a wire suet cage or sturdy mesh bag.
  • For a fancier suet, add natural peanut butter to the mix. You can also bind cornmeal or oatmeal with natural peanut butter and spread it into holes drilled in a post or log.
  • Birds also like dried fruits, so consider adding raisins, currants, apricots, or citron.

SUET CAKE RECIPE

  • 2 parts melted fat (beef fat or lard)
  • 2 parts yellow cornmeal
  • 1 part natural peanut butter

Mix all ingredients together and cook for a few minutes. Pour into small containers (tuna fish cans are good), and refrigerate or freeze until needed. Mixture can also be stuffed into 1-inch holes drilled in small logs to hang from trees. The recipe can be made all year long as long as you accumulate fat. Fasten containers securely to trees or feeders.

Note: Suet should be used only in very cold weather so that it does not melt and become rancid. If you live in a warm climate, we do not recommend using homemade suet because it will spoil too quickly. In this case, it is safer to purchase commercial suet cakes (which are treated and won’t spoil).

************

WOODPECKER PUDDING

Here is a recipe for the birds!

  • 8 pounds suet
  • 2 pounds peanut butter
  • 8-ounce bottle corn syrup
  • 2 pounds rolled oats

Melt the suet in a canning kettle or other large container, pouring the melted fat into another kettle as it cooks down. While the fat is still hot, add the peanut butter, corn syrup, and oats, stirring constantly until mixture is well blended. Put the pudding into old soup cans to cool and harden, and store in a cool place. To use, warm the can until the pudding is soft enough to handle. Drill a number of 1 ½ inch holes in a 4 inch diameter birch log (leave the bark intact to provide good toeholds for the birds), spread the pudding into the holes, and hang the log outdoors where it is accessible to the birds.

************

JUNCO CORNBREAD

Try this bird food recipe—just place in mesh bags and hang outdoors!

  • 2 cups cornmeal
  • 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • ½ cup fat (meaning drippings or lard)
  • 3 cups water

Mix all the ingredients together and bake in a deep pan at 375ºF for 30 to 35 minutes. Reduce heat if bread looks as if it is forming a hard crust. May be doubled or halved.

 

SOURCE: The Old Farmer’s Almanac

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Dec. 10: WHAT DO YOU FEED WILD BIRDS?

 

WILD BIRD FOOD PREFERENCES

WHAT DO YOU FEED WILD BIRDS?
What do you feed the birds? Our handy wild bird food chart lists the type of seeds, nuts, and other foods are liked most by different types of birds.

Although birds can find food naturally, it’s fine to offer these supplements. During times of extreme weather, extra bird food can provide a nutritional boost and provide a helping hand.

Your reward is the opportunity to attract some feathered friends to your backyard and garden—and enjoy watching wild birds from your window!

]

Source: The Old Farmer’s Almanac

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Dec. 10: HOMEMADE BIRD FOOD RECIPES

 

HOMEMADE BIRD FOOD RECIPES

MAKE YOUR OWN BIRD FOOD!
Here are some great homemade bird food recipes that can be used at any time of the year, but especially in the cold winter months, when natural resources are scarce.

For many of us, it’s a great joy to watch and study our feathered friends. In the winter, experts maintain that the best way to birdwatch is in a comfortable chair by the window (and we would agree). By keeping a feeder stocked with bird food, you can attract birds that will stay with you until spring.

IS IT GOOD TO FEED THE BIRDS IN WINTER?

Rest assured that it’s fine to feed birds during the cold winter months. Supplemental food actually helps birds during especially tough winters—and this will not affect bird migration. A number of factors trigger the urge for birds to migrate, but the most significant one is day length. When the days get shorter, certain birds move on, regardless of whether there are still filled feeders available for them.

During the rest of the year, it’s best to take feeders inside, as there will be plenty of other natural resources for the birds to take advantage of. Plus, bird feeders can be very attractive to foraging mammals, such as skunks, rats, and bears, which are usually not welcome visitors!

HOMEMADE BIRD FOOD RECIPES

Most people put out a bird seed mix, which birds do appreciate. However, if you really want to impress your avian friends, here are a few recipes we recommend:

  • Suet 
    A simple suet recipe that is beloved by woodpeckers, nuthatches, chickadees, and many other backyard birds.
  • Jack Dudley’s Woodpecker Pudding
    A suet–peanut butter concoction that will drive all the wild birds, well, wild!
  • Fine-Feathered Entree
    Packed with nuts and seeds, this mix is a feathered-friend favorite.
  • Junco Cornbread
    This simple baked cornbread is quite literally for the birds—and boy, do they enjoy it!

BIRD-FEEDING ADVICE

What’s most important is that you keep birds safe by keeping your bird feeders clean. Scrub out feeders with a 10 percent non-chlorinated bleach solution at least a few times a year, and certainly between seasons. Remove suet in hot weather because it will spoil quickly.

See our Wild Bird Food chart for more information on what kinds of foods different types of birds eat. Also make sure you choose a birdfeeder that fits the bird species you wish to attract!

Plus, here’s some advice for growing plants with seeds to feed the birds and plants that attract hummingbirds.

Do you feed the birds in your backyard? Who’s your favorite winged visitor? Tell us about them in the comments below!

SOURCE:

Parts of this article were first published in The 1984 Old Farmer’s Almanac.

Holidays Around the World for Dec. 10: Thailand Constitution Day December 10

Thailand Constitution Day

December 10

In 1932 Thailand’s absolute monarchy was replaced with a constitutional monarchy. King Rama VII oversaw the transfer of power. Under the newly instituted constitution of that time, the monarchy remained in place and the king was designated the head of state, head of the armed forces, upholder of all religions, and sacred and inviolable in his person.
In practice, however, while the monarchy is still held in esteem by the people, real power in Thailand has often been held by the military. Reflecting the country’s volatile politics, Thailand has had a series of 18 constitutions or charters since 1932, the latest one being adopted in 2007. All of them have allowed for a constitutional monarchy with greater or lesser power.Celebrations on Constitution Day involve the people thanking the monarchy for granting them a chance to take part in
running the country.
CONTACTS:
Royal Thai Embassy
1024 Wisconsin Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
202-338-9700
http://www.thaiembdc.org

This Day in History: Imperial Japanese Navy Sinks Two British Warships (1941)

Imperial Japanese Navy Sinks Two British Warships (1941)

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

The sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse was a naval engagement in the Second World War, part of the war in the Pacific, that took place north of Singapore, off the east coast of Malaya, near Kuantan, Pahang, wherethe Royal Navy battleship HMS Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse were sunk by land-based bombers and torpedo bombersof the Imperial Japanese Navy on 10 December 1941. In Japanese, the engagement was referred to as the Naval Battle of Malaya (マレー沖海戦 Marē-oki kaisen).

The objective of Force Z, which consisted of one battleship, one battlecruiser and four destroyers, was to intercept the Japanese invasion fleet north of Malaya. The task force sailed without air support. Although the British had a close encounter with Japanese heavy surface units, the force failed to find and destroy the main convoy. On their return to Singapore they were attacked in open waters and sunk by long-range torpedo bombers. The commander of Force Z, Admiral Sir Tom Phillips, failed to call for air support in favour of maintaining radio silence.[4]

With the attack on Pearl Harbor only a few days earlier, the Malayan engagement illustrated the effectiveness of aerial attacks against even the heaviest of naval assets if they were without air cover. This added to the importance for the Alliesof the four USN aircraft carriers in the Pacific. The sinking of the two ships severely weakened the British Eastern Fleet in Singapore, and the Japanese invasion fleet was only engaged by submarines until the Battle off Endau on 27 January 1942.

Background

In December 1941, as a deterrent to Japanese territorial expansion which was recently demonstrated by the invasion of French Indochina, it was proposed that a force of Royal Navy warships be dispatched to the Far East with a view to providing reinforcement for Britain’s possessions there, most notably Singapore. First Sea Lord Sir Dudley Poundrepresented that Singapore could only be adequately defended if the Royal Navy sent the majority of its capital shipsthere, to achieve parity with an estimated force of nine Japanese battleships. However, dispatching such a large British force was impractical as the British were at war with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Nevertheless, Prime Minister Winston Churchill appeared optimistic about the improving situation in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean; he advocated sending two capital ships along with an aircraft carrier to defend Malaya, Borneo and the Straits Settlements.

Churchill has been criticised for showing “considerable ignorance” and holding an “exaggerated belief in the power of the battleship,” along with “a tendency to interfere in naval matters.”[5] This may have led him to propose a squadron of three modern ships: one battleship, one battlecruiser, and one carrier.[6] His view was that using the Ultra decrypts that would give Japanese ship locations to the British, they could then use their own ships to form a “fleet in being” to deter Japanese action, as the German battleship Tirpitz, sister to the lost Bismarck, was in the North Sea.[6] However, there was no firm plan for such a task.[7] The original British proposal allocated the new King George V-class battleshipHMS Prince of Wales, the veteran Renown-class battlecruiser HMS Repulse, and the Illustrious-class aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable for air cover, though the plan had to be revised when Indomitable ran aground in the Caribbean Sea.[8]

The dispatch of capital ships to Singapore had been part of the Admiralty’s strategic planning since the naval base had been expanded and fortified beginning in the early 1920s. The scale of this planned deployment had been reduced during the 1930s, since Germany and Italy presented new threats to British interests in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Nevertheless, it was still assumed that a significant force of capital ships would deter Japanese expansion. Churchill’s plan presumed[9] that the United States would agree to send its Pacific Fleet, including eight battleships, to Singapore in the event of hostilities with Japan, or that the British force would add to the deterrent value of the US fleet, should it stay at Pearl Harbor.[10]

Deployment

Force G, consisting of the modern battleship Prince of Wales, the First World War era battlecruiser Repulse, and the four destroyers HMS ElectraExpressEncounter and Jupiter, arrived at Singapore on 2 December 1941. They were then re-designated Force Z.

The new aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable was allocated to Force G, but whilst working up off Jamaica, she had run aground in the entrance to Kingston harbour on 3 November 1941.[11] Indomitable required 12 days of dry dock repairs in Norfolk, Virginia, and was not able to take part in the action. Indomitable carried one squadron each of Fairey Fulmars and Hawker Sea Hurricanes. Another aircraft carrier, HMS Hermes (which was with Prince of Wales at Cape Town), was on passage to Singapore to join Force Z, but was not deployed due to lack of speed.[12]

On 1 December, it was announced that Sir Thomas Phillips had been promoted to full admiral and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Fleet. A few days later, Repulse left for Australia with HMAS Vampire and HMS Tenedos, but the force was recalled to Singapore to assemble for possible operations against the Japanese.[13]

Also at Singapore were the light cruisers HMS DurbanDanaeDragon and Mauritius, and the destroyers HMS StrongholdEncounterand Jupiter. The heavy cruiser HMS Exeter, Dutch light cruiser HNLMS Java, two more British destroyers (Scout and Thanet), and four United States Navy destroyers (WhippleJohn D. EdwardsEdsall and Alden) would be there within three days.

Though Durban and Stronghold were available, Admiral Philips decided to leave them at Singapore because they were not as fast as the other units. Additionally, DanaeDragonMauritiusEncounter and Jupiter were also at Singapore, but were under repair and not ready to sail.

Japanese preparations

Churchill publicly announced Prince of Wales and Repulse were being sent to Singapore to deter the Japanese. In response, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto sent 36 Mitsubishi G4M bombers to reinforce the existing Mitsubishi G3M-equipped Kanoya Air Group and Genzan Air Group, whose pilots began training for an attack on the two capital ships.[14] Genzan Air Group was commanded by Lt Cdr Niichi Nakanishi, Kanoya Air Group by Lt Cdr Shichizo Miyauchi and Mihoro Air Group by Lt Hachiro Shoji.[15]

Hostilities commence

On 8 December 1941,[16] early in the morning, bombers of Mihoro Air Group attacked Singapore.[15] Prince of Wales and Repulseresponded with anti-aircraft fire; no planes were shot down, and the ships sustained no damage. The Japanese made landings on Kota Bharu, Malaya, on 8 December (local time), and the British land forces were hard pressed.

Around that time, news came that Pearl Harbor had been attacked and eight US battleships had been sunk or disabled. Pre-war planning had presumed that the US Pacific Fleet would have moved to Singapore to reinforce the British when war broke out. That was now impossible. Philips had concluded in an earlier discussion with US General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Thomas C. Hart that his two capital ships were of insufficient strength to confront the Japanese.[10] However, with the Japanese threatening to overrun Malaya, Philips was pressed to use his ships in an offensive role; he assembled his flotilla to try to intercept and destroy Japanese invasion convoys in the South China Sea.

Admiral Philips believed the Royal Air Force could not guarantee air cover for his ships, as they were equipped with limited numbers of ageing fighters. One squadron, No. 453 Squadron RAAF with Brewster Buffalos standing by at RAF Sembawang, was available to provide close cover.[17] They were designated the Fleet Defence Squadron for this task, with Flight Lieutenant Tim Vigors given the radio procedures used by Force Z.[4]

Regardless, Phillips elected to proceed. It is believed that four factors entered into his decision: he thought that Japanese planes could not operate so far from land, he thought that his ships were relatively immune from fatal damage via air attack, he was unaware of the quality of Japanese bombing and torpedo aircraft,[17] and like many RN officers, Phillips underestimated the fighting abilities of the Japanese.[5] Up to that point, no capital ship at sea had been sunk by air attack. The Italian heavy cruiser Pola had been disabled by a torpedo from a Fleet Air Arm Fairey Swordfish at the Battle of Cape Matapan on 29 March 1941, and was later sunk by a torpedo from the destroyer HMS Jervis.[18]

His flagship, the Prince of Wales, had one of the most advanced naval anti-aircraft systems of the time, the High Angle Control System, which demonstrated accurate long-range radar-directed AA fire during Operation Halberd in August and September 1941.[19] However, the extreme heat and humidity in Malayan waters rendered her AA FC radars unserviceable and her 2 pounder ammunition had deteriorated as well.[20] Royal Air Force technicians were called in to examine the Prince’s radars but needed a week to effect repairs, and Force Z would be underway in a few days.[10]

No. 453 Squadron RAAF, which was to provide air cover for Force Z, was not kept informed of the ships’ position. No radio request for air cover was sent until one was sent by the commander of Repulse an hour after the Japanese attack began. Flight Lieutenant Tim Vigors proposed a plan to keep six aircraft over Force Z during daylight, but this was declined by Phillips. After the war, Vigors remained bitter towards him for his failure to call for air support on time.[4] He later commented, “I reckon this must have been the last battle in which the Navy reckoned they could get along without the RAF. A pretty damned costly way of learning. Phillips had known that he was being shadowed the night before, and also at dawn that day. He did not call for air support. He was attacked and still did not call for help.”[21] Daytime air cover off the coast was also offered by Wing Commander Wilfred Clouston of No. 488 Squadron RNZAF, but his plan, “Operation Mobile”, was also rejected.[22]

Regarding Phillips’ decision to proceed without air cover, naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison wrote:

Those who make the decisions in war are constantly weighing certain risks against possible gains. At the outset of hostilities [U.S.] Admiral Hart thought of sending his small striking force north of Luzon to challenge Japanese communications, but decided that the risk to his ships outweighed the possible gain because the enemy had won control of the air. Admiral Phillips had precisely the same problem in Malaya. Should he steam into the Gulf of Siam and expose his ships to air attack from Indochina in the hope of breaking enemy communications with their landing force? He decided to take the chance. With the Royal Air Force and the British Army fighting for their lives, the Royal Navy could not be true to its tradition by remaining idly at anchor.[23]

Departure

After receiving word of a Japanese convoy bound for Malaya, Force Z, consisting of Prince of WalesRepulseElectraExpressVampire and Tenedos, sailed from Singapore at 1710 on 8 December. Phillips hoped to attack off Singora on 10 December; had he departed one day sooner, he might have achieved his objective without coming under air attack at all, for the Japanese squadrons had not yet arrived.[9]

At 0713 on 9 December, Force Z passed the Anambas Islands to the east, and turned to a new course of 330 degrees, later changing to 345 degrees. Force Z was overflown by two Japanese reconnaissance aircraft, but not reported,[5] before being spotted by Japanese submarine I-65 at 1400 on 9 December, which shadowed the British ships for five hours, radioing their positions. Phillips was unaware he was being shadowed by the submarine. After this report, Vice Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa, in command of the invasion force, ordered most of his warships to escort the empty transports back to Cam Ranh Bay in southern Vietnam.

I-65‘s amplifying report, confirming the presence of British battleships, reached 22nd Air Flotilla headquarters two hours later. At that time, their aircraft were in the process of loading bombs for an attack on Singapore Harbour, but they immediately switched to torpedoes. The bombers were not ready until 1800 hours.[24] The report also prompted the Japanese 2nd Fleet, Southern (Malay) Force’s Main Body, to sortie south from Indochina to intercept Force Z. The fleet consisted of the battleships KongōHaruna, three Takao-class cruisers and eight destroyers.[25] They were joined by four Mogami-class cruisers of Cruiser Division 7 and one light cruiser, four destroyers of Destroyer Squadron 3.[26] The cruiser Chōkai, flagship of Vice Admiral Ozawa, was also ordered south to find Force Z.[27]

About 1730, just a half-hour before sunset, the force was spotted by three Aichi E13A seaplanes, which had been catapulted off the Japanese cruisers YuraKinu and Kumano, which were escorting the transports.[28] These aircraft continued shadowing. At about 1830, Tenedos was detached to return to Singapore, because she was running low on fuel, with instructions to contact Rear Admiral Arthur Palliser, detailed to act as liaison to RAF in Malaya,[29] Phillips’ intention was no longer to attack Singora, though Phillips changed course at 1900 toward Singora, to deceive the shadowing aircraft, then south toward Singapore at 2015, when darkness covered him.[29] Tenedos dutifully reported at 2000, thereby preserving the secrecy of Phillips’ position.

A night air attack was attempted by the Japanese because they feared that the British would find the convoy,[24] but bad weather prevented them from finding the ships and they returned to their airfields at Thủ Dầu Một and Saigon about midnight.[30]

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