World War I Medal of Honor Recipients (Army)

Note: An asterisk in the citation indicates that the award was given posthumously.

ADKINSON, JOSEPH B.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: When murderous machinegun fire at a range of 50 yards had made it impossible for his platoon to advance, and had caused the platoon to take cover Sgt. Adkinson alone, with the greatest intrepidity, rushed across the 50 yards of open ground directly into the face of the hostile machinegun kicked the gun from the parapet into the enemy trench, and at the point of the bayonet captured the 3 men manning the gun. The gallantry and quick decision of this soldier enabled the platoon to resume its advance.

ALLEX, JAKE
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 131st Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Chipilly Ridge, France, 9 August 1918
Citation: At a critical point in the action, when all the officers with his platoon had become casualties, Cpl. Allex took command of the platoon and led it forward until the advance was stopped by fire from a machinegun nest. He then advanced alone for about 30 yards in the face of intense fire and attacked the nest. With his bayonet he killed 5 of the enemy, and when it was broken, used the butt of his rifle, capturing 15 prisoners.

ALLWORTH, EDWARD C.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division
• Place and date: At Clery-le-Petit, France, 5 November 1918
Citation: While his company was crossing the Meuse River and canal at a bridgehead opposite Clery-le-Petit, the bridge over the canal was destroyed by shell fire and Capt. Allworth’s command became separated, part of it being on the east bank of the canal and the remainder on the west bank. Seeing his advance units making slow headway up the steep slope ahead, this officer mounted the canal bank and called for his men to follow. Plunging in he swam across the canal under fire from the enemy, followed by his men. Inspiring his men by his example of gallantry, he led them up the slope, joining his hard-pressed platoons in front. By his personal leadership he forced the enemy back for more than a kilometer, overcoming machinegun nests and capturing 100 prisoners, whose number exceeded that of the men in his command. The exceptional courage and leadership displayed by Capt. Allworth made possible the re-establishment of a bridgehead over the canal and the successful advance of other troops.

ANDERSON, JOHANNES S.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: While his company was being held up by intense artillery and machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Anderson, without aid, voluntarily left the company and worked his way to the rear of the nest that was offering the most stubborn resistance. His advance was made through an open area and under constant hostile fire, but the mission was successfully accomplished, and he not only silenced the gun and captured it, but also brought back with him 23 prisoners.

*BAESEL, ALBERT E.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 148th Infantry, 37th Division
• Place and date: Near Ivoiry, France, 27 September 1918
Citation: Upon hearing that a squad leader of his platoon had been severely wounded while attempting to capture an enemy machinegun nest about 200 yards in advance of the assault line and somewhat to the right, 2d Lt. Baesel requested permission to go to the rescue of the wounded corporal. After thrice repeating his request and permission having been reluctantly given, due to the heavy artillery, rifle, and machinegun fire, and heavy deluge of gas in which the company was at the time, accompanied by a volunteer, he worked his way forward, and reaching the wounded man, placed him upon his shoulders and was instantly killed by enemy fire.

BALCH, JOHN HENRY
• Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Vierzy, France, and Somme-Py, France, 19 July and 5 October 1918
Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in action at Vierzy, on 19 July 1918. Balch unhesitatingly and fearlessly exposed himself to terrific machinegun and high-explosive fire to succor the wounded as they fell in the attack, leaving his dressing station voluntarily and keeping up the work all day and late into the night unceasingly for 16 hours. Also in the action at Somme-Py on 5 October 1918, he exhibited exceptional bravery in establishing an advanced dressing station under heavy shellfire.

BARGER, CHARLES D.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, 31 October 1918
Citation: Learning that 2 daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Barger and another stretcher bearer upon their own initiative made 2 trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued 2 wounded officers.

*BARKELEY, DAVID B.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 9 November 1918
Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Pvt. Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return, but before his goal was reached, he was seized with cramps and drowned.

BARKLEY, JOHN L.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 4th Infantry, 3d Division
• Place and date: Near Cunel, France, 7 October 1918
Citation: Pfc. Barkley, who was stationed in an observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machinegun and mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly afterward, when the enemy launched a counterattack against our forces, Pfc. Barkley got into the tank, waited under the hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him and then opened fire, completely breaking up the counterattack and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire on the tank pointblank. One shell struck the drive wheel of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the tank and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy counterattack, thereby enabling our forces to gain and hold Hill 25.

BART, FRANK J.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 9th Infantry, 2d Division
• Place and date: Near Medeah Ferme, France, 3 October 1918
Citation: Pvt. Bart, being on duty as a company runner, when the advance was held up by machinegun fire voluntarily picked up an automatic rifle, ran out ahead of the line, and silenced a hostile machinegun nest, killing the German gunners. The advance then continued, and when it was again hindered shortly afterward by another machinegun nest this courageous soldier repeated his bold exploit by putting the second machinegun out of action.

*BLACKWELL, ROBERT L.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company K, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Souplet, France, 11 October 1918
Citation: When his platoon was almost surrounded by the enemy and his platoon commander asked for volunteers to carry a message calling for reinforcements, Pvt. Blackwell volunteered for this mission, well knowing the extreme danger connected with it. In attempting to get through the heavy shell and machinegun fire this gallant soldier was killed.

*BLECKLEY, ERWIN R.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 130th Field Artillery, observer 50th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date. Near Binarville, France, 6 October 1918 (Air Mission)
Citation: 2d Lt. Bleckley, with his pilot, 1st Lt. Harold E. Goettler, Air Service, left the airdrome late in the afternoon on their second trip to drop supplies to a battalion of the 77th Division, which had been cut off by the enemy in the Argonne Forest. Having been subjected on the first trip to violent fire from the enemy, they attempted on the second trip to come still lower in order to get the packages even more precisely on the designated spot. In the course of his mission the plane was brought down by enemy rifle and machinegun fire from the ground, resulting in fatal wounds to 2d Lt. Bleckley, who died before he could be taken to a hospital. In attempting and performing this mission 2d Lt. Bleckley showed the highest possible contempt of personal danger, devotion to duty, courage, and valor.

BOONE, JOEL THOMPSON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Vicinity Vierzy, France, 19 July 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism, conspicuous gallantry, and intrepidity while serving with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy. With absolute disregard for personal safety, ever conscious and mindful of the suffering fallen, Surg. Boone, leaving the shelter of a ravine, went forward onto the open field where there was no protection and despite the extreme enemy fire of all calibers, through a heavy mist of gas, applied dressings and first aid to wounded marines. This occurred southeast of Vierzy, near the cemetery, and on the road south from that town. When the dressings and supplies had been exhausted, he went through a heavy barrage of large-caliber shells, both high explosive and gas, to replenish these supplies, returning quickly with a sidecar load, and administered them in saving the lives of the wounded. A second trip, under the same conditions and for the same purpose, was made by Surg. Boone later that day.

BRADLEY, WILLIS WINTER, JR.
• Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: North Dakota
Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. Pittsburgh, at the time of an accidental explosion of ammunition on that vessel. On 23 July 1917, some saluting cartridge cases were being reloaded in the after casemate: through an accident an explosion occurred. Comdr. Bradley (then Lieutenant), who was about to enter the casemate, was blown back by the explosion and rendered momentarily unconscious, but while still dazed, crawled into the casemate to extinguish burning materials in dangerous proximity to a considerable amount of powder, thus preventing further explosions.

BRONSON, DEMING
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company H, 364th Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, 26-27 September 1918
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy. On the morning of 26 September, during the advance of the 364th Infantry, 1st Lt. Bronson was struck by an exploding enemy hand-grenade, receiving deep cuts on his face and the back of his head. He nevertheless participated in the action which resulted in the capture of an enemy dugout from which a great number of prisoners were taken. This was effected with difficulty and under extremely hazardous conditions because it was necessary to advance without the advantage of cover and, from an exposed position, throw hand-grenades and phosphorous bombs to compel the enemy to surrender. On the afternoon of the same day he was painfully wounded in the left arm by an enemy rifle bullet, and after receiving first aid treatment he was directed to the rear. Disregarding these instructions, 1st Lt. Bronson remained on duty with his company through the night although suffering from severe pain and shock. On the morning of 27 September, his regiment resumed its attack, the object being the village of Eclisfontaine. Company H, to which 1st Lt. Bronson was assigned, was left in support of the attacking line, Company E being in the line. He gallantly joined that company in spite of his wounds and engaged with it in the capture of the village. After the capture he remained with Company E and participated with it in the capture of an enemy machinegun, he himself killing the enemy gunner. Shortly after this encounter the company was compelled to retire due to the heavy enemy artillery barrage. During this retirement 1st Lt. Bronson, who was the last man to leave the advanced position, was again wounded in both arms by an enemy high-explosive shell. He was then assisted to cover by another officer who applied first aid. Although bleeding profusely and faint from the loss of blood, 1st Lt. Bronson remained with the survivors of the company throughout the night of the second day, refusing to go to the rear for treatment. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.

CALL, DONALD M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 344th Battalion, Tank Corps
• Place and date: Near Varennes, France, 26 September 1918
Citation: During an operation against enemy machinegun nests west of Varennes, Cpl. Call was in a tank with an officer when half of the turret was knocked off by a direct artillery hit. Choked by gas from the high-explosive shell, he left the tank and took cover in a shell hole 30 yards away. Seeing that the officer did not follow, and thinking that he might be alive, Cpl. Call returned to the tank under intense machinegun and shell fire and carried the officer over a mile under machinegun and sniper fire to safety.

CANN, TEDFORD H.
• Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: New York
Citation: For courageous conduct while serving on board the U.S.S. May, 5 November 1917. Cann found a leak in a flooded compartment and closed it at the peril of his life, thereby unquestionably saving the ship.

*CHILES, MARCELLUS H.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Champy Bas, France, 3 November 1918
Citation: When his battalion, of which he had just taken command, was halted by machinegun fire from the front and left flank, he picked up the rifle of a dead soldier and, calling on his men to follow led the advance across a stream, waist deep, in the face of the machinegun fire. Upon reaching the opposite bank this gallant officer was seriously wounded in the abdomen by a sniper, but before permitting himself to be evacuated he made complete arrangements for turning over his command to the next senior officer, and under the inspiration of his fearless leadership his battalion reached its objective. Capt. Chiles died shortly after reaching the hospital.

*COLYER, WILBUR E.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Engineers, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Verdun, France, 9 October 1918
Citation: Volunteering with 2 other soldiers to locate machinegun nests, Sgt. Colyer advanced on the hostile positions to a point where he was half surrounded by the nests, which were in ambush. He killed the gunner of one gun with a captured German grenade and then turned this gun on the other nests silencing all of them before he returned to his platoon. He was later killed in action.

*COSTIN, HENRY G.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company H, 115th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-de-Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Baltimore, Md.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: When the advance of his platoon had been held up by machinegun fire and a request was made for an automatic rifle team to charge the nest, Pvt. Costin was the first to volunteer. Advancing with his team, under terrific fire of enemy artillery, machineguns, and trench mortars, he continued after all his comrades had become casualties and he himself had been seriously wounded. He operated his rifle until he collapsed. His act resulted in the capture of about 100 prisoners and several machineguns. He succumbed from the effects of his wounds shortly after the accomplishment of his heroic deed.

COVINGTON, JESSE WHITFIELD
• Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook Third Class, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: At sea aboard the U.S.S. Stewart, 17 April 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Jesse W. Covington, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself, fully realizing that similar powder boxes in the vicinity were continually exploding and that he was thereby risking his life in saving the life of this man.

CUKELA, LOUIS
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment
• Place and date: Near Villers-Cotterets, France, 18 July 1918
Citation (Army Medal): When his company, advancing through a wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point, Sgt. Cukela crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed a machinegun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew with his bayonet. With German hand grenades he then bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, capturing 4 men and 2 damaged machineguns.
Navy Medal
Citation (Navy Medal): For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, during action in the Forest de Retz, near Viller-Cottertes, France, 18 July 1918. Sgt. Cukela advanced alone against an enemy strong point that was holding up his line. Disregarding the warnings of his comrades, he crawled out from the flank in the face of heavy fire and worked his way to the rear of the enemy position. Rushing a machinegun emplacement, he killed or drove off the crew with his bayonet, bombed out the remaining part of the strong point with German handgrenades and captured 2 machineguns and 4 men.

*DILBOY, GEORGE
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 103d Infantry, 26th Division
• Place and date: Near Belleau, France, 18 July 1918
Citation: After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad embankment, Pfc. Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by an enemy machinegun from 100 yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 25 yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplacement from a prone position, killing 2 of the enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew.

DONALDSON, MICHAEL A.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: At Sommerance-Landres-et St. Georges Road, France, 14 October 1918
Citation: The advance of his regiment having been checked by intense machinegun fire of the enemy, who were entrenched on the crest of a hill before Landres-et St. Georges, his company retired to a sunken road to reorganize their position, leaving several of their number wounded near the enemy lines. Of his own volition, in broad daylight and under direct observation of the enemy and with utter disregard for his own safety, he advanced to the crest of the hill, rescued one of his wounded comrades, and returned under withering fire to his own lines, repeating his splendidly heroic act until he had brought in all the men, 6 in number.

DONOVAN, WILLIAM JOSEPH
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 14-15 October 1918
Citation: Lt. Col. Donovan personally led the assaulting wave in an attack upon a very strongly organized position, and when our troops were suffering heavy casualties he encouraged all near him by his example, moving among his men in exposed positions, reorganizing decimated platoons, and accompanying them forward in attacks. When he was wounded in the leg by machine-gun bullets, he refused to be evacuated and continued with his unit until it withdrew to a less exposed position.

DOZIER, JAMES C.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company G, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: In command of 2 platoons, 1st. Lt. Dozier was painfully wounded in the shoulder early in the attack, but he continued to lead his men displaying the highest bravery and skill. When his command was held up by heavy machinegun fire, he disposed his men in the best cover available and with a soldier continued forward to attack a machinegun nest. Creeping up to the position in the face of intense fire, he killed the entire crew with handgrenades and his pistol and a little later captured a number of Germans who had taken refuge in a dugout nearby.

*DUNN, PARKER F.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 312th Infantry, 78th Division
• Place and date: Near Grand-Pre, France, 23 October 1918
Citation: When his battalion commander found it necessary to send a message to a company in the attacking line and hesitated to order a runner to make the trip because of the extreme danger involved, Pfc. Dunn, a member of the intelligence section, volunteered for the mission. After advancing but a short distance across a field swept by artillery and machinegun fire, he was wounded, but continued on and fell wounded a second time. Still undaunted, he persistently attempted to carry out his mission until he was killed by a machinegun bullet before reaching the advance line.

EDWARDS, DANIEL R.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918
Citation: Reporting for duty from hospital where he had been for several weeks under treatment for numerous and serious wounds and although suffering intense pain from a shattered arm, he crawled alone into an enemy trench for the purpose of capturing or killing enemy soldiers known to be concealed therein. He killed 4 of the men and took the remaining 4 men prisoners; while conducting them to the rear one of the enemy was killed by a high explosive enemy shell which also completely shattered 1 of Pfc. Edwards’ legs, causing him to be immediately evacuated to the hospital. The bravery of Pfc. Edwards, now a tradition in his battalion because of his previous gallant acts, again caused the morale of his comrades to be raised to high pitch.

EGGERS, ALAN LOUIS
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Eggers, Sgt. John C. Latham and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank, under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted 2 wounded soldiers to cover in a sap of a nearby trench. Sgt. Eggers and Sgt. Latham then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were, keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it, with the wounded men, back to our lines under cover of darkness.

ELLIS, MICHAEL B.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Exermont, France, 5 October 1918
Citation: During the entire day’s engagement he operated far in advance of the first wave of his company, voluntarily undertaking most dangerous missions and single-handedly attacking and reducing machinegun nests. Flanking one emplacement, he killed 2 of the enemy with rifle fire and captured 17 others. Later he single-handedly advanced under heavy fire and captured 27 prisoners, including 2 officers and 6 machineguns, which had been holding up the advance of the company. The captured officers indicated the locations of 4 other machineguns, and he in turn captured these, together with their crews, at all times showing marked heroism and fearlessness.

FORREST, ARTHUR J.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Remonville, France, 1 November 1918
Citation: When the advance of his company was stopped by bursts of fire from a nest of 6 enemy machineguns, without being discovered, he worked his way single-handed to a point within 50 yards of the machinegun nest. Charging, single-handed, he drove out the enemy in disorder, thereby protecting the advance platoon from annihilating fire, and permitting the resumption of the advance of his company.

FOSTER, GARY EVANS
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: When his company was held up by violent machinegun fire from a sunken road, Sgt. Foster with an officer went forward to attack the hostile machinegun nests. The officer was wounded, but Sgt. Foster continued on alone in the face of the heavy fire and by effective use of hand grenades and his pistol killed several of the enemy and captured 18.

FUNK, JESSE N.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, 31 October 1918
Citation: Learning that 2 daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Funk and another stretcher bearer, upon their own initiative, made 2 trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued 2 wounded officers.

FURLONG, HAROLD A.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 353d Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bantheville, France, 1 November 1918
Citation: Immediately after the opening of the attack in the Bois-de-Bantheville, when his company was held up by severe machinegun fire from the front, which killed his company commander and several soldiers, 1st. Lt. Furlong moved out in advance of the line with great courage and coolness, crossing an open space several hundred yards wide. Taking up a position behind the line of the machineguns, he closed in on them, one at a time, killing a number of the enemy with his rifle, putting 4 machinegun nests out of action, and driving 20 German prisoners into our lines.

GAFFNEY, FRANK
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 108th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: Pfc. Gaffney, an automatic rifleman, pushing forward alone, after all the other members of his squad had been killed, discovered several Germans placing a heavy machinegun in position. He killed the crew, captured the gun, bombed several dugouts, and, after killing 4 more of the enemy with his pistol, held the position until reinforcements came up, when 80 prisoners were captured.

*GOETTLER, HAROLD ERNEST
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, pilot, U.S. Army Air Corps, 50th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Binarville, France, 6 October 1918 (Air Mission)
Citation: 1st. Lt. Goettler, with his observer, 2d Lt. Erwin R. Bleckley, 130th Field Artillery, left the airdrome late in the afternoon on their second trip to drop supplies to a battalion of the 77th Division which had been cut off by the enemy in the Argonne Forest. Having been subjected on the first trip to violent fire from the enemy, they attempted on the second trip to come still lower in order to get the packages even more precisely on the designated spot. In the course of this mission the plane was brought down by enemy rifle and machinegun fire from the ground, resulting in the instant death of 1st. Lt. Goettler. In attempting and performing this mission 1st. Lt. Goettler showed the highest possible contempt of personal danger, devotion to duty, courage and valor.

GRAVES, ORA
• Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Nebraska
Citation: For extraordinary heroism on 23 July 1917, while the U.S.S. Pittsburgh was proceeding to Buenos Aires, Argentina. A 3-inch saluting charge exploded, causing the death of C. T. Lyles, seaman. Upon the explosion, Graves was blown to the deck, but soon recovered and discovered burning waste on the deck. He put out the burning waste while the casemate was filled with clouds of smoke, knowing that there was more powder there which might explode.

GREGORY, EARL D.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Headquarters Company, 116th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: At Bois-de-Consenvoye, north of Verdun, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: With the remark “I will get them,” Sgt. Gregory seized a rifle and a trench-mortar shell, which he used as a handgrenade, left his detachment of the trench-mortar platoon, and advancing ahead of the infantry, captured a machinegun and 3 of the enemy. Advancing still farther from the machinegun nest, he captured a 7.5-centimeter mountain howitzer and, entering a dugout in the immediate vicinity, single-handedly captured 19 of the enemy.

GUMPERTZ, SYDNEY G.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: When the advancing line was held up by machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Gumpertz left the platoon of which he was in command and started with 2 other soldiers through a heavy barrage toward the machinegun nest. His 2 companions soon became casualties from bursting shells, but 1st Sgt. Gumpertz continued on alone in the face of direct fire from the machinegun, jumped into the nest and silenced the gun, capturing 9 of the crew.

*HALL, THOMAS LEE
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date. Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: Having overcome 2 machinegun nests under his skillful leadership, Sgt. Hall’s platoon was stopped 800 yards from its final objective by machinegun fire of particular intensity. Ordering his men to take cover in a sunken road, he advanced alone on the enemy machinegun post and killed 5 members of the crew with his bayonet and thereby made possible the further advance of the line. While attacking another machinegun nest later in the day this gallant soldier was mortally wounded.

HAMMANN, CHARLES HAZELTINE
• Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Fleet
• Appointed from: Maryland
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as a pilot of a seaplane on 21 August 1918, when with 3 other planes Ens. Hammann took part in a patrol and attacked a superior force of enemy land planes. In the course of the engagement which followed the plane of Ens. George M. Ludlow was shot down and fell in the water 5 miles off Pola. Ens. Hammann immediately dived down and landed on the water close alongside the disabled machine, where he took Ludlow on board. Although his machine was not designed for the double load to which it was subjected, and although there was danger of attack by Austrian planes, he made his way to Porto Corsini.

HATLER, M. WALDO
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 8 November 1918
Citation: When volunteers were called for to secure information as to the enemy’s position on the opposite bank of the Meuse River, Sgt. Hatler was the first to offer his services for this dangerous mission. Swimming across the river, he succeeded in reaching the German lines, after another soldier, who had started with him, had been seized with cramps and drowned in midstream. Alone he carefully and courageously reconnoitered the enemy’s positions, which were held in force, and again successfully swam the river, bringing back information of great value.

HAYDEN, DAVID E.
• Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy, serving with the 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines
• Place and date: Thiaucourt, France, 15 September 1918
Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During the advance, when Cpl. Creed was mortally wounded while crossing an open field swept by machinegun fire, Hayden unhesitatingly ran to his assistance and, finding him so severely wounded as to require immediate attention, disregarded his own personal safety to dress the wound under intense machinegun fire, and then carried the wounded man back to a place of safety.

HAYS, GEORGE PRICE
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 10th Field Artillery, 3d Division
• Place and date: Near Greves Farm, France, 14-15 July 1918
Citation: At the very outset of the unprecedented artillery bombardment by the enemy, his line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with 2 French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus engaged, 7 horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy.

*HERIOT, JAMES D.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company I, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, 12 October 1918
Citation: Cpl. Heriot, with 4 other soldiers, organized a combat group and attacked an enemy machine-gun nest which had been inflicting heavy casualties on his company. In the advance 2 of his men were killed, and because of the heavy fire from all sides the remaining 2 sought shelter. Unmindful of the hazard attached to his mission, Cpl. Heriot, with fixed bayonet, alone charged the machinegun, making his way through the fire for a distance of 30 yards and forcing the enemy to surrender. During this exploit he received several wounds in the arm, and later in the same day, while charging another nest, he was killed.

HILL, RALYN M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 129th Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Donnevoux, France, 7 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing a French airplane fall out of control on the enemy side of the Meuse River with its pilot injured, Cpl. Hill voluntarily dashed across the footbridge to the side of the wounded man and, taking him on his back, started back to his lines. During the entire exploit he was subjected to murderous fire of enemy machineguns and artillery, but he successfully accomplished his mission and brought his man to a place of safety, a distance of several hundred yards.

HILTON, RICHMOND H.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Brancourt, France, 11 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While Sgt. Hilton’s company was advancing through the village of Brancourt it was held up by intense enfilading fire from a machinegun. Discovering that this fire came from a machinegun nest among shell holes at the edge of the town, Sgt. Hilton, accompanied by a few other soldiers, but well in advance of them, pressed on toward this position, firing with his rifle until his ammunition was exhausted, and then with his pistol, killing 6 of the enemy and capturing 10. In the course of this daring exploit he received a wound from a bursting shell, which resulted in the loss of his arm.

HOFFMAN, CHARLES F. (Army Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 49th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, (Name changed to Ernest August Janson, see p. 444.)
• Place and date: Near Chateau-Thierry, France, 6 June 1918
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
• Also received Navy Medal of Honor
Citation: Immediately after the company to which he belonged had reached its objective on Hill 142, several hostile counterattacks were launched against the line before the new position had been consolidated. G/Sgt. Hoffman was attempting to organize a position on the north slope of the hill when he saw 12 of the enemy, armed with 5 light machineguns, crawling toward his group. Giving the alarm, he rushed the hostile detachment, bayoneted the 2 leaders, and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. His quick action, initiative, and courage drove the enemy from a position from which they could have swept the hill with machinegun fire and forced the withdrawal of our troops.

HOLDERMAN, NELSON M.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 11, W.D., 1921
Citation: Capt. Holderman commanded a company of a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy. He was wounded on 4, 5, and 7 October, but throughout the entire period, suffering great pain and subjected to fire of every character, he continued personally to lead and encourage the officers and men under his command with unflinching courage and with distinguished success. On 6 October, in a wounded condition, he rushed through enemy machinegun and shell fire and carried 2 wounded men to a place of safety.

*INGRAM, OSMOND K.
• Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to. Alabama
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the presence of the enemy on the occasion of the torpedoing of the Cassin, on 15 October 1917. While the Cassin was searching for the submarine, Ingram sighted the torpedo coming, and realizing that it might strike the ship aft in the vicinity of the depth charges, ran aft with the intention of releasing the depth charges before the torpedo could reach the Cassin. The torpedo struck the ship before he could accomplish his purpose and Ingram was killed by the explosion. The depth charges exploded immediately afterward. His life was sacrificed in an attempt to save the ship and his shipmates, as the damage to the ship would have been much less if he had been able to release the depth charges.

IZAC, EDOUARD VICTOR MICHEL
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Aboard German submarine U-90 as prisoner of war, 21 May 1918
• Entered service at: Illinois
Citation: When the U.S.S. President Lincoln was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-90, on 21 May 1918, Lt. Izac was captured and held as a prisoner on board the U-90 until the return of the submarine to Germany, when he was confined in the prison camp. During his stay on the U-90 he obtained information of the movements of German submarines which was so important that he determined to escape, with a view to making this information available to the U.S. and Allied Naval authorities. In attempting to carry out this plan, he jumped through the window of a rapidly moving train at the imminent risk of death, not only from the nature of the act itself but from the fire of the armed German soldiers who were guarding him. Having been recaptured and re-confined, Lt. Izac made a second and successful attempt to escape, breaking his way through barbed-wire fences and deliberately drawing the fire of the armed guards in the hope of permitting others to escape during the confusion. He made his way through the mountains of southwestern Germany, having only raw vegetables for food, and at the end, swam the River Rhine during the night in the immediate vicinity of German sentries.

JANSON, ERNEST AUGUST (Navy Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 49th Company. (Served under name of Charles F. Hoffman)
• Accredited to: New York
• Also received Army Medal of Honor
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Chateau-Thierry, France, 6 June 1918. Immediately after the company to which G/Sgt. Janson belonged, had reached its objective on Hill 142, several hostile counterattacks were launched against the line before the new position had been consolidated. G/Sgt. Janson was attempting to organize a position on the north slope of the hill when he saw 12 of the enemy, armed with 5 light machineguns, crawling toward his group. Giving the alarm, he rushed the hostile detachment, bayoneted the 2 leaders, and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. His quick action, initiative and courage drove the enemy from a position from which they could have swept the hill with machinegun fire and forced the withdrawal of our troops.

JOHNSON, HENRY
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 369th Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces
• Place and Date: Argonne Forest, Champagne, France | May 15, 1918
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private Johnson distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company C, 369th Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces, during combat operations against the enemy on the front lines of the Western Front in France on May 15, 1918. Private Johnson and another soldier were on sentry duty at a forward outpost when they received a surprise attack from a German raiding party consisting of at least 12 soldiers. While under intense enemy fire and despite receiving significant wounds, Private Johnson mounted a brave retaliation, resulting in several enemy casualties. When his fellow soldier was badly wounded, Private Johnson prevented him from being taken prisoner by German forces. Private Johnson exposed himself to grave danger by advancing from his position to engage an enemy soldier in hand-to-hand combat. Wielding only a knife and gravely wounded himself, Private Johnson continued fighting and took his Bolo knife and stabbed it through an enemy soldier’s head. Displaying great courage, Private Johnson held back the enemy force until they retreated. Private Johnson’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.

JOHNSTON, HAROLD I.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Private First Class), U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 9 November 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Sgt. Johnston, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location of the enemy. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return. This was accomplished after a severe struggle which so exhausted him that he had to be assisted from the water, after which he rendered his report of the exploit.

KARNES, JAMES E.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Estrees, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Knoxville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: During an advance, his company was held up by a machinegun, which was enfilading the line. Accompanied by another soldier, he advanced against this position and succeeded in reducing the nest by killing 3 and capturing 7 of the enemy and their guns.

KATZ, PHILLIP C.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 363d Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his company had withdrawn for a distance of 200 yards on a line with the units on its flanks, Sgt. Katz learned that one of his comrades had been left wounded in an exposed position at the point from which the withdrawal had taken place. Voluntarily crossing an area swept by heavy machinegun fire, he advanced to where the wounded soldier lay and carried him to a place of safety.
KAUFMAN, BENJAMIN
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: In the forest of Argonne, France, 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: He took out a patrol for the purpose of attacking an enemy machinegun which had checked the advance of his company. Before reaching the gun he became separated from his patrol and a machinegun bullet shattered his right arm. Without hesitation he advanced on the gun alone, throwing grenades with his left hand and charging with an empty pistol, taking one prisoner and scattering the crew, bringing the gun and prisoner back to the first-aid station.
KELLY, JOHN JOSEPH
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps, 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Pvt. Kelly ran through our own barrage 100 yards in advance of the front line and attacked an enemy machinegun nest, killing the gunner with a grenade, shooting another member of the crew with his pistol, and returning through the barrage with 8 prisoners.
Navy Medal
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division, in action with the enemy at Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918. Pvt. Kelly ran through our own barrage a hundred yards in advance of the front line and attacked an enemy machinegun nest, killing the gunner with a grenade, shooting another member of the crew with his pistol, and returning through the barrage with 8 prisoners.

*KOCAK, MATEJ
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: When the advance of his battalion was checked by a hidden machinegun nest, he went forward alone, unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in between the German positions in the face of fire from enemy covering detachments. Locating the machinegun nest, he rushed it and with his bayonet drove off the crew. Shortly after this he organized 25 French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in attacking another machinegun nest, which was also put out of action.
Navy Medal
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, in action in the Viller-Cottertes section, south of Soissons, France, 18 July 1918. When a hidden machinegun nest halted the advance of his battalion, Sgt. Kocak went forward alone unprotected by covering fire and worked his way in between the German positions in the face of heavy enemy fire. Rushing the enemy position with his bayonet, he drove off the crew. Later the same day, Sgt. Kocak organized French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in an attack on another machinegun nest which was also put out of action.

LATHAM, JOHN CRIDLAND
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Rutherford, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Latham, Sgt. Alan L. Eggers, and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shellhole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area, Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted 2 wounded soldiers to cover in the sap of a nearby trench. Sgts. Latham and Eggers then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it with the wounded men back to our lines under cover of darkness.

*LEMERT, MILO
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Crossville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing that the left flank of his company was held up, he located the enemy machinegun emplacement, which had been causing heavy casualties. In the face of heavy fire he rushed it single-handed, killing the entire crew with grenades. Continuing along the enemy trench in advance of the company, he reached another emplacement, which he also charged, silencing the gun with grenades. A third machinegun emplacement opened up on him from the left and with similar skill and bravery he destroyed this also. Later, in company with another sergeant, he attacked a fourth machinegun nest, being killed as he reached the parapet of the emplacement. His courageous action in destroying in turn 4 enemy machinegun nests prevented many casualties among his company and very materially aided in achieving the objective.

LOMAN, BERGER
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company H, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Consenvoye, France, 9 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: When his company had reached a point within 100 yards of its objective, to which it was advancing under terrific machinegun fire, Pvt. Loman voluntarily and unaided made his way forward after all others had taken shelter from the direct fire of an enemy machinegun. He crawled to a flank position of the gun and, after killing or capturing the entire crew, turned the machinegun on the retreating enemy.

*LUKE, FRANK, JR.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 27th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Murvaux, France, 29 September 1918 (Air Mission)
• Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After having previously destroyed a number of enemy aircraft within 17 days he voluntarily started on a patrol after German observation balloons. Though pursued by 8 German planes which were protecting the enemy balloon line, he unhesitatingly attacked and shot down in flames 3 German balloons, being himself under heavy fire from ground batteries and the hostile planes. Severely wounded, he descended to within 50 meters of the ground, and flying at this low altitude near the town of Murvaux opened fire upon enemy troops, killing 6 and wounding as many more. Forced to make a landing and surrounded on all sides by the enemy, who called upon him to surrender, he drew his automatic pistol and defended himself gallantly until he fell dead from a wound in the chest.

LYLE, ALEXANDER GORDON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: Massachusetts
• Other Navy award: Legion of Merit
Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps. Under heavy shellfire, on 23 April 1918, on the French Front, Lt. Comdr. Lyle rushed to the assistance of Cpl. Thomas Regan, who was seriously wounded, and administered such effective surgical aid while bombardment was still continuing, as to save the life of Cpl. Regan.

MacKENZlE, JOHN
• Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Massachusetts
• G.O. No.: 391, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the U.S.S. Remlik, on the morning of 17 December 1917, when the Remlik encountered a heavy gale. During this gale, there was a heavy sea running. The depth charge box on the taffrail aft, containing a Sperry depth charge, was washed overboard, the depth charge itself falling inboard and remaining on deck. MacKenzie, on his own initiative, went aft and sat down on the depth charge, as it was impracticable to carry it to safety until the ship was headed up into the sea. In acting as he did, MacKenzie exposed his life and prevented a serious accident to the ship and probable loss of the ship and the entire crew.

MADISON, JAMES JONAS
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Naval Reserve Force
• Appointed from: Mississippi
Citation: For exceptionally heroic service in a position of great responsibility as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Ticonderoga, when, on 4 October 1918, that vessel was attacked by an enemy submarine and was sunk after a prolonged and gallant resistance. The submarine opened fire at a range of 500 yards, the first shots taking effect on the bridge and forecastle, 1 of the 2 forward guns of the Ticonderoga being disabled by the second shot. The fire was returned and the fight continued for nearly 2 hours. Lt. Comdr. Madison was severely wounded early in the fight, but caused himself to be placed in a chair on the bridge and continued to direct the fire and to maneuver the ship. When the order was finally given to abandon the sinking ship, he became unconscious from loss of blood, but was lowered into a lifeboat and was saved, with 31 others, out of a total number of 236 on board.

MALLON, GEORGE H.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from the balance of his company because of a fog, Capt. Mallon, with 9 soldiers, pushed forward and attacked 9 active hostile machineguns, capturing all of them without the loss of a man. Continuing on through the woods, he led his men in attacking a battery of four 155-millimeter howitzers, which were in action, rushing the position and capturing the battery and its crew. In this encounter Capt. Mallon personally attacked 1 of the enemy with his fists. Later, when the party came upon 2 more machineguns, this officer sent men to the flanks while he rushed forward directly in the face of the fire and silenced the guns, being the first one of the party to reach the nest. The exceptional gallantry and determination displayed by Capt. Mallon resulted in the capture of 100 prisoners, 11 machineguns, four 155-millimeter howitzers and 1 antiaircraft gun.

MANNING, SIDNEY E.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company G, 167th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Breuvannes, France, 28 July 1918
• Entering service at: Flomaton, Ala.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: When his platoon commander and platoon sergeant had both become casualties soon after the beginning of an assault on strongly fortified heights overlooking the Ourcq River, Cpl. Manning took command of his platoon, which was near the center of the attacking line. Though himself severely wounded he led forward the 35 men remaining in the platoon and finally succeeded in gaining a foothold on the enemy’s position, during which time he had received more wounds and all but 7 of his men had fallen. Directing the consolidation of the position, he held off a large body of the enemy only 50 yards away by fire from his automatic rifle. He declined to take cover until his line had been entirely consolidated with the line of the platoon on the front when he dragged himself to shelter, suffering from 9 wounds in all parts of the body.

McGUNIGAL, PATRICK
• Rank and organization: Shipfitter First Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Ohio
• G.O. No.: 341, 1917
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Huntington. On the morning of 17 September 1917, while the U.S.S. Huntington was passing through the war zone, a kite balloon was sent up with Lt. (j.g.) H. W. Hoyt, U.S. Navy, as observer. When the balloon was about 400 feet in the air, the temperature suddenly dropped, causing the balloon to descend about 200 feet, when it was struck by a squall. The balloon was hauled to the ship’s side, but the basket trailed in the water and the pilot was submerged. McGunigal, with great daring, climbed down the side of the ship, jumped to the ropes leading to the basket, and cleared the tangle enough to get the pilot out of them. He then helped the pilot to get clear, put a bowline around him, and enabled him to be hauled to the deck. A bowline was lowered to McGunigal and he was taken safely aboard.

McMURTRY, GEORGE G.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: At Charlevaux, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: Commanded a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy and although wounded in the knee by shrapnel on 4 October and suffering great pain, he continued throughout the entire period to encourage his officers and men with a resistless optimism that contributed largely toward preventing panic and disorder among the troops, who were without food, cut off from communication with our lines. On 4 October during a heavy barrage, he personally directed and supervised the moving of the wounded to shelter before himself seeking shelter. On 6 October he was again wounded in the shoulder by a German grenade, but continued personally to organize and direct the defense against the German attack on the position until the attack was defeated. He continued to direct and command his troops, refusing relief, and personally led his men out of the position after assistance arrived before permitting himself to be taken to the hospital on 8 October. During this period the successful defense of the position was due largely to his efforts.

*MESTROVITCH, JAMES I.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 111th Infantry, 28th Division
• Place and date: At Fismette, France, 10 August 1918
• Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing his company commander Iying wounded 30 yards in front of the line after his company had withdrawn to a sheltered position behind a stone wall, Sgt. Mestrovitch voluntarily left cover and crawled through heavy machinegun and shell fire to where the officer lay. He took the officer upon his back and crawled to a place of safety, where he administered first-aid treatment, his exceptional heroism saving the officer’s life.

MILES, L. WARDLAW
• Rank and organization. Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near Revillon, France, 14 September 1918
• Entered service at: Princeton, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: Volunteered to lead his company in a hazardous attack on a commanding trench position near the Aisne Canal, which other troops had previously attempted to take without success. His company immediately met with intense machinegun fire, against which it had no artillery assistance, but Capt. Miles preceded the first wave and assisted in cutting a passage through the enemy’s wire entanglements. In so doing he was wounded 5 times by machinegun bullets, both legs and 1 arm being fractured, whereupon he ordered himself placed on a stretcher and had himself carried forward to the enemy trench in order that he might encourage and direct his company, which by this time had suffered numerous casualties. Under the inspiration of this officer’s indomitable spirit his men held the hostile position and consolidated the front line after an action lasting 2 hours, at the conclusion of which Capt. Miles was carried to the aid station against his will.

*MILLER, OSCAR F.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 361st Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Gesnes, France, 28 September 1918
• Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D. 1919
Citation: After 2 days of intense physical and mental strain, during which Maj. Miller had led his battalion in the front line of the advance through the forest of Argonne, the enemy was met in a prepared position south of Gesnes. Though almost exhausted, he energetically reorganized his battalion and ordered an attack. Upon reaching open ground the advancing line began to waver in the face of machinegun fire from the front and flanks and direct artillery fire. Personally leading his command group forward between his front-line companies, Maj. Miller inspired his men by his personal courage, and they again pressed on toward the hostile position. As this officer led the renewed attack he was shot in the right leg, but he nevertheless staggered forward at the head of his command. Soon afterwards he was again shot in the right arm, but he continued the charge, personally cheering his troops on through the heavy machinegun fire. Just before the objective was reached he received a wound in the abdomen, which forced him to the ground, but he continued to urge his men on, telling them to push on to the next ridge and leave him where he lay. He died from his wounds a few days later.

MORELOCK, STERLING
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company M, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Exermont, France, 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: Oquawka, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 43, W.D., 1922
Citation: While his company was being held up by heavy enemy fire, Pvt. Morelock, with 3 other men who were acting as runners at company headquarters, voluntarily led them as a patrol in advance of his company’s frontline through an intense rifle, artillery, and machinegun fire and penetrated a woods which formed the German frontline. Encountering a series of 5 hostile machinegun nests, containing from 1 to 5 machineguns each, with his patrol he cleaned them all out, gained and held complete mastery of the situation until the arrival of his company commander with reinforcements, even though his entire party had become casualties. He rendered first aid to the injured and evacuated them by using stretcher bearers 10 German prisoners whom he had captured. Soon thereafter his company commander was wounded and while dressing his wound Pvt. Morelock was very severely wounded in the hip, which forced his evacuation. His heroic action and devotion to duty were an inspiration to the entire regiment.

NEIBAUR, THOMAS C.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company M, 167th 1 Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 16 October 1918
• Entered service at: Sugar City, Idaho.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: On the afternoon of 16 October 1918, when the Cote-de-Chatillion had just been gained after bitter fighting and the summit of that strong bulwark in the Kriemhilde Stellung was being organized, Pvt. Neibaur was sent out on patrol with his automatic rifle squad to enfilade enemy machinegun nests. As he gained the ridge he set up his automatic rifle and was directly thereafter wounded in both legs by fire from a hostile machinegun on his flank. The advance wave of the enemy troops, counterattacking, had about gained the ridge, and although practically cut off and surrounded, the remainder of his detachment being killed or wounded, this gallant soldier kept his automatic rifle in operation to such effect that by his own efforts and by fire from the skirmish line of his company, at least 100 yards in his rear, the attack was checked. The enemy wave being halted and Iying prone, 4 of the enemy attacked Pvt. Neibaur at close quarters. These he killed. He then moved alone among the enemy Iying on the ground about him, in the midst of the fire from his own lines, and by coolness and gallantry captured 11 prisoners at the point of his pistol and, although painfully wounded, brought them back to our lines. The counterattack in full force was arrested to a large extent by the single efforts of this soldier, whose heroic exploits took place against the skyline in full view of his entire battalion.
Note1: The U.S. Senate report which is the source for these citations indicates that Private Niebaur’s service for this award was with the 107th Infantry, part of the 42d Division. The 107th Infantry Regiment, however, was not a part of the 42d Division. The award citation was originally published in War Department General Orders 118, 1918, and shows Private Niebaur’s unit as the 167th Infantry (which was an element of the 42d Division). Based on this evidence, it appears that the Senate report contains a typographical error, and the citation posted here has been changed to reflect the unit as the 107th Infantry, as listed in the General Orders. (CMH Website Operations)

O’NEILL, RICHARD W.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: On the Ourcq River, France, 30 July 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 30, W.D., 1921
Citation: In advance of an assaulting line, he attacked a detachment of about 25 of the enemy. In the ensuing hand-to-hand encounter he sustained pistol wounds, but heroically continued in the advance, during which he received additional wounds: but, with great physical effort, he remained in active command of his detachment. Being again wounded, he was forced by weakness and loss of blood to be evacuated, but insisted upon being taken first to the battalion commander in order to transmit to him valuable information relative to enemy positions and the disposition of our men.

ORMSBEE, FRANCIS EDWARD, JR.
• Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Florida
• G.O. No.: 436, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., on 25 September 1918. While flying with Ens. J. A. Jova, Ormsbee saw a plane go into a tailspin and crash about three-quarters of a mile to the right. Having landed near by, Ormsbee lost no time in going overboard and made for the wreck, which was all under water except the 2 wing tips. He succeeded in partially extricating the gunner so that his head was out of water, and held him in this position until the speedboat arrived. Ormsbee then made a number of desperate attempts to rescue the pilot, diving into the midst of the tangled wreckage although cut about the hands, but was too late to save his life.

*OSBORNE, WEEDON E.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: Illinois
• Entered
• Other
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy and under fire during the advance on Bouresche, France, on 6 June 1918. In the hottest of the fighting when the marines made their famous advance on Bouresche at the southern edge of Belleau Wood, Lt (j.g.). Osborne threw himself zealously into the work of rescuing the wounded. Extremely courageous in the performance of this perilous task, he was killed while carrying a wounded officer to a place of safety.

*O’SHEA, THOMAS E.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Summit, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Cpl. O’Shea, with 2 other soldiers, took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded and died of his wounds shortly afterwards.

PARKER, SAMUEL I.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18-19 July 1918
• Entered service at: Monroe, N.C.
• G.O. No.: 1, W.D. 1937
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. During the attack the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 28th Infantry were merged, and after several hours of severe fighting, successfully established a frontline position. In so doing, a gap was left between the right flank of the French 153d Division on their left and the left flank of the 28th Infantry, exposing the left flank to a terrific enfilade fire from several enemy machineguns located in a rock quarry on high ground. 2d Lt. Parker, observing this serious situation, ordered his depleted platoon to follow him in an attack upon the strong point. Meeting a disorganized group of French Colonials wandering leaderlessly about, he persuaded them to join his platoon. This consolidated group followed 2d Lt. Parker through direct enemy rifle and machinegun fire to the crest of the hill, and rushing forward, took the quarry by storm, capturing 6 machineguns and about 40 prisoners. The next day when the assault was continued, 2d Lt. Parker in command of the merged 2d and 3d Battalions was in support of the 1st Battalion. Although painfully wounded in the foot, he refused to be evacuated and continued to lead his command until the objective was reached. Seeing that the assault battalion was subjected to heavy enfilade fire due to a gap between it and the French on its left, 2d Lt. Parker led his battalion through this heavy fire up on the line to the left of the 1st Battalion and thereby closed the gap, remaining in command of his battalion until the newly established lines of the 28th Infantry were thoroughly consolidated. In supervising the consolidation of the new position, 2d Lt. Parker was compelled to crawl about on his hands and knees on account of his painful wound. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.

PECK, ARCHIE A.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 307th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: In the Argonne Forest, France, 6 October 1918
• Entered service at: Hornell, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While engaged with 2 other soldiers on patrol duty, he and his comrades were subjected to the direct fire of an enemy machinegun, at which time both his companions were wounded. Returning to his company, he obtained another soldier to accompany him to assist in bringing in the wounded men. His assistant was killed in the exploit, but he continued on, twice returning safely bringing in both men, being under terrific machinegun fire during the entire Journey.

*PERKINS, MICHAEL J.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 101st Infantry, 26th Division
• Place and date: At Belieu Bois, France, 27 October 1918
• Entered service at: Boston, Mass.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D. 1919
Citation: He, voluntarily and alone, crawled to a German “pill box” machinegun emplacement, from which grenades were being thrown at his platoon. Awaiting his opportunity, when the door was again opened and another grenade thrown, he threw a bomb inside, bursting the door open, and then, drawing his trench knife, rushed into the emplacement. In a hand-to-hand struggle he killed or wounded several of the occupants and captured about 25 prisoners, at the same time silencing 7 machineguns.

PETTY, ORLANDO HENDERSON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), USNRF
• Appointed from: Pennsylvania
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in France during the attack in the Boise de Belleau, 11 June 1918. While under heavy fire of high explosive and gas shells in the town of Lucy, where his dressing station was located, Lt. Petty attended to and evacuated the wounded under most trying conditions. Having been knocked to the ground by an exploding gas shell which tore his mask, Lt. Petty discarded the mask and courageously continued his work. His dressing station being hit and demolished, he personally helped carry Capt. Williams, wounded, through the shellfire to a place of safety.

*PIKE, EMORY J.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, Division Machinegun Officer, 82d Division
• Place and date: Near Vandieres, France, 15 September 1918
• Entered service at: Des Moines, Iowa
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Having gone forward to reconnoiter new machinegun positions, Lt. Col. Pike offered his assistance in reorganizing advance infantry units which had become disorganized during a heavy artillery shelling. He succeeded in locating only about 20 men, but with these he advanced and when later joined by several infantry platoons rendered inestimable service in establishing outposts, encouraging all by his cheeriness, in spite of the extreme danger of the situation. When a shell had wounded one of the men in the outpost, Lt. Col. Pike immediately went to his aid and was severely wounded himself when another shell burst in the same place. While waiting to be brought to the rear, Lt. Col. Pike continued in command, still retaining his jovial manner of encouragement, directing the reorganization until the position could be held. The entire operation was carried on under terrific bombardment, and the example of courage and devotion to duty, as set by Lt. Col. Pike, established the highest standard of morale and confidence to all under his charge. The wounds he received were the cause of his death.

POPE, THOMAS A.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company E, 131st Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Hamel, France, 4 July 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: His company was advancing behind the tanks when it was halted by hostile machinegun fire. Going forward alone, he rushed a machinegun nest, killed several of the crew with his bayonet, and, standing astride his gun, held off the others until reinforcements arrived and captured them.

*PRUITT, JOHN HENRY
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918
• Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz.
• G.O. No.: 62, W.D., 1919
Citation: Cpl. Pruitt single-handed attacked 2 machineguns, capturing them and killing 2 of the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners in a dugout nearby. This gallant soldier was killed soon afterward by shellfire while he was sniping at the enemy.
Navy Medal
Citation: For extraordinary gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division, in action with the enemy at Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918. Cpl. Pruitt, single-handed attacked 2 machineguns, capturing them and killing 2 of the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners in a dugout nearby. This gallant soldier was killed soon afterward by shellfire while he was sniping the enemy.

REGAN, PATRICK
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 115th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: Bois-de-Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: While leading his platoon against a strong enemy machinegun nest which had held up the advance of 2 companies, 2d Lt. Regan divided his men into 3 groups, sending 1 group to either flank, and he himself attacking with an automatic rifle team from the front. Two of the team were killed outright, while 2d Lt. Regan and the third man were seriously wounded, the latter unable to advance. Although severely wounded, 2d Lt. Regan dashed with empty pistol into the machinegun nest, capturing 30 Austrian gunners and 4 machineguns. This gallant deed permitted the companies to advance, avoiding a terrific enemy fire. Despite his wounds, he continued to lead his platoon forward until ordered to the rear by his commanding officer.

RICKENBACKER, EDWARD V. (Air Mission)
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 94th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Billy, France, 25 September 1918
• Entered service at: Columbus, Ohio.
• G.O. No.: 2, W.D., 1931
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy near Billy, France, 25 September 1918. While on a voluntary patrol over the lines, 1st Lt. Rickenbacker attacked 7 enemy planes (5 type Fokker, protecting two type Halberstadt). Disregarding the odds against him, he dived on them and shot down one of the Fokkers out of control. He then attacked one of the Halberstadts and sent it down also.

ROBB, GEORGE S.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 369th Infantry, 93d Division
• Place and date: Near Sechault, France, 29-30 September 1918
• Entered service at: Salina, Kans.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While leading his platoon in the assault 1st Lt. Robb was severely wounded by machinegun fire, but rather than go to the rear for proper treatment he remained with his platoon until ordered to the dressing station by his commanding officer. Returning within 45 minutes, he remained on duty throughout the entire night, inspecting his lines and establishing outposts. Early the next morning he was again wounded, once again displaying his remarkable devotion to duty by remaining in command of his platoon. Later the same day a bursting shell added 2 more wounds, the same shell killing his commanding officer and 2 officers of his company. He then assumed command of the company and organized its position in the trenches. Displaying wonderful courage and tenacity at the critical times, he was the only officer of his battalion who advanced beyond the town, and by clearing machinegun and sniping posts contributed largely to the aid of his battalion in holding their objective. His example of bravery and fortitude and his eagerness to continue with his mission despite severe wounds set before the enlisted men of his command a most wonderful standard of morale and self-sacrifice.

*ROBERTS, HAROLD W.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company A, 344th Battalion, Tank Corps
• Place and date: In the Montrebeau Woods France 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Cpl. Roberts, a tank driver, was moving his tank into a clump of bushes to afford protection to another tank which had become disabled. The tank slid into a shell hole, 10 feet deep, filled with water, and was immediately submerged. Knowing that only 1 of the 2 men in the tank could escape, Cpl. Roberts said to the gunner, “Well, only one of us can get out, and out you go,” whereupon he pushed his companion through the back door of the tank and was himself drowned.

ROBINSON, ROBERT GUY
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 1st Marine Aviation Force
• Place and date: Pittham, Belgium, 14 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as observer in the 1st Marine Aviation Force at the front in France. In company with planes from Squadron 218, Royal Air Force, conducting an air raid on 8 October 1918, G/Sgt. Robinson’s plane was attacked by 9 enemy scouts. In the fight which followed, he shot down 1 of the enemy planes. In a later air raid over Pittham, Belgium, on 14 October 1918, his plane and 1 other became separated from their formation on account of motor trouble and were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. Acting with conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in the fight which ensued, G/Sgt. Robinson, after shooting down 1 of the enemy planes, was struck by a bullet which carried away most of his elbow. At the same time his gun jammed. While his pilot maneuvered for position, he cleared the jam with one hand and returned to the fight. Although his left arm was useless, he fought off the enemy scouts until he collapsed after receiving 2 more bullet wounds, one in the stomach and one in the thigh.

SAMPLER, SAMUEL M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 142d Infantry, 36th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Etienne, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Altus, Okla.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: His company having suffered severe casualties during an advance under machinegun fire, was finally stopped. Cpl. Sampler detected the position of the enemy machineguns on an elevation. Armed with German handgrenades, which he had picked up, he left the line and rushed forward in the face of heavy fire until he was near the hostile nest, where he grenaded the position. His third grenade landed among the enemy, killing 2, silencing the machineguns, and causing the surrender of 28 Germans, whom he sent to the rear as prisoners. As a result of his act the company was immediately enabled to resume the advance.

SANDLIN, WILLIE
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Bois-de-Forges, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Hyden, Ky.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: He showed conspicuous gallantry in action by advancing alone directly on a machinegun nest which was holding up the line with its fire. He killed the crew with a grenade and enabled the line to advance. Later in the day he attacked alone and put out of action 2 other machinegun nests, setting a splendid example of bravery and coolness to his men.

*SAWELSON, WILLIAM
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division
• Place and date: At Grand-Pre, France, 26 October, 1918
• Entered service at: Harrison, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.

SCHAFFNER, DWITE H.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 306th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Hubert’s Pavillion, Boureuilles, France, 28 September 1918
• Entered service at: Falls Creek, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 15, W.D., 1923
Citation: He led his men in an attack on St. Hubert’s Pavillion through terrific enemy machinegun, rifle, and artillery fire and drove the enemy from a strongly held entrenched position after hand-to-hand fighting. His bravery and contempt for danger inspired his men, enabling them to hold fast in the face of 3 determined enemy counterattacks. His company’s position being exposed to enemy fire from both flanks, he made 3 efforts to locate an enemy machinegun which had caused heavy casualties. On his third reconnaissance he discovered the gun position and personally silenced the gun, killing or wounding the crew. The third counterattack made by the enemy was initiated by the appearance of a small detachment in advance of the enemy attacking wave. When almost within reach of the American front line the enemy appeared behind them, attacking vigorously with pistols, rifles, and handgrenades, causing heavy casualties in the American platoon. 1st Lt. Schaffner mounted the parapet of the trench and used his pistol and grenades killing a number of enemy soldiers, finally reaching the enemy officer leading the attacking forces, a captain, shooting and mortally wounding the latter with his pistol, and dragging the captured officer back to the company’s trench, securing from him valuable information as to the enemy’s strength and position. The information enabled 1st Lt. Schaffner to maintain for S hours the advanced position of his company despite the fact that it was surrounded on 3 sides by strong enemy forces. The undaunted bravery, gallant soldierly conduct, and leadership displayed by 1st Lt. Schaffner undoubtedly saved the survivors of the company from death or capture.

SCHMIDT, OSCAR, JR.
• Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: At sea, 9 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pennsylvania
• G.O. No.: 450, 1919
Citation: For gallant conduct and extraordinary heroism while attached to the U.S.S. Chestnut Hill, on the occasion of the explosion and subsequent fire on board the U.S. submarine chaser 219. Schmidt, seeing a man, whose legs were partly blown off, hanging on a line from the bow of the 219, jumped overboard, swam to the sub chaser and carried him from the bow to the stern where a member of the 219’s crew helped him land the man on the afterdeck of the submarine. Schmidt then endeavored to pass through the flames amidships to get another man who was seriously burned. This he was unable to do, but when the injured man fell overboard and drifted to the stern of the chaser Schmidt helped him aboard.

SEIBERT, LLOYD M.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 364th Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Epinonville, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Salinas, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 445, W.D., 1919
Citation. Suffering from illness, Sgt. Seibert remained with his platoon and led his men with the highest courage and leadership under heavy shell and machinegun fire. With 2 other soldiers he charged a machinegun emplacement in advance of their company, he himself killing one of the enemy with a shotgun and capturing 2 others. In this encounter he was wounded, but he nevertheless continued in action, and when a withdrawal was ordered he returned with the last unit, assisting a wounded comrade. Later in the evening he volunteered and carried in wounded until he fainted from exhaustion.

SHEMIN, WILLIAM
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 47th Infantry, 4th Division, American Expeditionary Force
• Place and date: Vesle River, South East of Bazoches, France | August 7-9, 1918
Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:Sergeant Shemin distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Rifleman with G Company, 2d Battalion, 47th Infantry Regiment, 4th Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy on the Vesle River, near Bazoches, France from August 7 to August 9, 1918. Sergeant Shemin left cover and crossed open space, repeatedly exposing himself to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, to rescue wounded. After Officers and Senior Noncommissioned Officers had become casualties, Sergeant Shemin took command of the platoon and displayed great initiative under fire until wounded on August 9. Sergeant Shemin�s extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.

SIEGEL, JOHN OTTO
• Rank and organization Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: New Jersey
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the Mohawk in performing a rescue mission aboard the schooner Hjeltenaes which was in flames on 1 November 1918. Going aboard the blazing vessel, Siegel rescued 2 men from the crew’s quarters and went back the third time. Immediately after he had entered the crew’s quarters, a steam pipe over the door bursted, making it impossible for him to escape. Siegel was overcome with smoke and fell to the deck, being finally rescued by some of the crew of the Mohawk who carried him out and rendered first aid.

*SKINKER, ALEXANDER R.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 138th Infantry, 35th Division
• Place and date: At Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo.
• G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919
Citation: Unwilling to sacrifice his men when his company was held up by terrific machinegun fire from iron pill boxes in the Hindenburg Line, Capt. Skinker personally led an automatic rifleman and a carrier in an attack on the machineguns. The carrier was killed instantly, but Capt. Skinker seized the ammunition and continued through an opening in the barbed wire, feeding the automatic rifle until he, too, was killed.

SLACK, CLAYTON K.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 124th Machine Gun Battalion, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918.
• Entered service at: Madison, Wis.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Observing German soldiers under cover 50 yards away on the left flank, Pvt. Slack, upon his own initiative, rushed them with his rifle and, single-handed, captured 10 prisoners and 2 heavy-type machineguns, thus saving his company and neighboring organizations from heavy casualties.

*SMITH, FRED E.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near Binarville, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Bartlett, N. Dak.
• G.O. NO.: 49, W.D., 1922
Citation: When communication from the forward regimental post of command to the battalion leading the advance had been interrupted temporarily by the infiltration of small parties of the enemy armed with machineguns, Lt. Col. Smith personally led a party of 2 other officers and 10 soldiers, and went forward to reestablish runner posts and carry ammunition to the front line. The guide became confused and the party strayed to the left flank beyond the outposts of supporting troops, suddenly coming under fire from a group of enemy machineguns only 50 yards away. Shouting to the other members of his party to take cover this officer, in disregard of his danger, drew his pistol and opened fire on the German guncrew. About this time he fell, severely wounded in the side, but regaining his footing, he continued to fire on the enemy until most of the men in his party were out of danger. Refusing first-aid treatment he then made his way in plain view of the enemy to a handgrenade dump and returned under continued heavy machinegun fire for the purpose of making another attack on the enemy emplacements. As he was attempting to ascertain the exact location of the nearest nest, he again fell, mortally wounded.

*STOCKHAM, FRED W. (Army Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 96th Company, 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment
• Place and date: In Bois-de-Belleau, France, 13-14 June 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
Citation: During an intense enemy bombardment with high explosive and gas shells which wounded or killed many members of the company, G/Sgt. Stockham, upon noticing that the gas mask of a wounded comrade was shot away, without hesitation, removed his own gas mask and insisted upon giving it to the wounded man, well knowing that the effects of the gas would be fatal to himself. He continued with undaunted courage and valor to direct and assist in the evacuation of the wounded, until he himself collapsed from the effects of gas, dying as a result thereof a few days later. His courageous conduct undoubtedly saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades and his conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to all who served with him.

*STOWERS, FREDDIE
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division
Citation: Corporal Stowers, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism on 28 September 1918 while serving as a squad leader in Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division. His company was the lead company during the attack on Hill 188, Champagne Marne Sector, France, during World War I. A few minutes after the attack began, the enemy ceased firing and began climbing up onto the parapets of the trenches, holding up their arms as if wishing to surrender. The enemy’s actions caused the American forces to cease fire and to come out into the open. As the company started forward and when within about 100 meters of the trench line, the enemy jumped back into their trenches and greeted Corporal Stowers’ company with interlocking bands of machine gun fire and mortar fire causing well over fifty percent casualties. Faced with incredible enemy resistance, Corporal Stowers took charge, setting such a courageous example of personal bravery and leadership that he inspired his men to follow him in the attack. With extraordinary heroism and complete disregard of personal danger under devastating fire, he crawled forward leading his squad toward an enemy machine gun nest, which was causing heavy casualties to his company. After fierce fighting, the machine gun position was destroyed and the enemy soldiers were killed. Displaying great courage and intrepidity Corporal Stowers continued to press the attack against a determined enemy. While crawling forward and urging his men to continue the attack on a second trench line, he was gravely wounded by machine gun fire. Although Corporal Stowers was mortally wounded, he pressed forward, urging on the members of his squad, until he died. Inspired by the heroism and display of bravery of Corporal Stowers, his company continued the attack against incredible odds, contributing to the capture of Hill 188 and causing heavy enemy casualties. Corporal Stowers’ conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and supreme devotion to his men were well above and beyond the call of duty, follow the finest traditions of military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army.

SULLIVAN, DANIEL AUGUSTUS JOSEPH
• Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Force
• Appointed from: South Carolina
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as an officer of the U.S.S. Cristabel in conflict with an enemy submarine on 21 May 1918. As a result of the explosion of a depth bomb dropped near the submarine, the Christabel was so badly shaken that a number of depth charges which had been set for firing were thrown about the deck and there was imminent danger that they would explode. Ens. Sullivan immediately fell on the depth charges and succeeded in securing them, thus saving the ship from disaster, which would inevitably have caused great loss of life.

*TALBOT, RALPH
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps
• Appointed from: Connecticut
Citation: For exceptionally meritorious service and extraordinary heroism while attached to Squadron C, 1st Marine Aviation Force, in France. 2d Lt. Talbot participated in numerous air raids into enemy territory. On 8 October 1918, while on such a raid, he was attacked by 9 enemy scouts, and in the fight that followed shot down an enemy plane. Also, on 14 October 1918, while on a raid over Pittham, Belgium, 2d Lt. Talbot and another plane became detached from the formation on account of motor trouble and were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. During the severe fight that followed, his plane shot down 1 of the enemy scouts. His observer was shot through the elbow and his gun jammed. 2d Lt. Talbot maneuvered to gain time for his observer to clear the jam with one hand, and then returned to the fight. The observer fought until shot twice, once in the stomach and once in the hip and then collapsed, 2d Lt. Talbot attacked the nearest enemy scout with his front guns and shot him down. With his observer unconscious and his motor failing, he dived to escape the balance of the enemy and crossed the German trenches at an altitude of 50 feet, landing at the nearest hospital to leave his observer, and then returning to his aerodrome.

TALLEY, EDWARD R.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company L, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Ponchaux, France, 7 October 1918
• Entered service at: Russellville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: Undeterred by seeing several comrades killed in attempting to put a hostile machinegun nest out of action, Sgt. Talley attacked the position single-handed. Armed only with a rifle, he rushed the nest in the face of intense enemy fire, killed or wounded at least 6 of the crew, and silenced the gun. When the enemy attempted to bring forward another gun and ammunition he drove them back by effective fire from his rifle.

THOMPSON, JOSEPH H.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 110th Infantry, 28th Division
• Place and date: Near Apremont, France, 1 October 1918
• Entered service at: Beaver Falls, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 21, W.D., 1925
Citation: Counterattacked by 2 regiments of the enemy, Maj. Thompson encouraged his battalion in the front line of constantly braving the hazardous fire of machineguns and artillery. His courage was mainly responsible for the heavy repulse of the enemy. Later in the action, when the advance of his assaulting companies was held up by fire from a hostile machinegun nest and all but 1 of the 6 assaulting tanks were disabled, Maj. Thompson, with great gallantry and coolness, rushed forward on foot 3 separate times in advance of the assaulting line, under heavy machinegun and antitank-gun fire, and led the 1 remaining tank to within a few yards of the enemy machinegun nest, which succeeded in reducing it, thereby making it possible for the infantry to advance.

TURNER, HAROLD L.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company F, 142d Infantry, 36th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Etienne, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Seminole, Okla.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his platoon had started the attack Cpl. Turner assisted in organizing a platoon consisting of the battalion scouts, runners, and a detachment of Signal Corps. As second in command of this platoon he fearlessly led them forward through heavy enemy fire, continually encouraging the men. Later he encountered deadly machinegun fire which reduced the strength of his command to but 4 men, and these were obliged to take shelter. The enemy machinegun emplacement, 25 yards distant, kept up a continual fire from 4 machineguns. After the fire had shifted momentarily, Cpl. Turner rushed forward with fixed bayonet and charged the position alone capturing the strong point with a complement of 50 Germans and 1 machineguns. His remarkable display of courage and fearlessness was instrumental in destroying the strong point, the fire from which had blocked the advance of his company.

*TURNER, WILLIAM B.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 105th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 27 September 1918
• Entered service at: Garden City, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 81, W.D., 1919
Citation: He led a small group of men to the attack, under terrific artillery and machinegun fire, after they had become separated from the rest of the company in the darkness. Single-handed he rushed an enemy machinegun which had suddenly opened fire on his group and killed the crew with his pistol. He then pressed forward to another machinegun post 25 yards away and had killed 1 gunner himself by the time the remainder of his detachment arrived and put the gun out of action. With the utmost bravery he continued to lead his men over 3 lines of hostile trenches, cleaning up each one as they advanced, regardless of the fact that he had been wounded 3 times, and killed several of the enemy in hand-to-hand encounters. After his pistol ammunition was exhausted, this gallant officer seized the rifle of a dead soldier, bayoneted several members of a machinegun crew, and shot the other. Upon reaching the fourth-line trench, which was his objective, 1st Lt. Turner captured it with the 9 men remaining in his group and resisted a hostile counterattack until he was finally surrounded and killed.

UPTON, FRANK MONROE
• Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Colorado
• G.O. No.: 403, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H, on 17 April 1918. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Frank M. Upton, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself. Fully realizing the danger from continual explosion of similar powder boxes in the vicinity, he risked his life to save the life of this man.

VALENTE, MICHAEL
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: East of Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Ogdensburg N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1929
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy during the operations against the Hindenburg line, east of Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918. Finding the advance of his organization held up by a withering enemy machinegun fire, Pvt. Valente volunteered to go forward. With utter disregard of his own personal danger, accompanied by another soldier, Pvt. Valente rushed forward through an intense machinegun fire directly upon the enemy nest, killing 2 and capturing 5 of the enemy and silencing the gun. Discovering another machinegun nest close by which was pouring a deadly fire on the American forces, preventing their advance, Pvt. Valente and his companion charged upon this strong point, killing the gunner and putting this machinegun out of action. Without hesitation they jumped into the enemy’s trench, killed 2 and captured 16 German soldiers. Pvt. Valente was later wounded and sent to the rear.

VAN IERSEL, LUDOVICUS M. M.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 9th Infantry, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Mouzon, France, 9 November 1918
• Entered service at: Glen Rock, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: While a member of the reconnaissance patrol, sent out at night to ascertain the condition of a damaged bridge, Sgt. Van Iersel volunteered to lead a party across the bridge in the face of heavy machinegun and rifle fire from a range of only 75 yards. Crawling alone along the debris of the ruined bridge he came upon a trap, which gave away and precipitated him into the water. In spite of the swift current he succeeded in swimming across the stream and found a lodging place among the timbers on the opposite bank. Disregarding the enemy fire, he made a careful investigation of the hostile position by which the bridge was defended and then returned to the other bank of the river, reporting this valuable information to the battalion commander.

VILLEPIGUE, JOHN C.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company M, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, 15 October 1918
• Entered service at. Camden, S.C.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Having been sent out with 2 other soldiers to scout through the village of Vaux-Andigny, he met with strong resistance from enemy machinegun fire, which killed 1 of his men and wounded the other. Continuing his advance without aid 500 yards in advance of his platoon and in the face of machinegun and artillery fire he encountered 4 of the enemy in a dugout, whom he attacked and killed with a handgrenade. Crawling forward to a point 150 yards in advance of his first encounter, he rushed a machinegun nest, killing 4 and capturing 6 of the enemy and taking 2 light machineguns. After being joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm.

WAALER, REIDAR
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Machine-Gun Battalion, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 27 September 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.. 5, W.D., 1920
Citation: In the face of heavy artillery and machinegun fire, he crawled forward to a burning British tank, in which some of the crew were imprisoned, and succeeded in rescuing 2 men. Although the tank was then burning fiercely and contained ammunition which was likely to explode at any time, this soldier immediately returned to the tank and, entering it, made a search for the other occupants, remaining until he satisfied himself that there were no more living men in the tank.

WARD, CALVIN JOHN
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Estrees, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Morristown, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: During an advance, Pvt. Ward’s company was held up by a machinegun, which was enfilading the line. Accompanied by a noncommissioned officer, he advanced against this post and succeeded in reducing the nest by killing 3 and capturing 7 of the enemy and their guns.

WEST, CHESTER H.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 363d Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-de-Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Los Banos, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: While making his way through a thick fog with his automatic rifle section, his advance was halted by direct and unusual machinegun fire from 2 guns. Without aid, he at once dashed through the fire and, attacking the nest, killed 2 of the gunners, 1 of whom was an officer. This prompt and decisive hand-to-hand encounter on his part enabled his company to advance farther without the loss of a man.

WHITTLESEY, CHARLES W.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne France, 2-7 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pittsfield, Mass.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: Although cut off for 5 days from the remainder of his division, Maj. Whittlesey maintained his position, which he had reached under orders received for an advance, and held his command, consisting originally of 46 officers and men of the 308th Infantry and of Company K of the 307th Infantry, together in the face of superior numbers of the enemy during the 5 days. Maj. Whittlesey and his command were thus cut off, and no rations or other supplies reached him, in spite of determined efforts which were made by his division. On the 4th day Maj. Whittlesey received from the enemy a written proposition to surrender, which he treated with contempt, although he was at the time out of rations and had suffered a loss of about 50 percent in killed and wounded of his command and was surrounded by the enemy.

*WICKERSHAM, J. HUNTER
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 353d Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date. Near Limey, France, 12 September 1918
• Entered service at: Denver, Colo.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Advancing with his platoon during the St. Mihiel offensive, he was severely wounded in 4 places by the bursting of a high-explosive shell. Before receiving any aid for himself he dressed the wounds of his orderly, who was wounded at the same time. He then ordered and accompanied the further advance of his platoon, although weakened by the loss of blood. His right hand and arm being disabled by wounds, he continued to fire his revolver with his left hand until, exhausted by loss of blood, he fell and died from his wounds before aid could be administered.

*WOLD, NELS
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 138th Infantry, 35th Division
• Place and date: Near Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Minnewaukan, N. Dak.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: He rendered most gallant service in aiding the advance of his company, which had been held up by machinegun nests, advancing, with 1 other soldier, and silencing the guns, bringing with him, upon his return, 11 prisoners. Later the same day he jumped from a trench and rescued a comrade who was about to be shot by a German officer, killing the officer during the exploit. His actions were entirely voluntary, and it was while attempting to rush a 5th machinegun nest that he was killed. The advance of his company was mainly due to his great courage and devotion to duty.

WOODFILL, SAMUEL
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division
• Place and date: At Cunel, France, 12 October 1918
• Entered service at: Bryantsburg, Ind.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While he was leading his company against the enemy, his line came under heavy machinegun fire, which threatened to hold up the advance. Followed by 2 soldiers at 25 yards, this officer went out ahead of his first line toward a machinegun nest and worked his way around its flank, leaving the 2 soldiers in front. When he got within 10 yards of the gun it ceased firing, and 4 of the enemy appeared, 3 of whom were shot by 1st Lt. Woodfill. The fourth, an officer, rushed at 1st Lt. Woodfill, who attempted to club the officer with his rifle. After a hand-to-hand struggle, 1st Lt. Woodfill killed the officer with his pistol. His company thereupon continued to advance, until shortly afterwards another machinegun nest was encountered. Calling on his men to follow, 1st Lt. Woodfill rushed ahead of his line in the face of heavy fire from the nest, and when several of the enemy appeared above the nest he shot them, capturing 3 other members of the crew and silencing the gun. A few minutes later this officer for the third time demonstrated conspicuous daring by charging another machinegun position, killing 5 men in one machinegun pit with his rifle. He then drew his revolver and started to jump into the pit, when 2 other gunners only a few yards away turned their gun on him. Failing to kill them with his revolver, he grabbed a pick lying nearby and killed both of them. Inspired by the exceptional courage displayed by this officer, his men pressed on to their objective under severe shell and machinegun fire.

YORK, ALVIN C.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company G, 328th Infantry, 82d Division
• Place and date: Near Chatel-Chehery, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pall Mall, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his platoon had suffered heavy casualties and 3 other noncommissioned officers had become casualties, Cpl. York assumed command. Fearlessly leading 7 men, he charged with great daring a machinegun nest which was pouring deadly and incessant fire upon his platoon. In this heroic feat the machinegun nest was taken, together with 4 officers and 128 men and several guns.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE

Remember the names of all those who guarded your freedoms: Eddy Toorall

SOURCE:U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY

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Eleventh Hour Eleventh Day Eleventh Month

At the 11th hour in the 11th day of the 11th month of the year One thousand Nine hundred and Eighteen of the Common Era; the guns of the greatest slaughter of humanity by force of arms up until that time, went silent. Only the horrible memories of a tragedy which began in the late summer of 1914 remained, along with the emptiness left behind of the dead, and the suffering of the wounded.

What had begun as a misguided attempt to garner territory and prestige by the “Nobile elite” of Europe, who in the detachments from the reality of not only the plight of their own peoples but of the stability of the world in general, initiated a wholesale slaughter of epic proportions, consuming generations of the youth of the world. Producing economic disasters and global chaos, tens of millions died, hundreds of million injured, empires fell; and the misery inflicted upon the world would eventually produce an even greater devastating war.

One Hundred years have passed, seemingly an overly long amount of time, and true all that had participated in that great conflagration are now passed, yet we cannot forget, we dare not forget that unbelievable nightmare. We should never forget those that faced that challenge and gave their all, or those that suffered countless years after with agonizing wounds both physical and mental.

We must remember that the suffering was not confined to the individuals who endured the rigors of that “Great War” but also the families they either left behind or who bore witness to their suffering.

The American Expeditionary Forces arrived in France in June 1917, they would eventually total more than Two Million personnel culminating in 40 combat divisions with support. Of that number over 255, 000 would become casualties of war, with 52,997 battle deaths and over 50,000 non-battle.

Now a Hundred years later we can do little more than pay homage to dead, speak their name so that they shall always be remembered. Adorn their final place of rest and honor with bits of cloth the colors of which they so gallantly marched, fought and died to preserve.

AEF Strength (30 November 1918):
Total: 1,929,760 (80,004 officers; 1,849,756 enlisted)
Logistics Organization: Services of Supply (SOS)
Location: Tours, France
Strength (11 November 1918):
Officers: 30,593
Nurses: 5,586
Enlisted: 602,910
Total: 644,540

Casualties: AEF Casualties:
Killed in action: 37,171 (1,648 officers; 35,523 enlisted)
Died of wounds: 12,934 (559 officers; 12,375 enlisted)
Wounds not mortal: 193,602 (6,904 officers; 186,698 enlisted)
Total casualties: 243,707 (9,111 officers; 234,596 enlisted)
Troops at Sea: Killed in action:
370 (7 officers; 363 enlisted)
Dies of wounds: 0
Wounds not mortal: 5 (1 officer; 4 enlisted)
Total casualties: 375 (8 officers; 367 enlisted)
U.S. Army Non-Battle Deaths: 55,868

American Expeditionary Forces, Siberia:
Commander: Maj. Gen. William S. Graves
Approximate Size of Force: 8,400 (300 officers; 8,100 enlisted)
Length of Campaign: July 1918–April 1920
Purpose: To aid Russian and Czech-Slovak forces and protect war materiel
American Expeditionary Forces, North Russia:
Commander: Col. George E. Stewart (September 1918–April 1919) Brig. Gen. Wilds P. Richardson (April–August 1919) Approximate Size of Force: 4,500 (150 officers; 4,350 enlisted) Length of Campaign: September 1918–August 1919 Purpose: To support Czech-Slovak forces in Russia and protect war materiel
North Russia & Siberia:
Killed in action: 27 (1 officer; 26 enlisted) Died of wounds: 8 (0 officers; 8 enlisted)
Wounds not mortal: 52 (4 officers; 48 enlisted)
Total casualties: 87 (5 officers; 82 enlisted)

SOURCE: United States Army Center of Military History

I leave only this small token of my thanks and gratitude for their deeds with this poem from one of those heroes who fell for my freedoms. (E. T.)

Rouge Bouquet
There is a new-made grave to-day,
Built by never a spade nor pick
Yet covered with earth ten metres thick.
There lie many fighting men,
Dead in their youthful prime,
Never to laugh nor love again
Nor taste the Summertime.

For Death came flying through the air
And stopped his flight at the dugout stair,
Touched his prey and left them there,
Clay to clay.
He hid their bodies stealthily
In the soil of the land they fought to free
And fled away.
Now over the grave abrupt and clear
Three volleys ring;
And perhaps their brave young spirits hear
The bugle sing:
“Go to sleep!
Go to sleep!”

Slumber well where the shell screamed and fell.
Let your rifles rest on the muddy floor,
You will not need them anymore.
Danger’s past;
Now at last,
Go to sleep!”

There is on earth no worthier grave
To hold the bodies of the brave
Than this place of pain and pride
Where they nobly fought and nobly died.
Never fear but in the skies
Saints and angels stand
Smiling with their holy eyes
On this new-come band.

St. Michael’s sword darts through the air
And touches the aureole on his hair
As he sees them stand saluting there,
His stalwart sons; And Patrick, Brigid, Columkill
Rejoice that in veins of warriors still
The Gael’s blood runs.
And up to Heaven’s doorway floats,
From the wood called Rouge Bouquet
A delicate cloud of bugle notes
That softly say: “Farewell! Farewell!

Comrades true, born anew, peace to you!
Your souls shall be where the heroes are
And your memory shine like the morning-star.
Brave and dear,
Shield us here.
Farewell!”
Author: Sargent Joyce Kilmer “Fighting 69th” Infantry Regiment U.S. Army (W.W. I-France) Killed in Action 30 July 1918; Second Battle of the Marne

IN FLANDERS FIELDS
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
AUTHOR: LT. Colonel John McCrea: Canadian Expeditionary Forces (W.W. I-France)

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall

Napoleonic Wars: After Leipzig; Retreat

More important, were the consequences of Leipzig. Napoleon had now to go back to France to consolidate his position. Meanwhile all Western Germany rose against him. In a surge of patriotic enthusiasm Berg, Westphalia and other principalities followed the example of Bavaria. By the Treaty of Fulda (2 November) Metternich guaranteed Württemberg’s sovereignty in return for a contingent of 12,000 men. Baden, Hesse-Darmstädt and Nassau lost no time in concluding similar conventions. The dispossessed rulers of Brunswick, Hanover, Electoral House of Hesse and Oldenburg returned to their thrones.

The somewhat inchoate military machine of the allies was attempting meanwhile to exploit its strategic advantage. Klenau and bennigsen were detailed to mop up the French garrisons along the Elbe at Dresden, Torgau, Wittenberg and Magdeburg. Kleist and Winzingerode were directed to take Erfurt. Bernadotte moved north to support Wallmoden against Davout, whose communications with the Emperor were now severed. Early in November Dresden and Torgau surrendered. Before the end of the year Danzig, Stettin and Wittenberg were in Allied hands. In January 1814 Napoleon’s Danish allies, pursued into Holstein by Wallmoden, concluded the Treaty of Kiel.

On 23 October Napoleon reached Erfurt where he endeavoured to restore some order to what remained of his Grand Armée. Two days later he resumed his retreat. Schwarzenberg and Blücher were following up slowly, but if they were to intercept him he first must be delayed by Wrede’s Bavarians and Prince Reuss’s Austrians; advancing from Anspach by Würzburg, the Bavarians and Austrian contingent rached Hanau by 28 October, blocking the main road back to France. Wrede, commanding 40,000 men, held the line of the River Kinzig, with Hanau at his back. The situation looked black for the French, but the resilience of the remnants of the Grande Armée was amazing. Drouot massed a great battery, and Nansouty and Sébastiani led all the available cavalry in amassive charge t beat back the Allied left. Wrede retired across the river. On the 31st Napoleon sent the corps of Bertrand and Marmont, which had fought with truly Gallic fervour and gave time for Oudinot (Young Guard) to get around Wrede’s flank. On 2 November the wreck of the Grande Armée was struggling back across the Rhine at Mainz.

A properly coordinated army under a single chief might well have exploited the victory at Leipzig to more advantage than did the Allies of 1813. While there was no hurry to reduce the French garrisons in Germany, there was good reason to intercept Napoleon east of the Rhine, at least so far as Blücher and the Tsar were concerned (the Austrians at this stage were by no means certain that they wished to unseat Napoleon).

Leipzig, the Battle of Nations, was the biggest battle of the Napoleonic wars, bigger than Borodino and bigger than Waterloo. Its very vastness had posed the Allies the same sort of problems over control and passage of orders which had earlier vexed Napoleon. That they triumphed was due in no small part to the efforts of the brave, modest and tactful Schwarzenberg. On the eve of the battle he wrote to his wife, “When I look out my window and see the countless watch-fires outstretched before me, and when I consider that I face the greatest military commander of our age, and one of the greatest of all time, a veritable emperor of battles, then my dear Nani, I must admit that I feel my shoulders too weak and will collapse under the gigantic task which weighs upon them. But when I gaze up at the stars, I recall that He who controls them has also marked out my course.” Schwarzenberg, whom we may call the Eisenhower of the coalition forces, proved equal to the task of making them run smoothly. At a banquet a year or two after the battle Blücher proposed a toast to ‘the Commander-in-Chief who had three monarchs at his headquarters and still managed to beat the enemy.’

Napoleon, with a courage perhaps never surpassed, refused to capitulate and the Allies swept on towards the Rhine. In the approaching campaign to save France–and himself—he was to touch new heights as a general. He still had not been defeated in the field; this was not to happen to him until that fatal day at Waterloo. In Russia, in his own view, he had been conquered by the weather, at Leipzig by the treachery of the Saxons and the stupidity of an engineer officer. Such rationalizations might strain credulity, but they allowed him to continue to believe in his star.

As he withdrew to France, commanding marshals and generals whose one desire was to enjoy their wealth and estates in peace, the personal ascendancy that enabled him to continue the struggle became all the more remarkable. He opened peace negotiations that were to continue for much of the rest of the struggle, but he never seriously contemplated abandoning his conquests while he had cannon and muskets that would be fired at his command. Although the new Allied peace proposals were astonishingly liberal, taking into account his reduced military capacity, he rejected them. He also thought it discreet to throw doubt on the sincerity of the Allies, for he feared their offers of peace might lessen the French will to resist. For Napoleon the truth was always what it suited him to have others believe.

He expected that his garrisons in Germany and along the main approaches to France would cause his enemies to dissipate their forces with lengthy and unnecessary sieges. But by his own example he had trained the Allies too well in the virtues of concentration and speed. They now blockaded the French held fortresses with second-line troops and continued the war through the depths of winter. In January 1814, as the Allied invasion of France proceeded without a check, Napoleon had once again to take the field, while he might greet this turn of events by boldly raising his glass to toast the advance to the Vistula that he yearned for, his marshals were lukewarm. He however, was not to be subdued without a struggle worthy of a genius.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: NAPOLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15; BY: James Lawford
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Nations; Leipzig Oct.16-18 1813

On the morning of the 16th Marmont (VI Corps) was about to move from between Breitenfeld and Mӧckern to Liebertwolkwitz in order to support the Emperor’s grand attack on the Army of Bohemia. He found, however, that Blücher was already pressing in on him. He was compelled to about and face him, with his right flank at Widderwitz and his left at Mӧckern.

Meanwhile Schwarzenberg was advancing along both banks of the Elster and Pleisse. On his left Gyulai pushed down the line of the Markranstädt—Lindenau road with the object of joining Blücher and cutting the French line of retreat through Lützen to Erfurt and Mainz. On Gyulai’s right Meerveldt and Lichtenstein were to cross the Pleisse at Connewitz in order to turn the French right.

The Main front of the Army of Bohemia ran from the Pleisse on the left to the Kolmberg, an isolated hill on the French left. The corps of Kleist, Prince Eugen of Württemberg, Gortchakov and Klenau was in the first line, with the Prussian and Russian Guard in reserve. The army numbered more than 120,000 men.

The Allies made some progress but Poniatowski, Victor and Lauriston hung obstinately to the villages of Connewitz, Wachau and Liebertwolkwitz. By noon the Emperor had prepared his counter stroke. MacDonald, coming upon the French left, released Augereau who moved into line between Poniatowski and Victor. The Young Guard came up to support Lauriston. Drouot, the general of artillery, massed a formidable battery east of Wachau, and Murat concentrated the cavalry for one of his great charges, to be directed against the Allied centre.

The counter-attack began well. MacDonald supported by Mortier, stromed the Swedish redout at Kolmberg with the bayonet, and compelled Klenau to fall back. Augereau drove Kleist out of Grostewitz. The Young Guard stormed Auenhayn. It was only with difficulty that Gortchakov held Lauriston’s attacks on the Galenberg, a low feature just west of the village of Lieberwolkwitz.

It was about 3 o’clock when Murat led forward his 12,000 cavalry. He charged through the gap between te corps of Gortchakov and Württembeerg, rode over some Russian cavalry, and captured the Allied batteries near Güldengossa. In this crisis Schwarzenberg used his reserves to good purpose. Austrian troops moved up taking the pressure of Kleist and regaining some of the ground taken by Augereau. The cavalry of the Prussian and Russian Guards counter-charged the French cavalry who, their horses blown, and their leader Latour-Maubourg, severely wounded, fell back. A Russian grenadier division came up to support Württemberg, and drive Victorout of Auenhayn. Klenau, who had succeeded in rallying his men, was able to prevent MacDonlad coming around his flank. Evening found the French back on their start lines. It was not only Schwarzenberg’s skillful use of his reserves that had saved the army of Bohemia. Blücher’s Army of Silesia had robbed the French on the souther front of the support they needed and expected from the north of the city.

Napoleon, as we have seen, had not anticipated and attack by Blücher on the 16th. He had intended that Marmont should support MacDonald during the counter-attack. But Mormont had not been able to do so; instead he had to cling desperately to Mӧckern and Widderitz in the north. Ney, commanding in that sector, had sent Bertrand off towards Lieberwokwitz instead of Marmont, but he too failed to arrive. Gyulai’s corps had begun to press on the Lindenau suburb, threatening to cut the French line of retreat, and Bertrand had to be diverted there. Next Souham (III Corps) was sent to support MacDonald, but before he could join him he was summoned to the rescue of Marmont.
Marmont’s corps, outnumbered by three to one, fought nobly against Yorck, Sacken and Langeron. Lindenthall fell, Mӧckern and Widderitz changed hands several times. A division of III Corps, commanded by Delmas, came up and sustained Marmont’s right. When night fell the French were holding Mӧckern, but the corps had loss 8,000 men, and in the dark Marmont fell back across the Parthe, abandoning 53 guns. To the south-west of the city, Merveldt and Lichtenstein failed to cross the Pleisse and the former was captured. Bertrand drove Gyulai out of Lindenau, and so kept open Napoleons line of retreat.

The days fighting had cost the French more than 25,000 men and the Allies perhaps 37,000. A dozen generals were among the French casualties. They included two of the cavalry corps commanders, Latour-Maubourg, who lost a leg, and Pajol (V Corps) who was severaly injured when his horse fell.

The 17th was a quiet day. Both sides spent the time reorganizing, but the allies also brought up reinforcements. Colloerdo’s Austrians marched in during the evening. Bennigsen was drawing near and the Crown Prince of Sweden had reached Halle—though he was not displaying any excess of zeal.

The battle on the 16th had been indecisive, except to indicate that it was time for the French to go. The Allies now outnumbered them by three to one. The implications of a retreat were, however fearful; Dresden, Hamburg, the garrisons on the Vistula, the Oder, and in Germany would be left to their fate. If the Emperor retreated, could he stop before the Rhine? Hoping against hope for a miracle, the Emperor decided to fight on. He pulled in his forces so that they formed an irregular semicircle round the south and east of the city, with the Guard and the Cavalry in reserve, and Lauriston in support of Victor and MacDonald. To the north Marmont faced Blücher. To the west Bertrand covered Lindenau suburb, his outposts facing Gyulai on the Lützen—Weissenfels road. To face the huge Allied concentration in this way, with the city and River Elster at his back, was an act of desperation.

Schwarzenberg kept his men under his hand. Instead of reinforcing Gyulai, and thereby cutting Napoleon’s line of retreat, he called back one of his divisions. It seems he suspected that the French might attempt a breakout not to the west but towards the Elbe, through the gap which the cautious Bernadotte was supposed to be closing with the Army of the North.

The battle began at 7 A.M. on the 18th. The Army of Bohemia put in a general assault along its whole front, made some progress against stout resistance and then was brought to a virtual standstill. Hesse-Homburg took Dӧsen while, for the French, Pinatowski’s Poles hung on to Connewitz. At Probstheida Victor repulsed Kliest and Wittgenstein. MacDonald held General Klenau until Bennigsen reinforced him and took Holzhausen. Reynier’s Saxon Division held on to Mӧlkau and Paunsdorf.

In the north the Army of Silesia, less Langeron’s corps, which Blücher had sent to help Bernadotte, drove Marmont’s outposts from Gohlis and Pfaffendorf, but made little further progress. Blücher did succeed in getting into Reudnitz, but reinforcements sent in by Napoleon drove him out again. Thus the Army of Silesia, as well as the Army of Bohemia was held.

It fell to the Army of the North to strike that decisive blow. It was at about noon that Bernadotte’s advance guard reached Taucha, and soon the joined Langeron, who had crossed the Parthe at Mockau. Langeron advanced against Ney’s left flank at Schӧnefeld, and Winzigerode pushed on towards Paunsdorf in order to close the breach between Blücher and Schwarzenberg by linking with Benningsen. The latter now resumed his attack. Budna’s Austrians, moving forward, were pleasantly surprised to see their opponents throwing down their arms—the Saxons of Reynier’s corps were changing sides, and their example was swiftly followed by a Württemberg cavalry brigade of 1,500 sabers. Reynier’s remaining division gave way and Budna took possession of Paunsdorf in the east.

Nay strove to restore the situation, and regained Paunsdorf for a time, but the Army of the North was too strong for him. Still, he managed to withdraw what remained of Reynier’s corps. Nansouty brought up the Guard cavalry to Ney’s support, but Bülow from the east pushed the French back on Reudnitz, and Langeron, after several attempts, captured Schӧnefeld. Everywhere the French were being driven back into Leipzig. It was fortunate for them that Mortier with two divisons of the Young Guard had meanwhile got the better of Gyulai and opened the road westward.

Before noon that day Napoleon realized that the odds against him were too great and that he must go back. Fighting with the magnificent courage and determination the French still held Leipzig when night fell, Napoleon issued his orders for the retreat verbally; no trace of written orders has remained. At about 2 o’clock on the morning of the 19th the retreat began, but after three days of fighting it was understandably hurried and ill-organized. All the roads converged on the one causeway across the marshes where the Rivers Elster and Pleisse flowed together in a maze of waterways. As the columns clashed, each exaggerating the peril from the enemy behind, the confusion became indescribable. The art of traffic control over defiles at that time was little understood. Then the bridge over the Elster was blown prematurely, isolating the rear guard under MacDonald, Poniatowski and Reynier in the eastern suburbs on the far side of the break. For the rearguard the mishap was fatal. They fought desperately to escape but without avail.

It is easy to censure the bridge commander, but in retreat closely followed up by the enemy he is placed in an impossible situation. Either he blows the bridge too soon, as at Leipzig, or he leaves it too late, and the bridge is captured intact. The bridge over the Elster was not the first or the last to be blown up at the wrong time.

Poniatowski, already wounded, was drowned in the Elster; Lauriston and Reynier fell into the hands of the Allies, and MacDonald managed to escape by swimming. His men were not so lucky. They called to him, “Monsieur le Maréchal, save your men! Save your children!” They threw themselves into the water rather than be taken, and many were swept away. MacDonald later said, “I could do nothing for them.” Overcome by rage, indignation, fury, I wept’ Soaking wet, he walked three leagues to Markranstädt where he caught up with the Emperor and his staff. ‘He was seated at a table, a map spread before him, and his head on his hand. With tears I related what had happened…I ended by saying that the losses of the army in men an materiel were immense, and not a moment should be lost in collecting the remains, and making for the Rhine.’ Napoleon did not relish home truths at the best of times. ‘Go and get some rest,’ he said. It was cold comfort to a man who had recently lost his corps.

Marmont also had a rough time crossing the bridge. Two officers of the 88th of the Line carved him a path across. He recounted, ‘My chief-of-staff and his deputy were hit at my side; four aides-de-camp were killed, wounded or captured; seven staff officers were either killed or wounded. As for myself, I had a bullet wound in the hand, a contusion on my left arm, a bullet through my hat and another in my clothes, and four horses killed or wounded under me. Of the three servants, who accompanied me, two were wounded and had their horses killed.’

The French generals, disillusioned though they were, had paid with their persons. Ney was wounded sufficiently severely to be authorized to return to France, which he did on 23 October. Thirteen generals of division were among the casualties on the 18th, and 25 generals of brigade were hit on 18 October and eleven on the 19th. The loss of so many senior officers added to the confusion in the retreating army, which suffered 50,000 men taken prisoner, 20,000 of them wounded, and the capture of 250 guns. The Allied losses were severe. They have been estimated as: Austrian, 15,000, Prussian, 16,000, and Russians, 22,000, making a total of 53,000 men.

French 164,000 (Napoleon) October 16

Marmont (VI Corps) 20,000—Souham (III Corps, partial) 7,000—Bertrand (IV Corps) 10,000—Leipzig garrison 7,000—Mortier (Guard) 22,000—MacDonald (XI Corps) 20,000—Sébastiani (II Cavalry) 3,000—Poniatowski (VIII Corps) 7,000—Murat (Cavalry) 13,000—-Oudinot (Guard) 20,000—Augereau (IX Corps) 8,000—-Lauriston (V Corps) 12,000—Victor (II Corps) 15,000

Allies 184,000 (Schwarsenberg) October 16

Army of Silesia (59,000) Blücher

Yorck; Sacken; Langeron

Army of Bohemia (125,000) Schwarzenberg

Gyulai 19,000—Meerveldt/Lichtenstein 12,000—Kleist 8,000—Württemberg 11,000—Gortchakov 9,000—Klenau 33,000—Pahlen 5,000—Guards 28,000

REINFORCEMENTS October 17-18

French (22,000) Reynier 14,000—Souham (extra) 8,000

Allied Troops brought figures up to about 300,000 Army of the North (65,000) Remainders of the Armies of Silesia and Bohemia

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: NAPOLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15; By James Lawford
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins

Napoleonic Wars: Prelude to Leipzig Sept. 26-Oct. 15 1813

On 26 September the Allies began to close for the kill. The French were clearly ripe for the decisive battle that would drive them out of Germany. Even so, the Allies nearly made mistake that could have had a fatal consequence. As they closed from the north and south, timing was vital or their armies could be attacked and defeated separately. Napoleon in fact nearly succeeded in doing so, Blücher, pressing on with his usual immense drive, frustrated him—as he was to do again two years later at Waterloo.

The Allies intended to concentrate behind the river Saale so that by interposing between Napoleon and France they would compel the Emperor to fight. Indifferently served by his cavalry, Napoleon was uncertain of the Allies’ movements. By 3 October Blücher had reached the confluence of the Elbe and the Black Elster with 65,000 men. Opposed by Bertrand (IV Corps), Yorck’s Prussians forced a passage, though not without loss. Bertrand fell back on Düben and Bitterfeld, 30 miles to the south, joining hands with Reynier (VII Corps). The latter had not been able to prevent Bertrand from crossing at Rosslau. The Armies of the North and of Silesia, having gained the west bank of the Elbe, pushed forward and linked up between the Mulde and the Saale in order to menace Leipzig from the north. Meanwhile Schwarzenberg, who had begun his advance on 26 September, was approaching from the south.

Napoleon remained at Dresden. Every day from 25 September to 1 October he went out to review the troops concentrated in the area. Then at 6 A.M. on the 7th he quit Dresden for the last time. Unwilling to evacuate his base entirely, he left Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (XIV Corps) and General Mouton with the remnants of I Corps to hang on to the city. Now the Emperor made another attempt to drive back Blücher and Bernadotte. He began by attacking Tauentzien, but the steady advance of Schwarzenberg against the 40,000 men left under Murat to cover Leipzig compelled Napoleon to give orders (on 12 October) for his main body to return there. He arrived himself on 14 October. By this time Schwarzenberg had driven Murat right into the outskirts of the city. There was fighting around Wachau and Liebertwolkwitz to the south, and though the Allies were repulsed the French counter-attack came to nothing. By the 15th Napoleon’s concentration was still incomplete. He had something like 175,000 men in and around Leipzig, but one of Ney’s divisions had not yet come in, nor had Reynier.

Schwarzenberg outnumbered the French, but there was still a chance for Napoleon to snatch victory before Blücher and Bernadotte threw their forces in to the balance. On the Evening of the 15th Blücher was near Goss Kügel, 12 miles away. Bernadotte was 20 miles further north. The Emperor, who did not believe that they could intervene the next day, spent the evening preparing to deal with Schwarzenberg on the 16th. He concentrated every available man south of the city. But he had bargained without the tireless energy of Blücher.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: NAPOLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15; BY James Lawford
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins

Napoleonic Wars: After Dresden; Sept.-Oct. 1813

After the battle of Dresden the months of September and early October became a time of skirmishing and positioning. Vowing to not fight Napoleon directly, his marshals were fair game. It was also a time of new Treaties designed to sow discord in the Emperors allies, producing defections and new allegiances.

Napoleon’s great victory at Dresden was largely valueless by Vandamme’s almost inconceivable catastrophe at Klum. The earlier defeats of his marshals—MacDonald at Katzbach and Oudinot at Grossbeeren—had shown the effectiveness of the new allied strategy. Now, as his enemies massed against him, almost every day brought the news of some defection: a lesser man might have accepted defeat; a politically wiser one might have gone to the council chamber to extract what he could from the shambles. Napoleon himself seemed momentarily uncertain, almost unnerved by the extent of his disasters. Such never lasted long with the Emperor. He would not admit that his vision of dictating peace on the Vistula or at Vienna was now only an empty dream. One great victory and all would be retrieved. It was not his destiny to fail.

He must strike at the increasing number of his foes, but at whom? He remained near Dresden and thrust viciously at Schwarzenberg in Bohemia to the south of the great mountain range of the Erzgebirge. Schwarzenberg, safely ensconced behind the mountain passes, shielded by vile roads and even viler weather, thwarted his great opponent while Blücher advanced inexorably in the east. Napoleon might have turned on Blücher but the Prussian would have only run away to Breslau in the east, while Schwarzenberg and Bernadotte joined hands across his communication lines with France. He might have left an army of observation in the south to watch the mountain passes and gone north, but Bernadotte would have refused action and no doubt given ground while Blücher and Schwarzenberg and fresh armies from Russia advanced on his great administrative base at Dresden. He might do nothing and wait for the Allies to blunder, but he was used to creating opportunities, not waiting for them to occur.

He decided that he himself would remain centrally at Dresden where he could deal either with Blücher or Schwarzenberg as might prove either necessary. He sent Ney to the north with instructions to take over from Oudinot and then, despite having only 58,000 men as compared with Bernadotte’s 125,000, push on for Berlin. Perhaps Ney would drive back the renegade Bernadotte, link with Davout, at present inactive at Hamburg, and trample on Prussia, and then rejoin Napoleon for a great offensive in the south.

Ney went to Wittenberg, took command of the Army of Berlin (3 September 1813) and advanced northwards. He was held up by Tauentzien at Zahna (5 September 1813) but, reinforced by Bertrand (IV Corps), pushed the Prussians back to Jüterbog. On the following day he suffered disaster at the hands of Bülow and Tauentzien at the Battle of Dennewitz. He had under him Bertran’s, Reynier’s and Oudinot’s corps. Bertrand cooperated loyally, Reynier simply disregarded his orders, and Oudinot showed plainly enough that he resented being superseded. Ney lost 10,000 killed and wounded and 13,000 prisoners—mainly Germans—and 83 guns. He wrote to Berthier, ‘I can’t go on repeating it is almost impossible to make General Reynier to obey,’ He withdrew on Torgau and was in fact lucky to break clear.

During the rest of September, neither side succeeded in mounting an operation that had any real significance. Schwarzenberg was frustrated from striking a blow towards Leipzig and Napoleon’s communications with France, and Blücher pushed MacDonald back toward Dresden. Napoleon’s young and hungry infantry, lacking the stamina for frequent forced marches, were insufficiently mobile for him to take full advantage of his central position.

The autumn weeks slipped by and still the Emperor had not been able to achieve the decisive victory that he needed. Clinging to the line of the Elbe, he showed a bold front, but his communications were uncertain, and with the Austrians in Bohemia out flanking the line of the Elbe, his strategic situation was becoming unsound. To retreat to the Saale was to abandon Saxony. The probable effect of such a move on his other German allies who lay between his army and the Rhine, was all too predictable.

The principle event of the month was diplomatic; The Treaty of Tӧplitz, signed on 9 September 1813. It was another triumph for the skilled diplomatist Prince Metternich. Under the terms of the Treaty it was agreed that Austria and Prussia should be given back the dominions lost in 1805 and 1806: the House of Brunswick-Lüneberg was to be restored to its former territories, and the Allies, cooperating in friendly fashion were to decide the fate of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon’s Confederation of the Rhine was to be dissolved, but the independence of its member states was guaranteed. Bavaria and Württemberg now knew that the fall of Napoleon need not necessarily spell their destruction. The first fruit of the Treaty was the defection of Bavaria from the French cause. By the Treaty of Ried (8 October 1813) Bavaria joined the Allies. The immediate military result was that Prince Reuss’s Austrian corps, which had been watching the Bavarian General Wrede, was able to cease doing so; instead they joined up, posing a new threat to the French lines of communications. The Bavarians still serving with the Grande Armée now took the homeward road.

Napoleon’s strategic position was rapidly deteriorating. He at last accepted that he would have to abandon, temporarily, the east bank of the Elbe. He concentrated the greater part of the Grande Armée at Dresden, a position in which he was still dangerously far to the east. To the north Wallmoden (whose army included the 2nd Battalion of the 73rd Foot, the only British battalion to fight in Germany is 1813) defeated part of Davout’s command at Gohrde (19 September 1813): this kept the French from Magdeburg, gave the Allies a foothold on the west of the Elbe, and encouraged the Hanoverians and the Brunswickers to take up arms with the other Allies. At the end of October, Davout fell back to Hamburg. Every passing day saw recruits replenish the ranks of the Austrians and Prussians. From Russia the Army of the Reserve, 60,000 men under Bennigsen, was approaching. No such reinforcements could be expected by the French. Augereau (IX) and Milhaud’s cavalry moved up, harasses by the Hetman Platov and Maurice Lichtenstein’s division, but they numbered only some 20,000.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: NAPOLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins

Mesmeric Revelation: Poe

WHATEVER doubt may still envelop the “rationale” of mesmerism, its startling “facts” are now almost universally admitted. Of these latter, those who doubt, are your mere doubters by profession—an unprofitable and disreputable tribe. There can be no more absolute waste of time than the attempt to “prove”, at the present day, that man, by mere exercise of will, can so impress his fellow, as to cast him into an abnormal condition, of which the phenomena resemble very closely those of “death”, or at least resemble them more nearly than they do the phenomena of any other normal condition within our cognizance; that, while in this state, the person so impressed employs only with effort, and then feebly, the external organs of sense, yet perceives, with keenly refined perception, and through channels supposed unknown, matters beyond the scope of the physical organs; that, moreover, his intellectual faculties are wonderfully exalted and invigorated; that his sympathies with the person so impressing him are profound; and, finally, that his susceptibility to the impression increases with its frequency, while, in the same proportion, the peculiar phenomena elicited are more extended and more “pronounced”.

I say that these–which are the laws of mesmerism in its general features–it would be supererogation to demonstrate; nor shall I inflict upon my readers so needless a demonstration; to-day. My purpose at present is a very different one indeed. I am impelled, even in the teeth of a world of prejudice, to detail without comment the very remarkable substance of a colloquy, occurring between a sleep-walker and myself.
I had been long in the habit of mesmerizing the person in question, (Mr. Vankirk,) and the usual acute susceptibility and exaltation of the mesmeric perception had supervened. For many months he had been laboring under confirmed phthisis, the more distressing effects of which had been relieved by my manipulations; and on the night of Wednesday, the fifteenth instant, I was summoned to his bedside.

The invalid was suffering with acute pain in the region of the heart, and breathed with great difficulty, having all the ordinary symptoms of asthma. In spasms such as these he had usually found relief from the application of mustard to the nervous centres, but to-night this had been attempted in vain.

As I entered his room he greeted me with a cheerful smile, and although evidently in much bodily pain, appeared to be, mentally, quite at ease. “I sent for you to-night,” he said, “not so much to administer to my bodily ailment, as to satisfy me concerning certain psychic impressions which, of late, have occasioned me much anxiety and surprise. I need not tell you how skeptical I have hitherto been on the topic of the soul’s immortality. I cannot deny that there has always existed, as if in that very soul which I have been denying, a vague half-sentiment of its own existence. But this half-sentiment at no time amounted to conviction. With it my reason had nothing to do.

All attempts at logical inquiry resulted, indeed, in leaving me more skeptical than before. I had been advised to study Cousin. I studied him in his own works as well as in those of his European and American echoes. The ‘Charles Elwood’ of Mr. Brownson, for example, was placed in my hands. I read it with profound attention. Throughout I found it logical, but the portions which were not “merely” logical were unhappily the initial arguments of the disbelieving hero of the book. In his summing up it seemed evident to me that the reasoner had not even succeeded in convincing himself. His end had plainly forgotten his beginning, like the government of Trinculo. In short, I was not long in perceiving that if man is to be intellectually convinced of his own immortality, he will never be so convinced by the mere abstractions which have been so long the fashion of the moralists of England, of France, and of Germany. Abstractions may amuse and exercise, but take no hold on the mind. Here upon earth, at least, philosophy, I am persuaded, will always in vain call upon us to look upon qualities as things. The will may assent–the soul–the intellect, never.

“I repeat, then, that I only half felt, and never intellectually believed. But latterly there has been a certain deepening of the feeling, until it has come so nearly to resemble the acquiescence of reason that I find it difficult to distinguish between the two. I am enabled, too, plainly to trace this effect to the mesmeric influence. I cannot better explain my meaning than by the hypothesis that the mesmeric exaltation enables me to perceive a train of ratiocination which, in my abnormal existence, convinces, but which, in full accordance with the mesmeric phenomena, does not extend, except through its “effect”, into my normal condition. In sleep-waking, the reasoning and its conclusion–the cause and its effect–are present together. In my natural state, the cause vanishing, the effect only, and perhaps only partially, remains.

“These considerations have led me to think that some good results might ensue from a series of well-directed questions propounded to me while mesmerized. You have often observed the profound self-cognizance evinced by the sleep-walker–the extensive knowledge he displays upon all points relating to the mesmeric condition itself; and from this self-cognizance may be deduced hints for the proper conduct of a catechism.”
I consented of course to make this experiment. A few passes threw Mr. Vankirk into the mesmeric sleep. His breathing became immediately more easy, and he seemed to suffer no physical uneasiness. The following conversation then ensued:–V. in the dialogue representing the patient, and P. myself.

“ P.” Are you asleep?
“ V.” Yes–no I would rather sleep more soundly.
“P.” [“After a few more passes.”] Do you sleep now?
“V.” Yes.
“P.” How do you think your present illness will result?
“V.” [“After a long hesitation and speaking as if with effort”.] I must die.
“P.” Does the idea of death afflict you?
“V.” [“Very quickly”.] No–no!
“P.” Are you pleased with the prospect?
“V.” If I were awake I should like to die, but now it is no matter. The mesmeric condition is so near death as to content me.
“P.” I wish you would explain yourself, Mr. Vankirk.
“V.” I am willing to do so, but it requires more effort than I feel able to make. You do not question me properly.
“P.” What then shall I ask?
“V.” You must begin at the beginning.
“P.” The beginning! but where is the beginning?
“V.” You know that the beginning is GOD. [“This was said in a low, fluctuating tone, and with every sign of the most profound veneration”.]
“P.” What then is God?
“V.” [“Hesitating for many minutes.”] I cannot tell.
“P.” Is not God spirit?
“V.” While I was awake I knew what you meant by “spirit,” but now it seems only a word–such for instance as truth, beauty–a quality, I mean.
“P.” Is not God immaterial?
“V.” There is no immateriality–it is a mere word. That which is not matter, is not at all–unless qualities are things.
“P.” Is God, then, material?
“V.” No. [“This reply startled me very much.”]
“P.” What then is he?
“V.” [“After a long pause, and mutteringly.”] I see–but it is a thing difficult to tell. [“Another long pause.”] He is not spirit, for he exists. Nor is he matter, as “you understand it”. But there are “gradations” of matter of which man knows nothing; the grosser impelling the finer, the finer pervading the grosser. The atmosphere, for example, impels the electric principle, while the electric principle permeates the atmosphere. These gradations of matter increase in rarity or fineness, until we arrive at a matter “unparticled”—without particles–indivisible–”one” and here the law of impulsion and permeation is modified. The ultimate, or unparticled matter, not only permeates all things but impels all things–and thus “is” all things within itself. This matter is God. What men attempt to embody in the word “thought,” is this matter in motion.
“P.” The metaphysicians maintain that all action is reducible to motion and thinking, and that the latter is the origin of the former.
“V.” Yes; and I now see the confusion of idea. Motion is the action of “mind”–not of “thinking”. The unparticled matter, or God, in quiescence, is (as nearly as we can conceive it) what men call mind. And the power of self-movement (equivalent in effect to human volition) is, in the unparticled matter, the result of its unity and Omni prevalence; “how” I know not, and now clearly see that I shall never know. But the unparticled matter, set in motion by a law, or quality, existing within itself, is thinking.
“P.” Can you give me no more precise idea of what you term the unparticled matter?
“V.” The matters of which man is cognizant, escape the senses in gradation. We have, for example, a metal, a piece of wood, a drop of water, the atmosphere, a gas, caloric, electricity, the luminiferous ether. Now we call all these things matter, and embrace all matter in one general definition; but in spite of this, there can be no two ideas more essentially distinct than that which we attach to a metal, and that which we attach to the luminiferous ether. When we reach the latter, we feel an almost irresistible inclination to class it with spirit, or with nihility. The only consideration which restrains us is our conception of its atomic constitution; and here, even, we have to seek aid from our notion of an atom, as something possessing in infinite minuteness, solidity, palpability, weight. Destroy the idea of the atomic constitution and we should no longer be able to regard the ether as an entity, or at least as matter. For want of a better word we might term it spirit. Take, now, a step beyond the luminiferous ether–conceive a matter as much more rare than the ether, as this ether is more rare than the metal, and we arrive at once (in spite of all the school dogmas) at a unique mass–an unparticled matter. For although we may admit infinite littleness in the atoms themselves, the infinitude of littleness in the spaces between them is an absurdity. There will be a point–there will be a degree of rarity, at which, if the atoms are sufficiently numerous, the interspaces must vanish, and the mass absolutely coalesce. But the consideration of the atomic constitution being now taken away, the nature of the mass inevitably glides into what we conceive of spirit. It is clear, however, that it is as fully matter as before. The truth is, it is impossible to conceive spirit, since it is impossible to imagine what is not. When we flatter ourselves that we have formed its conception, we have merely deceived our understanding by the consideration of infinitely rarified matter.
“P.” There seems to me an insurmountable objection to the idea of absolute coalescence;–and that is the very slight resistance experienced by the heavenly bodies in their revolutions through space—a resistance now ascertained, it is true, to exist in “some” degree, but which is, nevertheless, so slight as to have been quite overlooked by the sagacity even of Newton. We know that the resistance of bodies is, chiefly, in proportion to their density. Absolute coalescence is absolute density. Where there are no interspaces, there can be no yielding. An ether, absolutely dense, would put an infinitely more effectual stop to the progress of a star than would an ether of adamant or of iron.
“V.” Your objection is answered with an ease which is nearly in the ratio of its apparent un-answerability.–As regards the progress of the star, it can make no difference whether the star passes through the ether “or the ether through it”. There is no astronomical error more unaccountable than that which reconciles the known retardation of the comets with the idea of their passage through an ether: for, however rare this ether be supposed, it would put a stop to all sidereal revolution in a very far briefer period than has been admitted by those astronomers who have endeavored to slur over a point which they found it impossible to comprehend. The retardation actually experienced is, on the other hand, about that which might be expected from the “friction” of the ether in the instantaneous passage through the orb. In the one case, the retarding force is momentary and complete within itself—in the other it is endlessly accumulative.
“P.” But in all this–in this identification of mere matter with God—is there nothing of irreverence? [“I was forced to repeat this question before the sleep-walker fully comprehended my meaning”.]
“V.” Can you say “why” matter should be less reverenced than mind? But you forget that the matter of which I speak is, in all respects, the very “mind” or “spirit” of the schools, so far as regards its high capacities, and is, moreover, the “matter” of these schools at the same time. God, with all the powers attributed to spirit, is but the perfection of matter.
“P.” You assert, then, that the unparticled matter, in motion, is thought?
“V.” In general, this motion is the universal thought of the universal mind. This thought creates. All created things are but the thoughts of God.
“P.” You say, “in general.”
“V.” Yes. The universal mind is God. For new individualities, “matter” is necessary.
“P.” But you now speak of “mind” and “matter” as do the metaphysicians.
“V.” Yes–to avoid confusion. When I say “mind,” I mean the unparticled or ultimate matter; by “matter,” I intend all else.
“P.” You were saying that “for new individualities matter is necessary.”
“V.” Yes; for mind, existing un-incorporate, is merely God. To create individual, thinking beings, it was necessary to incarnate portions of the divine mind. Thus man is individualized. Divested of corporate investiture, he were God. Now, the particular motion of the incarnated portions of the unparticled matter is the thought of man; as the motion of the whole is that of God.
“P.” You say that divested of the body man will be God?
“V.” [“After much hesitation.”] I could not have said this; it is an absurdity.
“P.” [“Referring to my notes.”] You “did” say that “divested of corporate investiture man were God.”
“V.” And this is true. Man thus divested “would be” God–would be un-individualized. But he can never be thus divested–at least never “will be”–else we must imagine an action of God returning upon itself–a purposeless and futile action. Man is a creature. Creatures are thoughts of God. It is the nature of thought to be irrevocable.
“P.” I do not comprehend. You say that man will never put off the body?
“V.” I say that he will never be bodiless.
“P.” Explain.
“V.” There are two bodies–the rudimental and the complete; corresponding with the two conditions of the worm and the butterfly. What we call “death,” is but the painful metamorphosis. Our present incarnation is progressive, preparatory, temporary. Our future is perfected, ultimate, immortal. The ultimate life is the full design.
“P.” But of the worm’s metamorphosis we are palpably cognizant.
“V.” “We”, certainly–but not the worm. The matter of which our rudimental body is composed, is within the ken of the organs of that body; or, more distinctly, our rudimental organs are adapted to the matter of which is formed the rudimental body; but not to that of which the ultimate is composed. The ultimate body thus escapes our rudimental senses, and we perceive only the shell which falls, in decaying, from the inner form; not that inner form itself; but this inner form, as well as the shell, is appreciable by those who have already acquired the ultimate life.
“P.” You have often said that the mesmeric state very nearly resembles death. How is this?
“V.” When I say that it resembles death, I mean that it resembles the ultimate life; for when I am entranced the senses of my rudimental life are in abeyance, and I perceive external things directly, without organs, through a medium which I shall employ in the ultimate, unorganized life.
“P.” Unorganized?
“V.” Yes; organs are contrivances by which the individual is brought into sensible relation with particular classes and forms of matter, to the exclusion of other classes and forms. The organs of man are adapted to his rudimental condition, and to that only; his ultimate condition, being unorganized, is of unlimited comprehension in all points but one–the nature of the volition of God–that is to say, the motion of the unparticled matter. You will have a distinct idea of the ultimate body by conceiving it to be entire brain. This it is “not”; but a conception of this nature will bring you near a comprehension of what it “is”. A luminous body imparts vibration to the luminiferous ether. The vibrations generate similar ones within the retina; these again communicate similar ones to the optic nerve. The nerve conveys similar ones to the brain; the brain, also, similar ones to the unparticled matter which permeates it. The motion of this latter is thought, of which perception is the first undulation. This is the mode by which the mind of the rudimental life communicates with the external world; and this external world is, to the rudimental life, limited, through the idiosyncrasy of its organs. But in the ultimate, unorganized life, the external world reaches the whole body, (which is of a substance having affinity to brain, as I have said,) with no other intervention than that of an infinitely rarer ether than even the luminiferous; and to this ether–in unison with it–the whole body vibrates, setting in motion the unparticled matter which permeates it. It is to the absence of idiosyncratic organs, therefore, that we must attribute the nearly unlimited perception of the ultimate life. To rudimental beings, organs are the cages necessary to confine them until fledged.
“P.” You speak of rudimental “beings.” Are there other rudimental thinking beings than man?
“V.” The multitudinous conglomeration of rare matter into nebulae, planets, suns, and other bodies which are neither nebulae, suns, nor planets, is for the sole purpose of supplying “pabulum” for the idiosyncrasy of the organs of an infinity of rudimental beings. But for the necessity of the rudimental, prior to the ultimate life, there would have been no bodies such as these. Each of these is tenanted by a distinct variety of organic, rudimental, thinking creatures. In all, the organs vary with the features of the place tenanted. At death, or metamorphosis, these creatures, enjoying the ultimate life–immortality–and cognizant of all secrets but “the one”, act all things and pass everywhere by mere volition:–indwelling, not the stars, which to us seem the sole palpability’s, and for the accommodation of which we blindly deem space created–but that SPACE itself—that infinity of which the truly substantive vastness swallows up the star-shadows–blotting them out as non-entities from the perception of the angels.
“P.” You say that “but for the “necessity” of the rudimental life” there would have been no stars. But why this necessity?
“V.” In the inorganic life, as well as in the inorganic matter generally, there is nothing to impede the action of one simple “unique” law–the Divine Volition. With the view of producing impediment, the organic life and matter, (complex, substantial, and law-encumbered,) were contrived.
“P.” But again–why need this impediment have been produced?
“V.” The result of law inviolate is perfection–right—negative happiness. The result of law violate is imperfection, wrong, positive pain. Through the impediments afforded by the number, complexity, and substantiality of the laws of organic life and matter, the violation of law is rendered, to a certain extent, practicable. Thus pain, which in the inorganic life is impossible, is possible in the organic.
“P.” But to what good end is pain thus rendered possible?
“V.” All things are either good or bad by comparison. A sufficient analysis will show that pleasure, in all cases, is but the contrast of pain. “Positive” pleasure is a mere idea. To be happy at any one point we must have suffered at the same. Never to suffer would have been never to have been blessed. But it has been shown that, in the inorganic life, pain cannot be thus the necessity for the organic. The pain of the primitive life of Earth, is the sole basis of the bliss of the ultimate life in Heaven.

“P.” Still, there is one of your expressions which I find it impossible to comprehend–“the truly “substantive” vastness of infinity.”
“V.” This, probably, is because you have no sufficiently generic conception of the term ““substance”” itself. We must not regard it as a quality, but as a sentiment:–it is the perception, in thinking beings, of the adaptation of matter to their organization. There are many things on the Earth, which would be nihility to the inhabitants of Venus—many things visible and tangible in Venus, which we could not be brought to appreciate as existing at all. But to the inorganic beings–to the angels–the whole of the unparticled matter is substance–that is to say, the whole of what we term “space” is to them the truest substantiality;–the stars, meantime, through what we consider their materiality, escaping the angelic sense, just in proportion as the unparticled matter, through what we consider its immateriality, eludes the organic.
As the sleep-walker pronounced these latter words, in a feeble tone, I observed on his countenance a singular expression, which somewhat alarmed me, and induced me to awake him at once. No sooner had I done this, than, with a bright smile irradiating all his features, he fell back upon his pillow and expired. I noticed that in less than a minute afterward his corpse had all the stern rigidity of stone. His brow was of the coldness of ice. Thus, ordinarily, should it have appeared, only after long pressure from Azrael’s hand. Had the sleep-walker, indeed, during the latter portion of his discourse, been addressing me from out the region of the shadows?

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

Author: Edgar Allen Poe
CONTRIBUTOR: Jenny Dunnaway

An Autumn Evenings Repose

After coming in from a long day in the cooling fall air, the orange glow of the evening sun slowly fading as I closed the door and stepped in to the house. The dim lighting of the interior, I stopped to allow my eyes to adjust, watching the dust drift in last thin rays a dying sun streaming from the slight opening between the curtains. Slowly making my way to down the hall disrobing; as I walked pass hangers; depositing garments as I went.  Passing into the first doorway I came too, I reached and picked the remote from the end table, and in my own fashion plopped down upon the divan, stretching out my knees over the arm, feet dangling, clicked the television on. Pulling the pillow under my head, clicking through the channels, thinking, not a damn thing on worth watching, finally settling upon a local news station. The picture was of a frail man with his coat collar pulled up close to his neck, Bright flashes of red and blue, highlighting his frame on both sides. I turn the volume up as I watch his lips move.

“Tonight’s fall evening quite brutally shattered” I heard him say, his voice a quiver as blaring sirens filled the background. “ Never in my life have I ever seen such gore” one police officer reported the commentator continued, “ rivers of blood pooled on the flooring, body parts just, just, tossed willy nilly around the rooms, as if so demonic maniac, lost in a fit of uncontrollable rage.” Here the announcer stop sniffed his nose and turned from the screen to wipe his eyes.

“The police have confirmed that the three previous scene’s they have investigated this evening, with a total of 8 victims, so far, are connected and warn the public that there is a serial killer on the prowl tonight. Advising to keep your doors and windows locked and to be especially wary about opening your doors to strangers.”

By this time the announcer had my full attention, the legs and slid off the divan arm and I was sitting bold up right. At this very moment the doorbell rings. DING DONG! OK! I jumped, startled and my head wiping toward the hallway, I could hardly tear myself from the TV, but then again DING DONG.

“If you see any strangers in your neighborhood you are advised to contact the police immediately”, the words seemed to drill in the side of my head, when, DING DONG. Sucking air deep into my lungs, I tried to straighten my legs and stand. Slowly, stiffly I make my way to the hall door, standing for a moment in the door frame, head turned looking upon the entrance door. BAMMM BAMM BAMM thundered down the hall as someone hammered upon the door. My heart was pounding louder than the knocking in my ears, weakly I retracted my steps back down the hall, a shaking hand reached for the door knob. A deeeep breathe, and then I turn the knob, pulling slowly the door open. Eyes wide facing the unknown, it creaks open.

TRICK OR TREAT! Uncle Eddy. Two small voices shout.

HAPPY HALLOWEEN

From the Staff

 

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

 

From The Pentlands Looking North And South

Around my feet the clouds are drawn
In the cold mystery of the dawn;
No breezes cheer, no guests intrude
My mossy, mist-clad solitude;
When sudden down the steeps of sky
Flames a long, lightening wind. On high
The steel-blue arch shines clear, and far,
In the low lands where cattle are,
Towns smoke. And swift, a haze, a gleam,–
The Firth lies like a frozen stream,
Reddening with morn. Tall spires of ships,
Like thorns about the harbour’s lips,
Now shake faint canvas, now, asleep,
Their salt, uneasy slumbers keep;
While golden-grey, o’er kirk and wall,
Day wakes in the ancient capital.

Before me lie the lists of strife,
The caravanserai of life,
Whence from the gates the merchants go
On the world’s highways; to and fro
Sail laiden ships; and in the street
The lone foot-traveller shakes his feet,
And in some corner by the fire
Tells the old tale of heart’s desire.
Thither from alien seas and skies
Comes the far-questioned merchandise:–
Wrought silks of Broussa, Mocha’s ware
Brown-tinted, fragrant, and the rare
Thin perfumes that the rose’s breath
Has sought, immortal in her death:
Gold, gems, and spice, and haply still
The red rough largess of the hill
Which takes the sun and bears the vines
Among the haunted Apennines.

And he who treads the cobbled street
To-day in the cold North may meet,
Come month, come year, the dusky East,
And share the Caliph’s secret feast;
Or in the toil of wind and sun
Bear pilgrim-staff, forlorn, fordone,
Till o’er the steppe, athwart the sand
Gleam the far gates of Samarkand.
The ringing quay, the weathered face
Fair skies, dusk hands, the ocean race
The palm-girt isle, the frosty shore,
Gales and hot suns the wide world o’er
Grey North, red South, and burnished West
The goals of the old tireless quest,
Leap in the smoke, immortal, free,
Where shines yon morning fringe of sea
I turn, and lo! the moorlands high
Lie still and frigid to the sky.

The film of morn is silver-grey
On the young heather, and away,
Dim, distant, set in ribs of hill,
Green glens are shining, stream and mill,
Clachan and kirk and garden-ground,
All silent in the hush profound
Which haunts alone the hills’ recess,
The antique home of quietness.
Nor to the folk can piper play
The tune of “Hills and Far Away,”
For they are with them. Morn can fire
No peaks of weary heart’s desire,
Nor the red sunset flame behind
Some ancient ridge of longing mind.

For Arcady is here, around,
In lilt of stream, in the clear sound
Of lark and moorbird, in the bold
Gay glamour of the evening gold,
And so the wheel of seasons moves
To kirk and market, to mild loves
And modest hates, and still the sight
Of brown kind faces, and when night
Draws dark around with age and fear
Theirs is the simple hope to cheer.–
A land of peace where lost romance
And ghostly shine of helm and lance
Still dwell by castled scarp and lea,
And the last homes of chivalry,
And the good fairy folk, my dear,
Who speak for cunning souls to hear,
In crook of glen and bower of hill
Sing of the Happy Ages still.

O Thou to whom man’s heart is known,
Grant me my morning orison.
Grant me the rover’s path–to see
The dawn arise, the daylight flee,
In the far wastes of sand and sun!
Grant me with venturous heart to run
On the old highway, where in pain
And ecstasy man strives amain,
Conquers his fellows, or, too weak,
Finds the great rest that wanderers seek!
Grant me the joy of wind and brine,
The zest of food, the taste of wine,
The fighter’s strength, the echoing strife
The high tumultuous lists of life–
May I ne’er lag, nor hapless fall,
Nor weary at the battle-call!…
But when the even brings surcease,
Grant me the happy moorland peace;
That in my heart’s depth ever lie
That ancient land of heath and sky,
Where the old rhymes and stories fall
In kindly, soothing pastoral.
There in the hills grave silence lies,
And Death himself wears friendly guise
There be my lot, my twilight stage,
Dear city of my pilgrimage.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: The Moon Endureth Tales and Fancies; by John Buchan
CONTRIBUTOR: Jenny Dunnaway

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dresden 26-27 August 1813

At 6 A.M. on 26 August the allies made a general assault which carried the outlying villages and the Gross-Garten, but before they could penetrate the suburbs Napoleon’s troops were pouring across the Elbe bridges. Now the Allies put in another general attack. At every point they met with a rrude reception. Mortier drove Wittgenstein back at Striesen, while his right-hand division drove Pirch and Ziethen out of Gross-Garten. Colloredo’s Austrians got in to a French battery, but the Old Guard threw them out with the bayonet. To the west, between the Weisseritz and the Elbe, Murat, with Latour-Maubourg’s cavalry and Victor’s II Corps, drove back Gyulai and Bianchi.

Even now the Allies did not retire. This time it was not the Tsar, but the King of Prussia whose counsel prevailed. In view of their numbers, he argued it would be too much of a confession of weakness to withdraw. At the same time, though, the Allies were handicapped by the nature of the ground and the skillful dispositions of the French. Lord Cathcart, who was accompanying them—he subsequently died at the Battle of Inkerman in 1854—described the initial situation thus: “The concave arc on which the Allied army was formed was nearly six English miles from right to left; and the convex arc on which Napoleon stood was less than three. The allied line, except at the two extremities, had the advantage of an eminence; but Napoleon’s forces stood with their backs to the defenses of Dresden, sheltered by regular redoubts, and the loop-holed houses of the suburbs were near at hand. This was the attitude in which a much smaller force would have been secure from attack so long as it chose to stand on the defensive; which its concentration placed it in a favourable attitude for assuming the offensive against any weak part of the extended lines of the Allies.” He might have added that the river Weisseritz, running through difficult country, would result in the Allied left remaining isolated for a dangerous period of time in the event of a sudden, unexpected attack. Napoleon contemplated such a move.

On the following day (27 August) the French attacked all along the line. Mortier and Nansouty got around Wittgenstein right flank, but then Nansouty, outnumbered three-to-one by the Russian Reserve Cavalry, was checked. Starting from the Gross-Garten, Gouvion-Saint-Cyr drove back Kleist towards Leubnitz. The Old guard and Marmont (VI Corps) held the Austrians in play, Victor (II Corps) stormed the heights to his front, and Latour-Maubourg’s cavalry, supported by a single brigade of Vandamme’s I Corps, swept around the Austrian left at Burgstädtel.

Around noon the fighting died down, but during the afternoon the French made a decisive stroke west of the Weisseritz. Victor took Ober Gorbtiz, cutting off part of Lichtenstein’s division and compelling Weissenwolff’s to withdraw. French divisions now appeared behind the Austrians’ flank. Murat sent his cavalry, 10 Austrian battalions were cut off and taken prisoner, and the rest of the Austrian left wing departed in flagrant rout, Murat’s sabers reaping a bloody harvest.

It was fortunate indeed for the Allies that napoleon, his soldiers tired out by forced marches and hard fighting, did not press them that afternoon. He was waiting for Vandamme’s corps, which was approaching from the direction of Pirna, to develop an attack against the allies left flank and rear. During the night the Allies withdrew, toiling back in foul weather across the Erzgebirge. Many Poles in the Austrian service deserted, and some of the Prussian Landwehr battalions more or less disintegrated. Still, thanks partly to a chapter of accidents and partly to the gallant resistance of Prince Eugen of Württemberg, Vandamme failed to reach Tӧplitz before the Allies. Prince Eugen, instead of falling back, then attacked Vandamme. Under cover of this move he slipped Ostermann’s division of the Russian Guard across the French front so that it was between Vandamme and Tӧplitz. Prince Eugen’s corps suffered heavily, but he stood at bay the next day (29 August), contesting the last pass across the mountains. Ostermann himself lost an arm but eventually he was reinforced. Vandamme came on again on the 30th, but Wüttemberg was able to keep the French Centre in check, while three Austrian divisions assailed Vandamme’s left. At this stage Kleist, anxious to retire south beyond the mountains of the Erzebirge, arrive in Vandamme’s rear. Vandamme, confident he would soon link with the pursuit from Dresden, held his ground and turned upon Kleist furiously. But blocked mountain roads delayed the French pursuers and Vandamme’s position was soon desperate. General Mouton, seeing retreat down the highroad to Klum to be impossible, escaped by making his division take to the hills, but much of Napoleon’s I Corps, including its out spoken and stout-hearted commander, was compelled to surrender. Vandamme lost 10,000 killed and wounded 7,000 prisoners and 82 guns, but not his spirit. Ill-received by the Tsar, who called him a brigand, he had the temerity to remark, ‘Nobody has ever reproached me with having assassinated my father,’ a pointed reference to the death of the despotic Tsar Paul I in 1801.

The last ten days of August 18113 do not show Napoleon at his best. He had lost more men than the Allies. Against hi single success at Dresden they could show three clear victories against his lieutenants: the Allied plan was working. If ever Napoleon needed a decisive success it was when at Dresden the Allies challenged his hold on Germany. Had those operations ended in disaster for the Army of Bohemia, the allegiance of the Confederation of the Rhine to the French Empire must have been cemented?

Before the battle ended the French had 120,000 men in and around Dresden. The allies brought nearly 220,000. The French had 10,000 casualties, to which must be added those lost at Kulm. Allied casualties in these operations were in the region of 40,00. The French victory was agreat achievement, but was nullified by the catastrophe at Kulm. Coignet, the loyal old grenadier who was now the Emperors baggage-master, was shocked by the criticisms he heard among the staff officers. He wrote: ‘This was a memorable victory; but our generals had had enough of it….They cursed the Emperor: ‘He is a—-,’ They said, ‘who will have us all killed.’ I was dumb with astonishment. I said to myself, ‘We are lost’”

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE:NAOPLEON: The Last Campaigns 1813-15; BY: James Lawford
CONTRIBUTOR: Martin F. Elkins