European Headlines: 11-13-2018

Germany: (DW) Gang accused of laundering millions in Germany; The group is said to have laundered drug money for South American cartels for years — above all in Germany. With the defendants facing trial today in Paris, German reporters unveil how they were able to pull it off.

(DW) Europe should focus on NATO; says Stolenberger; NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg has told DW that European defense efforts should remain within the alliance. Stoltenberg also criticized Russia over its SSC-8 missile program, saying it breached the INF treaty.

(DW) Angela Merkel and the future of the EU; European Union leaders fear Angela Merkel’s weakened power could be a liability for the bloc. When it comes to political heavyweights in Europe, the German chancellor has long been top of the list.

(DW) Ethiopia: Dozens of top officials arrested; The high-profile arrests for abuse and corruption come as Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed implements reforms. The attorney general also accused intelligence figures of an assassination attempt against the new prime minister.

(DW) Italy host Libya summit to end crisis; Italy is trying to show leadership to end the Libya crisis in a bid to stem migration and promote stability in North Africa. It is the first time rival Libya factions and international powers have held talks since May.

(DW) German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas calls for China transparency; Despite warnings from China that Germany should not interfere in its internal affairs, Foreign Minister Heiko Maas called on Beijing to be transparent about the human rights conflict surrounding the Uighur Muslims.

(DW) Bulgaria opposes UN pact for safe and orderly migration; Bulgaria has said it opposes a UN pact on regulating the treatment of migrants and refugees. A growing number of EU states are voicing their reservations about the historic global agreement.

(DW) Is the EU kowtowing to the Kremlin on Magnitsky sanctions; Bill Browder has spent nine years campaigning to punish Russian officials responsible for killing his friend Sergei Magnitsky. He hopes Moscow’s increased aggression will convince Europe it’s time to act.

France: (France24) France to use social media to track down tax cheats; French Budget Minister Gérald Darmanin unveiled on Sunday a plan to extend the use of social media in the fight against tax evasion, a tactic that was first successfully tried in the UK.

(France24) France to mark anniversary of deadliest terrorist attack; France on Tuesday is marking the third anniversary of the country’s deadliest ever terrorist attacks with a procession linking the areas in and around Paris that were struck by jihadist gunmen on November 13, 2015.

(France24) Death toll mounts as violence between Israel and Hamas escalates; Israel’s military said it was carrying out air strikes “throughout the Gaza Strip” on Monday after a barrage of rocket fire from the Palestinian enclave towards its territory, with casualties on both sides.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

CONTRIBUTOR: Staff

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Epic of Ishtar And Izdubar: Invocation (1); Assyrian

The great nation which dwelt in the seventh century before our era on the banks of Tigris and Euphrates flourished in literature as well as in the plastic arts, and had an alphabet of its own. The Assyrians sometimes wrote with a sharp reed, for a pen, upon skins, wooden tablets, or papyrus brought from Egypt. In this case they used cursive letters of a Phoenician character. But when they wished to preserve their written documents, they employed clay tablets, and a stylus whose beveled point made an impression like a narrow elongated wedge, or arrow-head. By a combination of these wedges, letters and words were formed by the skilled and practiced scribe, who would thus rapidly turn off a vast amount of “copy.”

All works of history, poetry, and law were thus written in the cuneiform or old Chaldean characters, and on a substance which could withstand the ravages of time, fire, or water. Hence we have authentic monuments of Assyrian literature in their original form, un-glossed, unaltered, and un-garbled, and in this respect Chaldean records are actually superior to those of the Greeks, the Hebrews, or the Romans.

The literature of the Chaldeans is very varied in its forms. The hymns to the gods form an important department, and were doubtless employed in public worship. They are by no means lacking in sublimity of expression, and while quite un-metrical they are proportioned and emphasized, like Hebrew poetry, by means of parallelism. In other respects they resemble the productions of Jewish psalmists, and yet they date as far back as the third millennium before Christ. They seem to have been transcribed in the shape in which we at present have them in the reign of Assurbanipal, who was a great patron of letters, and in whose reign libraries were formed in the principal cities. The Assyrian renaissance of the seventeenth century B.C. witnessed great activity among scribes and book collectors: modern scholars are deeply indebted to this golden age of letters in Babylonia for many precious and imperishable monuments. It is, however, only within recent years that these works of hoar antiquity have passed from the secluded cell of the specialist and have come within reach of the general reader, or even of the student of literature. For many centuries the cuneiform writing was literally a dead letter to the learned world. The clue to the understanding of this alphabet was originally discovered in 1850 by Colonel Rawlinson, and described by him in a paper read before the Royal Society. Hence the knowledge of Assyrian literature is, so far as Europe is concerned, scarcely more than half a century old.

Among the most valuable of historic records to be found among the monuments of any nation are inscriptions, set up on public buildings, in palaces, and in temples. The Greek and Latin inscriptions discovered at various points on the shores of the Mediterranean have been of priceless value in determining certain questions of philology, as well as in throwing new light on the events of history. Many secrets of language have been revealed, many perplexities of history disentangled, by the words engraven on stone or metal, which the scholar discovers amid the dust of ruined temples, or on the “cippus” of a tomb. The form of one Greek letter, perhaps even its existence, would never have been guessed but for its discovery in an inscription. If inscriptions are of the highest critical importance and historic interest, in languages which are represented by a voluminous and familiar literature, how much more precious must they be when they record what happened in the remotest dawn of history, surviving among the ruins of a vast empire whose people have vanished from the face of the earth?

Hence the cuneiform inscriptions are of the utmost interest and value, and present the greatest possible attractions to the curious and intelligent reader. They record the deeds and conquests of mighty kings, the Napoleons and Hannibal’s of primeval time. They throw a vivid light on the splendid sculptures of Nineveh; they give a new interest to the pictures and carvings that describe the building of cities, the marching to war, the battle, by sea and land, of great monarchs whose horse and foot were as multitudinous as the locusts that in Eastern literature are compared to them. Lovers of the Bible will find in the Assyrian inscriptions many confirmations of Scripture history, as well as many parallels to the account of the primitive world in Genesis, and none can give even a cursory glance at these famous remains without feeling his mental horizon widened. We are carried by this writing on the walls of Assyrian towns far beyond the little world of the recent centuries; we pass, as almost modern, the day when Julius Caesar struggled in the surf of Kent against the painted savages of Britain. Nay, the birth of Romulus and Remus is a recent event in comparison with records of incidents in Assyrian national life, which occurred not only before Moses lay cradled on the waters of an Egyptian canal, but before Egypt had a single temple or pyramid, three millenniums before the very dawn of history in the valley of the Nile.

But the interest of Assyrian Literature is not confined to hymns, or even to inscriptions. A nameless poet has left in the imperishable tablets of a Babylonian library an epic poem of great power and beauty. This is the Epic of Izdubar. At Dur-Sargina, the city where stood the palace of Assyrian monarchs three thousand years ago, were two gigantic human figures, standing between the winged bulls, carved in high relief, at the entrance of the royal residence. These human figures are exactly alike, and represent the same personage–a Colossus with swelling hews, and dressed in a robe of dignity. He strangles a lion by pressing it with brawny arm against his side, as if it were no more than a cat. This figure is that of Izdubar, or Gisdubar, the great central character of Assyrian poetry and sculpture, the theme of minstrels, the typical hero of his land, the favored of the gods. What is called the Epic of Izdubar relates the exploits of this hero, who was born the son of a king in Ourouk of Chaldea. His father was dethroned by the Elamites, and Izdubar was driven into the wilderness and became a mighty hunter. In the half-peopled earth, so lately created, wild beasts had multiplied and threatened the extermination of mankind. The hunter found himself at war with monsters more formidable than even the lion or the wild bull. There were half-human scorpions, bulls with the head of man, fierce satyrs and winged griffins. Deadly war did Izdubar wage with them, till as his period of exile drew near to a close he said to his mother, “I have dreamed a dream; the stars rained from heaven upon me; then a creature, fierce-faced and taloned like a lion, rose up against me, and I smote and slew him.”

The dream was long in being fulfilled, but at last Izdubar was told of a monstrous jinn, whose name was Heabani; his head was human but horned; and he had the legs and tail of a bull, yet was he wisest of all upon earth. Enticing him from his cave by sending two fair women to the entrance, Izdubar took him captive and led him to Ourouk, where the jinn married oneof the women whose charms had allured him, and became henceforth the well-loved servant of Izdubar. Then Izdubar slew the Elamite who had dethroned his father, and put the royal diadem on his own head. And behold the goddess Ishtar (Ashtaroth) cast her eyes upon the hero and wished to be his wife, but he rejected her with scorn, reminding her of the fate of Tammuz, and of Alala the Eagle, and of the shepherd Taboulon–all her husbands, and all dead before their time. Thus, as the wrath of Juno pursued Paris, so the hatred of this slighted goddess attends Izdubar through many adventures. The last plague that torments him is leprosy, of which he is to be cured by Khasisadra, son of Oubaratonton, last of the ten primeval kings of Chaldea. Khasisadra, while still living, had been transported to Paradise, where he yet abides. Here he is found by Izdubar, who listens to his account of the Deluge, and learns from him the remedy for his disease. The afflicted hero is destined, after being cured, to pass, without death, into the company of the gods, and there to enjoy immortality. With this promise the work concludes.

The great poem of Izdubar has but recently been known to European scholars, having been discovered in 1871 by the eminent Assyriologist, Mr. George Smith. It was probably written about 2000 B.C., though the extant edition, which came from the library of King Assurbanipal in the palace at Dur-Sargina, must bear the date of 600 B.C. The hero is supposed to be a solar personification, and the epic is interesting to modern writers not only on account of its description of the Deluge, but also for the pomp and dignity of its style, and for its noble delineation of heroic character.

[BY: Epiphanius Wilson]

INVOCATION
O love, my queen and goddess, come to me;
My soul shall never cease to worship thee;
Come pillow here thy head upon my breast,
And whisper in my lyre thy softest, best.
And sweetest melodies of bright “Sami”,[1]
Our Happy Fields[2] above dear “Subartu”;[3]
Come nestle closely with those lips of love
And balmy breath, and I with thee shall rove
Through “Sari”[4] past ere life on earth was known,
And Time unconscious sped not, nor had flown.
Thou art our all in this impassioned life:
How sweetly comes thy presence ending strife,
Thou god of peace and Heaven’s undying joy,
Oh, hast thou ever left one pain or cloy
Upon this beauteous world to us so dear?
To all mankind thou art their goddess here.
To thee we sing, our holiest, fairest god,
The One who in that awful chaos trod
And woke the Elements by Law of Love
To teeming worlds in harmony to move.
From chaos thou hast led us by thy hand,
[5]Thus spoke to man upon that budding land:
“The Queen of Heaven, of the dawn am I,
The goddess of all wide immensity,
For thee I open wide the golden gate
Of happiness, and for thee love create
To glorify the heavens and fill with joy
The earth, its children with sweet love employ.”
Thou gavest then the noblest melody
And highest bliss–grand nature’s harmony.
With love the finest particle is rife,
And deftly woven in the woof of life,
In throbbing dust or clasping grains of sand,
In globes of glistening dew that shining stand
On each pure petal, Love’s own legacies
Of flowering verdure, Earth’s sweet panoplies;
By love those atoms sip their sweets and pass
To other atoms, join and keep the mass
With mighty forces moving through all space,
Tis thus on earth all life has found its place.
Through Kisar,[6] Love came formless through the air
In countless forms behold her everywhere!
Oh, could we hear those whispering roses sweet,
Three beauties bending till their petals meet,
And blushing, mingling their sweet fragrance there
In language yet unknown to mortal ear.
Their whisperings of love from morn till night
Would teach us tenderly to love the right.

O Love, here stay! Let chaos not return!
With hate each atom would its lover spurn
In air above, on land, or in the sea,
O World, undone and lost that loseth thee!
For love we briefly come, and pass away
For other men and maids; thus bring the day
Of love continuous through this glorious life.
Oh, hurl away those weapons fierce of strife!
We here a moment, point of time but live,
Too short is life for throbbing hearts to grieve.
Thrice holy is that form that love hath kissed,
And happy is that man with heart thus blessed.
Oh, let not curses fall upon that head
Whom love hath cradled on the welcome bed
Of bliss, the bosom of our fairest god,
Or hand of love e’er grasp the venging rod.

Oh, come, dear Zir-ri,[7] tune your lyres and lutes,
And sing of love with chastest, sweetest notes,
Of Accad’s goddess Ishtar, Queen of Love,
And Izdubar, with softest measure move;
Great Samas'[8] son, of him dear Zir-ri sing!
Of him whom goddess Ishtar warmly wooed,
Of him whose breast with virtue was imbued.
He as a giant towered, lofty grown,
As Babil’s[9] great “pa-te-si”[10] was he known,
His armed fleet commanded on the seas
And erstwhile travelled on the foreign leas;
His mother Ellat-gula[11] on the throne
From Erech all Kardunia[12] ruled alone.

[Footnote 1: “Samu,” heaven.]–[Footnote 2: “Happy Fields,” celestial gardens, heaven.]—[Footnote 3: “Subartu,” Syria.]–[Footnote 4: “Sari,” plural form of “saros,” a cycle or measurement of time used by the Babylonians, 3,600 years.]–[Footnote 5: From the “Accadian Hymn to Ishtar,” terra-cotta tablet numbered “S, 954,” one of the oldest hymns of a very remote date, deposited in the British Museum by Mr. Smith. It comes from Erech, one of the oldest, if not the oldest, city of Babylonia. We have inserted a portion of it in its most appropriate place in the epic. See translation in “Records of the Past,” vol. v. p. 157.]–[Footnote 6: “Kisar,” the consort or queen of Sar, father of all the gods.]–[Footnote 7: “Zir-ri” (pronounced “zeer-ree”), short form of “Zi-aria,” spirits of the running rivers–naiads or water-nymphs.]–[Footnote 8: “Samas,” the sun-god.]–[Footnote 9: Babil, Babylon; the Accadian name was “Diu-tir,” or “Duran.”]–[Footnote 10: “Pa-te-si,” prince.]–[Footnote 11: “Ellat-gula,” one of the queens or sovereigns of Erech, supposed to have preceded Nammurabi or Nimrod on the throne. We have identified Izdubar herein with Nimrod.]–[Footnote 12: “Kardunia,” the ancient name of Babylonia.]

SOURCE: Babylonian and Assyrian Literature [1901]; Author: Anonymous; Translated by Leonidas Le Cenci Hamilton, M.A.
CONTRIBUTOR: John Hague

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

American Revolution: Major Events 1775

The following is a list of major events for 1775, and the embryo of a new nation.

                                                                       1775

 26 February: British troops went by sea via Marblehead to destroy ordnance gathered by patriots at Salem, Massachusetts. Tense confrontation developed with Salem militia, and first, though slight, bloodshed occurred between British troops and militia prelude to Lexington and Concord.

 23 March: Virginia Convention resolved that colony ought immediately to be put into posture of defense, and Patrick Henry in this connection delivered his “liberty or death” speech.

 15 April: In Boston, 23 flank (light infantry and grenadier) companies of 11 British regiments then composing garrison were detached, ostensibly for separate training.

 18 April: In late evening, British assembled flank companies in Boston for expedition to destroy colonial stores at Concord, and Paul Revere and William Dawes set out with this news to arouse militia and minutemen of towns along and surrounding line of march.

 19 April: In battles of Lexington, Concord, and during British retreat to Boston, about 4,000 patriot minutemen and militia and about I ,800 British troops were engaged, sustaining losses totaling about 95 on patriot side and 270 on British. Lexington and Concord marked transition from agitation to armed rebellion, and patriot propagandist versions of action did much to cement popular sentiment in 13 colonies behind armed rebellion.

 19 April: Secret committee in Charleston, South Carolina, seized mail arriving on British packet ship Swallow disclosing intentions of British Government to coerce colonies into submission. This action gave timely warning to patriots in Carolinas and Georgia, and disclosed to Second Continental Congress first clear evidence of British intentions.

 19 April 1775-17 March 1776: Patriot forces besieged Boston for nearly a year, although officially designated Boston Campaign dates from 17 June rather than 19 April.

 20 April: Massachusetts Committee of Safety, acting on behalf of Provincial Congress, called out entire militia of colony. 

20-21 April: When Virginia Governor Lord Dunmore (John Murray) seized provincial powder supply at Williamsburg, open fighting with patriots was barely averted. 

21 April: Patriots in Charleston, South Carolina, seized all powder from public magazines.

 23 April: Massachusetts Provincial Congress resolved that volunteer New England Army of 30,000 should be raised, to which Massachusetts would contribute 13,600. The other New England Colonies were asked to furnish the rest.

 25 April: People of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after hearing news of Lexington and Concord, agreed to associate “for the purpose of defending with arms, their lives, their property, and liberty.” I May: People of New York City chose Committee of One Hundred to “stand or fall with the liberty of the continent.”

 10 May: Second Continental Congress met in State House (Independence Hall), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Delegates from all colonies except Georgia were present.

 10 May: Fort Ticonderoga, New York, guarding portage between Lake Champlain and Lake George on strategic Montreal-New York waterway, was captured by mixed force of Green Mountain Boys and others led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold (Ticonderoga Campaign). Capture included 50 British soldiers and large quantities of cannon and other ordnance supplies.

 11 May: Patriots in Savannah, Georgia, seized powder from royal magazine.

 12 May: Patriots captured Crown Point, New York, British post on Lake Champlain 10 miles north of Ticonderoga, and its ordnance stores.

 15 May: Acting on request of City and County of New York through colony delegates, Continental Congress appointed committee to determine military posts and number of troops needed to man them in New York, first step toward absorbing New York forces into a Continental army.

 17-18 May: St. Johns, Canada, on Richelieu River east of Montreal, was occupied briefly by Col. Benedict Arnold and on next day by Ethan Allen and Green Mountain Boys.

 25 May: Major Generals John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton, and William Howe arrived in Boston as part of reinforcements for General Gage. By mid-June British had force of 6,500 rank and file in Boston.

 25 May: Acting on committee report, Continental Congress resolved that posts were needed at Kings Bridge, Hudson Highlands, and Lake George in New York, which should be manned by not more than 3,000 men, with action by New York provincial Congress “until further order is taken by this Congress.”

 27 May: Patriot attack on Noddle’s (now East Boston) and Hog Islands in Boston harbor included destruction of British armed schooner Diana. In day of skirmishing four patriots were slightly wounded and two British killed and several wounded.

 31 May: Mecklenburg Resolves (Mecklenburg County, North Carolina) declared British laws null and void.

 31 May: Governor Josiah Martin of North Carolina fled from New Bern first to Fort Johnson on Cape Fear and then on 18 July to British sloop Cruzier in Cape Fear River.

 2 June: Massachusetts requested Continental Congress to take over regulation and direction of New England Army, since it had been raised for general defense of American rights.

 2 June: Provincial Congress of South Carolina avowed citizens of colony “ready to sacrifice their lives and their fortunes” in patriot cause.

 8 June: Flight of Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, to British warship Fowey at Yorktown, marked beginning of open conflict between patriots and loyalists in Virginia.

12 June: At Machias, Maine, patriots seized British armed cutter Margaretta with loss of seven on each side. Captain of British vessel was killed.

 14 June: BIRTHDAY OF UNITED STATES ARMY. On or before this day Continental Congress secretly adopted New England forces besieging Boston and New York forces guarding strategic positions; and openly this day Congress appointed committee to draft regulations for new Continental Army and authorized addition of 10 companies of riflemen to be drawn from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. These actions also mark establishment of Infantry on this date.

 15 June: Continental Congress appointed George Washington General and Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.

 16 June: Congress appointed for Continental Army two major generals, eight brigadier generals, Adjutant General, Quartermaster General and deputy, Commissary General of Stores and Provisions, Commissary of Musters, Paymaster General and deputy, and Chief Engineer and two assistants. These actions mark establishment of Adjutant General’s Corps, Quartermaster Corps, Finance Corps, and Corps of Engineers.

 17 June: Battle of Bunker Hill followed overnight patriot fortification of Breed’s Hill, in front of Bunker, overlooking Charlestown, Massachusetts. In action about 2,000 patriots fought 2,500 British troops, and resulting casualties in killed and wounded were among heaviest of Revolutionary War engagements-the patriots losing 441, including 140 killed, and British 1,150 (40 percent of those engaged), including 251 killed.

 22 June: Congress resolved to issue $2,000,000 in bills of credit first Continental currency.

 25 June: Major General Philip Schuyler named commander of the Northern Department by Washington.

 27 June: Schuyler directed by Congress to proceed to Ticonderoga and Crown Point and if found practicable and “agreeable to the Canadians” to take possession of St. Johns, Montreal, and other parts of Canada.

 30 June: Congress approved rules and regulations for governance of Continental Army.

 3 July: At Cambridge, Massachusetts, General George Washington assumed command of Continental Army forces besieging Boston.

 5 July: Continental Congress adopted “Olive Branch Petition” which, while reiterating grievances of colonists, professed their attachment to the king and desire for reconciliation and avoidance of further hostile action. George III refused to receive this petition, and instead issued his 23 August proclamation declaring colonies to be in state of rebellion. 

6 July: Congress adopted Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms, which endorsed further resistance by force rather than unconditional submission to Great Britain, and threatened dissolution of ties with mother country if no just resolution of differences was forthcoming. 

10 July: Georgia sent out first patriot vessel commissioned for naval warfare. 

18 July: Congress recommended that colonies adopt a uniform organization and equipment of militia, that one-fourth of it be segregated into separate minuteman organizations, that each colony appoint committee of safety to direct its defense, and that each provide armed vessels as required to protect its harbors and navigation along its coasts. 

19 July: Congress authorized Washington to appoint Commissary General of Military Stores marking beginning of Ordnance Department. 

20 July: Patriots in surprise raid seized royal stores and their guard at Turtle Bay, Manhattan Island (presently 47th St. at East River), and sent stores to patriot forces at Boston and on Lake Champlain. 

21 July: Patriot forces raided Nantasket Point in Boston harbor, driving off guard and seizing forage, then destroyed equipment on adjacent Light-House (Great Brewster) Island, at harbor entrance, with casualties of two patriots wounded. 

25 July: First of rifle companies authorized by Congress on 14 June, led by Captain Michael Doudel of York County, Pennsylvania, reached Continental force besieging Boston.  

27 July: Action of Congress setting up “hospital” or medical service for army of 20,000 headed by “Director General and Chief Physician” marks establishment of Army Medical Department. 

29 July: Congressional action authorizing $20.00 monthly pay for chaplains then in Continental service, earliest official recognition of chaplaincy in Army, marks establishment of Chaplain’s Corps. 

29 July: Congressional action authorizing $20.00 monthly pay for Army Judge Advocate, and electing William Tudor, Esquire, to this position, marks establishment of Judge Advocate General’s Corps. 

31 July’: Patriots again attacked Great Brewster (Light-House) Island in Boston harbor, destroying repair work and capturing 33-man British marine guard and 10 workmen. Several British and two patriots were wounded. 

8-9 August: British sloop Falcon on 8 August pursued American schooner into harbor of Gloucester, Massachusetts but intense shore fire drove Falcon away without its prizes and with 35 wounded aboard. Patriots seized 26 British sailors (prize crews) as prisoners of war. 

14 August: Patriot ships raided Bermuda, capturing its forts and carrying off all powder in their magazines. 

18 August: New York provincial Congress recommended that the Hudson River Highlands be fortified immediately; appointed commission to supervise construction on Constitution Island (opposite West Point). 

23 August: King George III issued proclamation declaring 13 American colonies to be in state of rebellion and sedition and directing suppression of American resistance. 

28 August: Patriot invasion of Canada from Lake Champlain began from Ticonderoga under leadership of Generals Philip Schuyler and Richard Montgomery. 

30 August: British naval bombardment of Stonington, Connecticut, killed two and destroyed a number of houses. 

5 September: Advanced detachment of General Schuyler’s patriot force was ambushed near St. Johns, Canada, by Indian force led by New York loyalist. Patriots drove Indians off in bush fight but not before losing eight killed and eight wounded. 

11 September: Colonel Benedict Arnold’s march to Quebec began. Departing Cambridge, Massachusetts, this date, 1,150 men traveled mostly by water to and up Kennebec River in Maine, then by portages across height of land to Chaudière River and thence to St. Lawrence River opposite. Quebec. Only 600 reached this destination on 9 November after one of the most remarkable military marches in history.

 15 September: Lord William Campbell, Royal Governor of South Carolina, took refuge on British sloop Tamar. 

16 September-2 November: Patriot troops under General Montgomery besieged St. Johns, Canada, key to defense of Montreal. 

25 September: Leading impulsive and premature attack on Montreal, Canada, Ethan Allen and about 40 of his men were captured after some brisk skirmishing. Eventually (1778) exchanged, Allen became Continental Army colonel but spent remainder of war in Vermont. 

7 October: Small British fleet operating out of Newport bombarded Bristol, Rhode Island, until its inhabitants provided 40 sheep for British Army consumption. This was only first of series of marauding attacks on islands and shores of Narragansett Bay that led to virtual extinction of loyalist support in area. 

10 October: General William Howe replaced General Gage as Commander of British Army forces in Boston, and formally succeeded Gage as Commander-in-Chief of British Army forces in the United Colonies in April 1776. 

13 October: BIRTHDAY OF UNITED STATES NAVY. Congress this day directed fitting out of two vessels to intercept ships carrying warlike stores and other supplies to British forces, and appointed a “Marine Committee” to administer this action. 

18 October: Governor William Tryon of New York took refuge on British warship Halifax in New York harbor. 

18 October: Two British warships bombarded and burned West Falmouth (now Portland), Maine, destroying 400 of its 500 buildings and burning or capturing 15 ships. 

19 October: During siege of St. Johns, Canadian-American patriot force with some 9-pounders attacked thin-walled fortress at Chambly, Canada, and forced surrender of its 88 British regulars and other inhabitants and seized quantities of powder and ordnance supplies. This action cut water escape from St. Johns and expedited its surrender. 

24-25 October: Lord Dunmore sent British naval captain and several small ships to bombard and destroy Hampton, Virginia. Militia riflemen drove off landing party on first day of bombardment, and with addition of another rifle company repelled second day’s attack with heavy loss to British in men and ships. 

30 October: Congress authorized construction of four armed vessels “for the protection and defense of the United Colonies“-thus providing first ships of Continental Navy. 

2 November: British post of St. Johns, Canada, and its garrison of about 600 regulars and militia, surrendered. While this action opened way to capture of Montreal, British “forward” defense at St. Johns and Chambly forced patriots into costly and unsuccessful winter campaign and may have saved Canada for British. 

4 November: Congress approved reorganization of Continental Army before Boston, effective with new year; reorganized force was to consist of 20,372 officers and men to be enlisted through calendar year 1776; Congress also established a uniform ration for the Army. 

7 November: Lord Dunmore, Virginia Governor, ordered colony placed under martial law. 

9 November: Colonel Arnold’s force of 600 arrived at St. Lawrence River opposite Quebec, Canada.

 10 November: BIRTHDAY OF UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS. Although colonies and Continental Army had employed marines since spring of this year, action of Congress on this day directing that two marine battalions be raised and appropriately officered is counted as beginning of Marine Corps. These battalions were to be part of Continental Army establishment under Washington’s command.

 13 November: General Montgomery’s troops occupied· Montreal, Canada, after small British force under General and Governor Sir Guy Carleton withdrew on II November. 

17 November: Appointment of Colonel Henry Knox to command of Continental Regiment of Artillery marks formal establishment of Artillery.

19 November: Patriot forces blocking St. Lawrence River near Sorel, Canada, captured three British armed vessels and eight smaller craft with their crews and cargoes, and also British Montreal garrison except General Carleton who escaped in disguise with one or two of his officers. 

19 November: Arnold, after laying siege to Quebec, withdrew forces to Point aux Trembles in face of threatened British sortie with superior force. 

22 November: Patriot force of more than 4,000 overawed smaller loyalist force at Reedy River, South Carolina (south of modern Greenville), leading to capture of principal loyalist leaders and collapse of armed loyalist opposition in South Carolina almost without bloodshed. 

27 November: Captain John Manley, commissioned by General Washington in Continental Army and master of armed schooner Lee) captured British ordnance brig Nancy at entrance of Boston harbor with cargo of tremendous value to patriot force besieging Boston-most notable of a number of captures by Washington’s “Navy” in fall and winter of 1775-1776. 

29 November: Congress appointed 5-man Secret Committee of Correspondence to develop foreign ties and support-embryo of Department of State. 

2 December: First of General Montgomery’s troops joined Arnold’s at Point aux Trembles and combined patriot force of 800 effectives began siege of Quebec, a well-fortified city defended by 1,800 British regulars and British and French-Canadian militia. 

9 December: Lord Dunmore sent force of 400 or so, half British regulars, to intercept patriot force advancing on Norfolk, Virginia. In rashly attacking instead of defending crossing at Great Bridge, Virginia, British forces suffered 62 casualties as against one patriot slightly wounded, and were completely routed in this first military action of war in Virginia. 

10 December: Connecticut men in Washington’s Army, enlisted only until this date, departed for home, emphasizing Washington’s problem in enlisting an adequate army. 

13 December: After action at Great Bridge, Norfolk, Virginia, was occupied by patriots. 

13 December: Congress authorized construction of thirteen ships five 32’s, five 28’s, and three 24’s–for Continental Navy. 

22 December: Parliament passed Prohibitory Act, interdicting foreign trade and intercourse with thirteen revolting colonies. 

31 December: With enlistments expiring, Montgomery and Arnold led 800 patriots in desperate and unsuccessful attack on Quebec, Canada (Quebec Campaign), during blinding snowstorm in early morning hours of New Year. Montgomery was killed and Arnold wounded among 60 patriots killed and wounded and 426 captured. British lost 5 killed and 13 wounded.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

SOURCE: War of the American Revolution BY: Robert W. Coakley & Steton Conn (United States Army Center of Military History)
CONTRIBUTOR: Frances Thompson

World War I Medal of Honor Recipients (Army)

Note: An asterisk in the citation indicates that the award was given posthumously.

ADKINSON, JOSEPH B.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: When murderous machinegun fire at a range of 50 yards had made it impossible for his platoon to advance, and had caused the platoon to take cover Sgt. Adkinson alone, with the greatest intrepidity, rushed across the 50 yards of open ground directly into the face of the hostile machinegun kicked the gun from the parapet into the enemy trench, and at the point of the bayonet captured the 3 men manning the gun. The gallantry and quick decision of this soldier enabled the platoon to resume its advance.

ALLEX, JAKE
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 131st Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Chipilly Ridge, France, 9 August 1918
Citation: At a critical point in the action, when all the officers with his platoon had become casualties, Cpl. Allex took command of the platoon and led it forward until the advance was stopped by fire from a machinegun nest. He then advanced alone for about 30 yards in the face of intense fire and attacked the nest. With his bayonet he killed 5 of the enemy, and when it was broken, used the butt of his rifle, capturing 15 prisoners.

ALLWORTH, EDWARD C.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division
• Place and date: At Clery-le-Petit, France, 5 November 1918
Citation: While his company was crossing the Meuse River and canal at a bridgehead opposite Clery-le-Petit, the bridge over the canal was destroyed by shell fire and Capt. Allworth’s command became separated, part of it being on the east bank of the canal and the remainder on the west bank. Seeing his advance units making slow headway up the steep slope ahead, this officer mounted the canal bank and called for his men to follow. Plunging in he swam across the canal under fire from the enemy, followed by his men. Inspiring his men by his example of gallantry, he led them up the slope, joining his hard-pressed platoons in front. By his personal leadership he forced the enemy back for more than a kilometer, overcoming machinegun nests and capturing 100 prisoners, whose number exceeded that of the men in his command. The exceptional courage and leadership displayed by Capt. Allworth made possible the re-establishment of a bridgehead over the canal and the successful advance of other troops.

ANDERSON, JOHANNES S.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: While his company was being held up by intense artillery and machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Anderson, without aid, voluntarily left the company and worked his way to the rear of the nest that was offering the most stubborn resistance. His advance was made through an open area and under constant hostile fire, but the mission was successfully accomplished, and he not only silenced the gun and captured it, but also brought back with him 23 prisoners.

*BAESEL, ALBERT E.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 148th Infantry, 37th Division
• Place and date: Near Ivoiry, France, 27 September 1918
Citation: Upon hearing that a squad leader of his platoon had been severely wounded while attempting to capture an enemy machinegun nest about 200 yards in advance of the assault line and somewhat to the right, 2d Lt. Baesel requested permission to go to the rescue of the wounded corporal. After thrice repeating his request and permission having been reluctantly given, due to the heavy artillery, rifle, and machinegun fire, and heavy deluge of gas in which the company was at the time, accompanied by a volunteer, he worked his way forward, and reaching the wounded man, placed him upon his shoulders and was instantly killed by enemy fire.

BALCH, JOHN HENRY
• Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Vierzy, France, and Somme-Py, France, 19 July and 5 October 1918
Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in action at Vierzy, on 19 July 1918. Balch unhesitatingly and fearlessly exposed himself to terrific machinegun and high-explosive fire to succor the wounded as they fell in the attack, leaving his dressing station voluntarily and keeping up the work all day and late into the night unceasingly for 16 hours. Also in the action at Somme-Py on 5 October 1918, he exhibited exceptional bravery in establishing an advanced dressing station under heavy shellfire.

BARGER, CHARLES D.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, 31 October 1918
Citation: Learning that 2 daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Barger and another stretcher bearer upon their own initiative made 2 trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued 2 wounded officers.

*BARKELEY, DAVID B.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 9 November 1918
Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Pvt. Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return, but before his goal was reached, he was seized with cramps and drowned.

BARKLEY, JOHN L.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 4th Infantry, 3d Division
• Place and date: Near Cunel, France, 7 October 1918
Citation: Pfc. Barkley, who was stationed in an observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machinegun and mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly afterward, when the enemy launched a counterattack against our forces, Pfc. Barkley got into the tank, waited under the hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him and then opened fire, completely breaking up the counterattack and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire on the tank pointblank. One shell struck the drive wheel of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the tank and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy counterattack, thereby enabling our forces to gain and hold Hill 25.

BART, FRANK J.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 9th Infantry, 2d Division
• Place and date: Near Medeah Ferme, France, 3 October 1918
Citation: Pvt. Bart, being on duty as a company runner, when the advance was held up by machinegun fire voluntarily picked up an automatic rifle, ran out ahead of the line, and silenced a hostile machinegun nest, killing the German gunners. The advance then continued, and when it was again hindered shortly afterward by another machinegun nest this courageous soldier repeated his bold exploit by putting the second machinegun out of action.

*BLACKWELL, ROBERT L.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company K, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Souplet, France, 11 October 1918
Citation: When his platoon was almost surrounded by the enemy and his platoon commander asked for volunteers to carry a message calling for reinforcements, Pvt. Blackwell volunteered for this mission, well knowing the extreme danger connected with it. In attempting to get through the heavy shell and machinegun fire this gallant soldier was killed.

*BLECKLEY, ERWIN R.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 130th Field Artillery, observer 50th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date. Near Binarville, France, 6 October 1918 (Air Mission)
Citation: 2d Lt. Bleckley, with his pilot, 1st Lt. Harold E. Goettler, Air Service, left the airdrome late in the afternoon on their second trip to drop supplies to a battalion of the 77th Division, which had been cut off by the enemy in the Argonne Forest. Having been subjected on the first trip to violent fire from the enemy, they attempted on the second trip to come still lower in order to get the packages even more precisely on the designated spot. In the course of his mission the plane was brought down by enemy rifle and machinegun fire from the ground, resulting in fatal wounds to 2d Lt. Bleckley, who died before he could be taken to a hospital. In attempting and performing this mission 2d Lt. Bleckley showed the highest possible contempt of personal danger, devotion to duty, courage, and valor.

BOONE, JOEL THOMPSON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Vicinity Vierzy, France, 19 July 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism, conspicuous gallantry, and intrepidity while serving with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy. With absolute disregard for personal safety, ever conscious and mindful of the suffering fallen, Surg. Boone, leaving the shelter of a ravine, went forward onto the open field where there was no protection and despite the extreme enemy fire of all calibers, through a heavy mist of gas, applied dressings and first aid to wounded marines. This occurred southeast of Vierzy, near the cemetery, and on the road south from that town. When the dressings and supplies had been exhausted, he went through a heavy barrage of large-caliber shells, both high explosive and gas, to replenish these supplies, returning quickly with a sidecar load, and administered them in saving the lives of the wounded. A second trip, under the same conditions and for the same purpose, was made by Surg. Boone later that day.

BRADLEY, WILLIS WINTER, JR.
• Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: North Dakota
Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. Pittsburgh, at the time of an accidental explosion of ammunition on that vessel. On 23 July 1917, some saluting cartridge cases were being reloaded in the after casemate: through an accident an explosion occurred. Comdr. Bradley (then Lieutenant), who was about to enter the casemate, was blown back by the explosion and rendered momentarily unconscious, but while still dazed, crawled into the casemate to extinguish burning materials in dangerous proximity to a considerable amount of powder, thus preventing further explosions.

BRONSON, DEMING
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company H, 364th Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, 26-27 September 1918
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy. On the morning of 26 September, during the advance of the 364th Infantry, 1st Lt. Bronson was struck by an exploding enemy hand-grenade, receiving deep cuts on his face and the back of his head. He nevertheless participated in the action which resulted in the capture of an enemy dugout from which a great number of prisoners were taken. This was effected with difficulty and under extremely hazardous conditions because it was necessary to advance without the advantage of cover and, from an exposed position, throw hand-grenades and phosphorous bombs to compel the enemy to surrender. On the afternoon of the same day he was painfully wounded in the left arm by an enemy rifle bullet, and after receiving first aid treatment he was directed to the rear. Disregarding these instructions, 1st Lt. Bronson remained on duty with his company through the night although suffering from severe pain and shock. On the morning of 27 September, his regiment resumed its attack, the object being the village of Eclisfontaine. Company H, to which 1st Lt. Bronson was assigned, was left in support of the attacking line, Company E being in the line. He gallantly joined that company in spite of his wounds and engaged with it in the capture of the village. After the capture he remained with Company E and participated with it in the capture of an enemy machinegun, he himself killing the enemy gunner. Shortly after this encounter the company was compelled to retire due to the heavy enemy artillery barrage. During this retirement 1st Lt. Bronson, who was the last man to leave the advanced position, was again wounded in both arms by an enemy high-explosive shell. He was then assisted to cover by another officer who applied first aid. Although bleeding profusely and faint from the loss of blood, 1st Lt. Bronson remained with the survivors of the company throughout the night of the second day, refusing to go to the rear for treatment. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.

CALL, DONALD M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 344th Battalion, Tank Corps
• Place and date: Near Varennes, France, 26 September 1918
Citation: During an operation against enemy machinegun nests west of Varennes, Cpl. Call was in a tank with an officer when half of the turret was knocked off by a direct artillery hit. Choked by gas from the high-explosive shell, he left the tank and took cover in a shell hole 30 yards away. Seeing that the officer did not follow, and thinking that he might be alive, Cpl. Call returned to the tank under intense machinegun and shell fire and carried the officer over a mile under machinegun and sniper fire to safety.

CANN, TEDFORD H.
• Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: New York
Citation: For courageous conduct while serving on board the U.S.S. May, 5 November 1917. Cann found a leak in a flooded compartment and closed it at the peril of his life, thereby unquestionably saving the ship.

*CHILES, MARCELLUS H.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Champy Bas, France, 3 November 1918
Citation: When his battalion, of which he had just taken command, was halted by machinegun fire from the front and left flank, he picked up the rifle of a dead soldier and, calling on his men to follow led the advance across a stream, waist deep, in the face of the machinegun fire. Upon reaching the opposite bank this gallant officer was seriously wounded in the abdomen by a sniper, but before permitting himself to be evacuated he made complete arrangements for turning over his command to the next senior officer, and under the inspiration of his fearless leadership his battalion reached its objective. Capt. Chiles died shortly after reaching the hospital.

*COLYER, WILBUR E.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Engineers, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Verdun, France, 9 October 1918
Citation: Volunteering with 2 other soldiers to locate machinegun nests, Sgt. Colyer advanced on the hostile positions to a point where he was half surrounded by the nests, which were in ambush. He killed the gunner of one gun with a captured German grenade and then turned this gun on the other nests silencing all of them before he returned to his platoon. He was later killed in action.

*COSTIN, HENRY G.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company H, 115th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-de-Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Baltimore, Md.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: When the advance of his platoon had been held up by machinegun fire and a request was made for an automatic rifle team to charge the nest, Pvt. Costin was the first to volunteer. Advancing with his team, under terrific fire of enemy artillery, machineguns, and trench mortars, he continued after all his comrades had become casualties and he himself had been seriously wounded. He operated his rifle until he collapsed. His act resulted in the capture of about 100 prisoners and several machineguns. He succumbed from the effects of his wounds shortly after the accomplishment of his heroic deed.

COVINGTON, JESSE WHITFIELD
• Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook Third Class, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: At sea aboard the U.S.S. Stewart, 17 April 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Jesse W. Covington, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself, fully realizing that similar powder boxes in the vicinity were continually exploding and that he was thereby risking his life in saving the life of this man.

CUKELA, LOUIS
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment
• Place and date: Near Villers-Cotterets, France, 18 July 1918
Citation (Army Medal): When his company, advancing through a wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point, Sgt. Cukela crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed a machinegun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew with his bayonet. With German hand grenades he then bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, capturing 4 men and 2 damaged machineguns.
Navy Medal
Citation (Navy Medal): For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, during action in the Forest de Retz, near Viller-Cottertes, France, 18 July 1918. Sgt. Cukela advanced alone against an enemy strong point that was holding up his line. Disregarding the warnings of his comrades, he crawled out from the flank in the face of heavy fire and worked his way to the rear of the enemy position. Rushing a machinegun emplacement, he killed or drove off the crew with his bayonet, bombed out the remaining part of the strong point with German handgrenades and captured 2 machineguns and 4 men.

*DILBOY, GEORGE
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 103d Infantry, 26th Division
• Place and date: Near Belleau, France, 18 July 1918
Citation: After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad embankment, Pfc. Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by an enemy machinegun from 100 yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 25 yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplacement from a prone position, killing 2 of the enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew.

DONALDSON, MICHAEL A.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: At Sommerance-Landres-et St. Georges Road, France, 14 October 1918
Citation: The advance of his regiment having been checked by intense machinegun fire of the enemy, who were entrenched on the crest of a hill before Landres-et St. Georges, his company retired to a sunken road to reorganize their position, leaving several of their number wounded near the enemy lines. Of his own volition, in broad daylight and under direct observation of the enemy and with utter disregard for his own safety, he advanced to the crest of the hill, rescued one of his wounded comrades, and returned under withering fire to his own lines, repeating his splendidly heroic act until he had brought in all the men, 6 in number.

DONOVAN, WILLIAM JOSEPH
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 14-15 October 1918
Citation: Lt. Col. Donovan personally led the assaulting wave in an attack upon a very strongly organized position, and when our troops were suffering heavy casualties he encouraged all near him by his example, moving among his men in exposed positions, reorganizing decimated platoons, and accompanying them forward in attacks. When he was wounded in the leg by machine-gun bullets, he refused to be evacuated and continued with his unit until it withdrew to a less exposed position.

DOZIER, JAMES C.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company G, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: In command of 2 platoons, 1st. Lt. Dozier was painfully wounded in the shoulder early in the attack, but he continued to lead his men displaying the highest bravery and skill. When his command was held up by heavy machinegun fire, he disposed his men in the best cover available and with a soldier continued forward to attack a machinegun nest. Creeping up to the position in the face of intense fire, he killed the entire crew with handgrenades and his pistol and a little later captured a number of Germans who had taken refuge in a dugout nearby.

*DUNN, PARKER F.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 312th Infantry, 78th Division
• Place and date: Near Grand-Pre, France, 23 October 1918
Citation: When his battalion commander found it necessary to send a message to a company in the attacking line and hesitated to order a runner to make the trip because of the extreme danger involved, Pfc. Dunn, a member of the intelligence section, volunteered for the mission. After advancing but a short distance across a field swept by artillery and machinegun fire, he was wounded, but continued on and fell wounded a second time. Still undaunted, he persistently attempted to carry out his mission until he was killed by a machinegun bullet before reaching the advance line.

EDWARDS, DANIEL R.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918
Citation: Reporting for duty from hospital where he had been for several weeks under treatment for numerous and serious wounds and although suffering intense pain from a shattered arm, he crawled alone into an enemy trench for the purpose of capturing or killing enemy soldiers known to be concealed therein. He killed 4 of the men and took the remaining 4 men prisoners; while conducting them to the rear one of the enemy was killed by a high explosive enemy shell which also completely shattered 1 of Pfc. Edwards’ legs, causing him to be immediately evacuated to the hospital. The bravery of Pfc. Edwards, now a tradition in his battalion because of his previous gallant acts, again caused the morale of his comrades to be raised to high pitch.

EGGERS, ALAN LOUIS
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Eggers, Sgt. John C. Latham and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank, under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted 2 wounded soldiers to cover in a sap of a nearby trench. Sgt. Eggers and Sgt. Latham then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were, keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it, with the wounded men, back to our lines under cover of darkness.

ELLIS, MICHAEL B.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Exermont, France, 5 October 1918
Citation: During the entire day’s engagement he operated far in advance of the first wave of his company, voluntarily undertaking most dangerous missions and single-handedly attacking and reducing machinegun nests. Flanking one emplacement, he killed 2 of the enemy with rifle fire and captured 17 others. Later he single-handedly advanced under heavy fire and captured 27 prisoners, including 2 officers and 6 machineguns, which had been holding up the advance of the company. The captured officers indicated the locations of 4 other machineguns, and he in turn captured these, together with their crews, at all times showing marked heroism and fearlessness.

FORREST, ARTHUR J.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Remonville, France, 1 November 1918
Citation: When the advance of his company was stopped by bursts of fire from a nest of 6 enemy machineguns, without being discovered, he worked his way single-handed to a point within 50 yards of the machinegun nest. Charging, single-handed, he drove out the enemy in disorder, thereby protecting the advance platoon from annihilating fire, and permitting the resumption of the advance of his company.

FOSTER, GARY EVANS
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: When his company was held up by violent machinegun fire from a sunken road, Sgt. Foster with an officer went forward to attack the hostile machinegun nests. The officer was wounded, but Sgt. Foster continued on alone in the face of the heavy fire and by effective use of hand grenades and his pistol killed several of the enemy and captured 18.

FUNK, JESSE N.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, 31 October 1918
Citation: Learning that 2 daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Funk and another stretcher bearer, upon their own initiative, made 2 trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued 2 wounded officers.

FURLONG, HAROLD A.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 353d Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Bantheville, France, 1 November 1918
Citation: Immediately after the opening of the attack in the Bois-de-Bantheville, when his company was held up by severe machinegun fire from the front, which killed his company commander and several soldiers, 1st. Lt. Furlong moved out in advance of the line with great courage and coolness, crossing an open space several hundred yards wide. Taking up a position behind the line of the machineguns, he closed in on them, one at a time, killing a number of the enemy with his rifle, putting 4 machinegun nests out of action, and driving 20 German prisoners into our lines.

GAFFNEY, FRANK
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 108th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: Pfc. Gaffney, an automatic rifleman, pushing forward alone, after all the other members of his squad had been killed, discovered several Germans placing a heavy machinegun in position. He killed the crew, captured the gun, bombed several dugouts, and, after killing 4 more of the enemy with his pistol, held the position until reinforcements came up, when 80 prisoners were captured.

*GOETTLER, HAROLD ERNEST
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, pilot, U.S. Army Air Corps, 50th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Binarville, France, 6 October 1918 (Air Mission)
Citation: 1st. Lt. Goettler, with his observer, 2d Lt. Erwin R. Bleckley, 130th Field Artillery, left the airdrome late in the afternoon on their second trip to drop supplies to a battalion of the 77th Division which had been cut off by the enemy in the Argonne Forest. Having been subjected on the first trip to violent fire from the enemy, they attempted on the second trip to come still lower in order to get the packages even more precisely on the designated spot. In the course of this mission the plane was brought down by enemy rifle and machinegun fire from the ground, resulting in the instant death of 1st. Lt. Goettler. In attempting and performing this mission 1st. Lt. Goettler showed the highest possible contempt of personal danger, devotion to duty, courage and valor.

GRAVES, ORA
• Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Nebraska
Citation: For extraordinary heroism on 23 July 1917, while the U.S.S. Pittsburgh was proceeding to Buenos Aires, Argentina. A 3-inch saluting charge exploded, causing the death of C. T. Lyles, seaman. Upon the explosion, Graves was blown to the deck, but soon recovered and discovered burning waste on the deck. He put out the burning waste while the casemate was filled with clouds of smoke, knowing that there was more powder there which might explode.

GREGORY, EARL D.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Headquarters Company, 116th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: At Bois-de-Consenvoye, north of Verdun, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: With the remark “I will get them,” Sgt. Gregory seized a rifle and a trench-mortar shell, which he used as a handgrenade, left his detachment of the trench-mortar platoon, and advancing ahead of the infantry, captured a machinegun and 3 of the enemy. Advancing still farther from the machinegun nest, he captured a 7.5-centimeter mountain howitzer and, entering a dugout in the immediate vicinity, single-handedly captured 19 of the enemy.

GUMPERTZ, SYDNEY G.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, 29 September 1918
Citation: When the advancing line was held up by machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Gumpertz left the platoon of which he was in command and started with 2 other soldiers through a heavy barrage toward the machinegun nest. His 2 companions soon became casualties from bursting shells, but 1st Sgt. Gumpertz continued on alone in the face of direct fire from the machinegun, jumped into the nest and silenced the gun, capturing 9 of the crew.

*HALL, THOMAS LEE
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date. Near Montbrehain, France, 8 October 1918
Citation: Having overcome 2 machinegun nests under his skillful leadership, Sgt. Hall’s platoon was stopped 800 yards from its final objective by machinegun fire of particular intensity. Ordering his men to take cover in a sunken road, he advanced alone on the enemy machinegun post and killed 5 members of the crew with his bayonet and thereby made possible the further advance of the line. While attacking another machinegun nest later in the day this gallant soldier was mortally wounded.

HAMMANN, CHARLES HAZELTINE
• Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Fleet
• Appointed from: Maryland
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as a pilot of a seaplane on 21 August 1918, when with 3 other planes Ens. Hammann took part in a patrol and attacked a superior force of enemy land planes. In the course of the engagement which followed the plane of Ens. George M. Ludlow was shot down and fell in the water 5 miles off Pola. Ens. Hammann immediately dived down and landed on the water close alongside the disabled machine, where he took Ludlow on board. Although his machine was not designed for the double load to which it was subjected, and although there was danger of attack by Austrian planes, he made his way to Porto Corsini.

HATLER, M. WALDO
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 8 November 1918
Citation: When volunteers were called for to secure information as to the enemy’s position on the opposite bank of the Meuse River, Sgt. Hatler was the first to offer his services for this dangerous mission. Swimming across the river, he succeeded in reaching the German lines, after another soldier, who had started with him, had been seized with cramps and drowned in midstream. Alone he carefully and courageously reconnoitered the enemy’s positions, which were held in force, and again successfully swam the river, bringing back information of great value.

HAYDEN, DAVID E.
• Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy, serving with the 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines
• Place and date: Thiaucourt, France, 15 September 1918
Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During the advance, when Cpl. Creed was mortally wounded while crossing an open field swept by machinegun fire, Hayden unhesitatingly ran to his assistance and, finding him so severely wounded as to require immediate attention, disregarded his own personal safety to dress the wound under intense machinegun fire, and then carried the wounded man back to a place of safety.

HAYS, GEORGE PRICE
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 10th Field Artillery, 3d Division
• Place and date: Near Greves Farm, France, 14-15 July 1918
Citation: At the very outset of the unprecedented artillery bombardment by the enemy, his line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with 2 French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus engaged, 7 horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy.

*HERIOT, JAMES D.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company I, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, 12 October 1918
Citation: Cpl. Heriot, with 4 other soldiers, organized a combat group and attacked an enemy machine-gun nest which had been inflicting heavy casualties on his company. In the advance 2 of his men were killed, and because of the heavy fire from all sides the remaining 2 sought shelter. Unmindful of the hazard attached to his mission, Cpl. Heriot, with fixed bayonet, alone charged the machinegun, making his way through the fire for a distance of 30 yards and forcing the enemy to surrender. During this exploit he received several wounds in the arm, and later in the same day, while charging another nest, he was killed.

HILL, RALYN M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 129th Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Donnevoux, France, 7 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing a French airplane fall out of control on the enemy side of the Meuse River with its pilot injured, Cpl. Hill voluntarily dashed across the footbridge to the side of the wounded man and, taking him on his back, started back to his lines. During the entire exploit he was subjected to murderous fire of enemy machineguns and artillery, but he successfully accomplished his mission and brought his man to a place of safety, a distance of several hundred yards.

HILTON, RICHMOND H.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Brancourt, France, 11 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While Sgt. Hilton’s company was advancing through the village of Brancourt it was held up by intense enfilading fire from a machinegun. Discovering that this fire came from a machinegun nest among shell holes at the edge of the town, Sgt. Hilton, accompanied by a few other soldiers, but well in advance of them, pressed on toward this position, firing with his rifle until his ammunition was exhausted, and then with his pistol, killing 6 of the enemy and capturing 10. In the course of this daring exploit he received a wound from a bursting shell, which resulted in the loss of his arm.

HOFFMAN, CHARLES F. (Army Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 49th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, (Name changed to Ernest August Janson, see p. 444.)
• Place and date: Near Chateau-Thierry, France, 6 June 1918
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
• Also received Navy Medal of Honor
Citation: Immediately after the company to which he belonged had reached its objective on Hill 142, several hostile counterattacks were launched against the line before the new position had been consolidated. G/Sgt. Hoffman was attempting to organize a position on the north slope of the hill when he saw 12 of the enemy, armed with 5 light machineguns, crawling toward his group. Giving the alarm, he rushed the hostile detachment, bayoneted the 2 leaders, and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. His quick action, initiative, and courage drove the enemy from a position from which they could have swept the hill with machinegun fire and forced the withdrawal of our troops.

HOLDERMAN, NELSON M.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918
• G.O. No.: 11, W.D., 1921
Citation: Capt. Holderman commanded a company of a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy. He was wounded on 4, 5, and 7 October, but throughout the entire period, suffering great pain and subjected to fire of every character, he continued personally to lead and encourage the officers and men under his command with unflinching courage and with distinguished success. On 6 October, in a wounded condition, he rushed through enemy machinegun and shell fire and carried 2 wounded men to a place of safety.

*INGRAM, OSMOND K.
• Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to. Alabama
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the presence of the enemy on the occasion of the torpedoing of the Cassin, on 15 October 1917. While the Cassin was searching for the submarine, Ingram sighted the torpedo coming, and realizing that it might strike the ship aft in the vicinity of the depth charges, ran aft with the intention of releasing the depth charges before the torpedo could reach the Cassin. The torpedo struck the ship before he could accomplish his purpose and Ingram was killed by the explosion. The depth charges exploded immediately afterward. His life was sacrificed in an attempt to save the ship and his shipmates, as the damage to the ship would have been much less if he had been able to release the depth charges.

IZAC, EDOUARD VICTOR MICHEL
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: Aboard German submarine U-90 as prisoner of war, 21 May 1918
• Entered service at: Illinois
Citation: When the U.S.S. President Lincoln was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-90, on 21 May 1918, Lt. Izac was captured and held as a prisoner on board the U-90 until the return of the submarine to Germany, when he was confined in the prison camp. During his stay on the U-90 he obtained information of the movements of German submarines which was so important that he determined to escape, with a view to making this information available to the U.S. and Allied Naval authorities. In attempting to carry out this plan, he jumped through the window of a rapidly moving train at the imminent risk of death, not only from the nature of the act itself but from the fire of the armed German soldiers who were guarding him. Having been recaptured and re-confined, Lt. Izac made a second and successful attempt to escape, breaking his way through barbed-wire fences and deliberately drawing the fire of the armed guards in the hope of permitting others to escape during the confusion. He made his way through the mountains of southwestern Germany, having only raw vegetables for food, and at the end, swam the River Rhine during the night in the immediate vicinity of German sentries.

JANSON, ERNEST AUGUST (Navy Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 49th Company. (Served under name of Charles F. Hoffman)
• Accredited to: New York
• Also received Army Medal of Honor
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Chateau-Thierry, France, 6 June 1918. Immediately after the company to which G/Sgt. Janson belonged, had reached its objective on Hill 142, several hostile counterattacks were launched against the line before the new position had been consolidated. G/Sgt. Janson was attempting to organize a position on the north slope of the hill when he saw 12 of the enemy, armed with 5 light machineguns, crawling toward his group. Giving the alarm, he rushed the hostile detachment, bayoneted the 2 leaders, and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. His quick action, initiative and courage drove the enemy from a position from which they could have swept the hill with machinegun fire and forced the withdrawal of our troops.

JOHNSON, HENRY
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 369th Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces
• Place and Date: Argonne Forest, Champagne, France | May 15, 1918
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private Johnson distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company C, 369th Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces, during combat operations against the enemy on the front lines of the Western Front in France on May 15, 1918. Private Johnson and another soldier were on sentry duty at a forward outpost when they received a surprise attack from a German raiding party consisting of at least 12 soldiers. While under intense enemy fire and despite receiving significant wounds, Private Johnson mounted a brave retaliation, resulting in several enemy casualties. When his fellow soldier was badly wounded, Private Johnson prevented him from being taken prisoner by German forces. Private Johnson exposed himself to grave danger by advancing from his position to engage an enemy soldier in hand-to-hand combat. Wielding only a knife and gravely wounded himself, Private Johnson continued fighting and took his Bolo knife and stabbed it through an enemy soldier’s head. Displaying great courage, Private Johnson held back the enemy force until they retreated. Private Johnson’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.

JOHNSTON, HAROLD I.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Private First Class), U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, 9 November 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Sgt. Johnston, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location of the enemy. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return. This was accomplished after a severe struggle which so exhausted him that he had to be assisted from the water, after which he rendered his report of the exploit.

KARNES, JAMES E.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Estrees, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Knoxville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: During an advance, his company was held up by a machinegun, which was enfilading the line. Accompanied by another soldier, he advanced against this position and succeeded in reducing the nest by killing 3 and capturing 7 of the enemy and their guns.

KATZ, PHILLIP C.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 363d Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his company had withdrawn for a distance of 200 yards on a line with the units on its flanks, Sgt. Katz learned that one of his comrades had been left wounded in an exposed position at the point from which the withdrawal had taken place. Voluntarily crossing an area swept by heavy machinegun fire, he advanced to where the wounded soldier lay and carried him to a place of safety.
KAUFMAN, BENJAMIN
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: In the forest of Argonne, France, 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: He took out a patrol for the purpose of attacking an enemy machinegun which had checked the advance of his company. Before reaching the gun he became separated from his patrol and a machinegun bullet shattered his right arm. Without hesitation he advanced on the gun alone, throwing grenades with his left hand and charging with an empty pistol, taking one prisoner and scattering the crew, bringing the gun and prisoner back to the first-aid station.
KELLY, JOHN JOSEPH
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps, 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Pvt. Kelly ran through our own barrage 100 yards in advance of the front line and attacked an enemy machinegun nest, killing the gunner with a grenade, shooting another member of the crew with his pistol, and returning through the barrage with 8 prisoners.
Navy Medal
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division, in action with the enemy at Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918. Pvt. Kelly ran through our own barrage a hundred yards in advance of the front line and attacked an enemy machinegun nest, killing the gunner with a grenade, shooting another member of the crew with his pistol, and returning through the barrage with 8 prisoners.

*KOCAK, MATEJ
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: When the advance of his battalion was checked by a hidden machinegun nest, he went forward alone, unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in between the German positions in the face of fire from enemy covering detachments. Locating the machinegun nest, he rushed it and with his bayonet drove off the crew. Shortly after this he organized 25 French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in attacking another machinegun nest, which was also put out of action.
Navy Medal
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, in action in the Viller-Cottertes section, south of Soissons, France, 18 July 1918. When a hidden machinegun nest halted the advance of his battalion, Sgt. Kocak went forward alone unprotected by covering fire and worked his way in between the German positions in the face of heavy enemy fire. Rushing the enemy position with his bayonet, he drove off the crew. Later the same day, Sgt. Kocak organized French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in an attack on another machinegun nest which was also put out of action.

LATHAM, JOHN CRIDLAND
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Rutherford, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Latham, Sgt. Alan L. Eggers, and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shellhole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area, Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted 2 wounded soldiers to cover in the sap of a nearby trench. Sgts. Latham and Eggers then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it with the wounded men back to our lines under cover of darkness.

*LEMERT, MILO
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 119th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Crossville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing that the left flank of his company was held up, he located the enemy machinegun emplacement, which had been causing heavy casualties. In the face of heavy fire he rushed it single-handed, killing the entire crew with grenades. Continuing along the enemy trench in advance of the company, he reached another emplacement, which he also charged, silencing the gun with grenades. A third machinegun emplacement opened up on him from the left and with similar skill and bravery he destroyed this also. Later, in company with another sergeant, he attacked a fourth machinegun nest, being killed as he reached the parapet of the emplacement. His courageous action in destroying in turn 4 enemy machinegun nests prevented many casualties among his company and very materially aided in achieving the objective.

LOMAN, BERGER
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company H, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Consenvoye, France, 9 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: When his company had reached a point within 100 yards of its objective, to which it was advancing under terrific machinegun fire, Pvt. Loman voluntarily and unaided made his way forward after all others had taken shelter from the direct fire of an enemy machinegun. He crawled to a flank position of the gun and, after killing or capturing the entire crew, turned the machinegun on the retreating enemy.

*LUKE, FRANK, JR.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 27th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Murvaux, France, 29 September 1918 (Air Mission)
• Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After having previously destroyed a number of enemy aircraft within 17 days he voluntarily started on a patrol after German observation balloons. Though pursued by 8 German planes which were protecting the enemy balloon line, he unhesitatingly attacked and shot down in flames 3 German balloons, being himself under heavy fire from ground batteries and the hostile planes. Severely wounded, he descended to within 50 meters of the ground, and flying at this low altitude near the town of Murvaux opened fire upon enemy troops, killing 6 and wounding as many more. Forced to make a landing and surrounded on all sides by the enemy, who called upon him to surrender, he drew his automatic pistol and defended himself gallantly until he fell dead from a wound in the chest.

LYLE, ALEXANDER GORDON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: Massachusetts
• Other Navy award: Legion of Merit
Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps. Under heavy shellfire, on 23 April 1918, on the French Front, Lt. Comdr. Lyle rushed to the assistance of Cpl. Thomas Regan, who was seriously wounded, and administered such effective surgical aid while bombardment was still continuing, as to save the life of Cpl. Regan.

MacKENZlE, JOHN
• Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Massachusetts
• G.O. No.: 391, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the U.S.S. Remlik, on the morning of 17 December 1917, when the Remlik encountered a heavy gale. During this gale, there was a heavy sea running. The depth charge box on the taffrail aft, containing a Sperry depth charge, was washed overboard, the depth charge itself falling inboard and remaining on deck. MacKenzie, on his own initiative, went aft and sat down on the depth charge, as it was impracticable to carry it to safety until the ship was headed up into the sea. In acting as he did, MacKenzie exposed his life and prevented a serious accident to the ship and probable loss of the ship and the entire crew.

MADISON, JAMES JONAS
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Naval Reserve Force
• Appointed from: Mississippi
Citation: For exceptionally heroic service in a position of great responsibility as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Ticonderoga, when, on 4 October 1918, that vessel was attacked by an enemy submarine and was sunk after a prolonged and gallant resistance. The submarine opened fire at a range of 500 yards, the first shots taking effect on the bridge and forecastle, 1 of the 2 forward guns of the Ticonderoga being disabled by the second shot. The fire was returned and the fight continued for nearly 2 hours. Lt. Comdr. Madison was severely wounded early in the fight, but caused himself to be placed in a chair on the bridge and continued to direct the fire and to maneuver the ship. When the order was finally given to abandon the sinking ship, he became unconscious from loss of blood, but was lowered into a lifeboat and was saved, with 31 others, out of a total number of 236 on board.

MALLON, GEORGE H.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from the balance of his company because of a fog, Capt. Mallon, with 9 soldiers, pushed forward and attacked 9 active hostile machineguns, capturing all of them without the loss of a man. Continuing on through the woods, he led his men in attacking a battery of four 155-millimeter howitzers, which were in action, rushing the position and capturing the battery and its crew. In this encounter Capt. Mallon personally attacked 1 of the enemy with his fists. Later, when the party came upon 2 more machineguns, this officer sent men to the flanks while he rushed forward directly in the face of the fire and silenced the guns, being the first one of the party to reach the nest. The exceptional gallantry and determination displayed by Capt. Mallon resulted in the capture of 100 prisoners, 11 machineguns, four 155-millimeter howitzers and 1 antiaircraft gun.

MANNING, SIDNEY E.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company G, 167th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Breuvannes, France, 28 July 1918
• Entering service at: Flomaton, Ala.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: When his platoon commander and platoon sergeant had both become casualties soon after the beginning of an assault on strongly fortified heights overlooking the Ourcq River, Cpl. Manning took command of his platoon, which was near the center of the attacking line. Though himself severely wounded he led forward the 35 men remaining in the platoon and finally succeeded in gaining a foothold on the enemy’s position, during which time he had received more wounds and all but 7 of his men had fallen. Directing the consolidation of the position, he held off a large body of the enemy only 50 yards away by fire from his automatic rifle. He declined to take cover until his line had been entirely consolidated with the line of the platoon on the front when he dragged himself to shelter, suffering from 9 wounds in all parts of the body.

McGUNIGAL, PATRICK
• Rank and organization: Shipfitter First Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Ohio
• G.O. No.: 341, 1917
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Huntington. On the morning of 17 September 1917, while the U.S.S. Huntington was passing through the war zone, a kite balloon was sent up with Lt. (j.g.) H. W. Hoyt, U.S. Navy, as observer. When the balloon was about 400 feet in the air, the temperature suddenly dropped, causing the balloon to descend about 200 feet, when it was struck by a squall. The balloon was hauled to the ship’s side, but the basket trailed in the water and the pilot was submerged. McGunigal, with great daring, climbed down the side of the ship, jumped to the ropes leading to the basket, and cleared the tangle enough to get the pilot out of them. He then helped the pilot to get clear, put a bowline around him, and enabled him to be hauled to the deck. A bowline was lowered to McGunigal and he was taken safely aboard.

McMURTRY, GEORGE G.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: At Charlevaux, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: Commanded a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy and although wounded in the knee by shrapnel on 4 October and suffering great pain, he continued throughout the entire period to encourage his officers and men with a resistless optimism that contributed largely toward preventing panic and disorder among the troops, who were without food, cut off from communication with our lines. On 4 October during a heavy barrage, he personally directed and supervised the moving of the wounded to shelter before himself seeking shelter. On 6 October he was again wounded in the shoulder by a German grenade, but continued personally to organize and direct the defense against the German attack on the position until the attack was defeated. He continued to direct and command his troops, refusing relief, and personally led his men out of the position after assistance arrived before permitting himself to be taken to the hospital on 8 October. During this period the successful defense of the position was due largely to his efforts.

*MESTROVITCH, JAMES I.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 111th Infantry, 28th Division
• Place and date: At Fismette, France, 10 August 1918
• Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Seeing his company commander Iying wounded 30 yards in front of the line after his company had withdrawn to a sheltered position behind a stone wall, Sgt. Mestrovitch voluntarily left cover and crawled through heavy machinegun and shell fire to where the officer lay. He took the officer upon his back and crawled to a place of safety, where he administered first-aid treatment, his exceptional heroism saving the officer’s life.

MILES, L. WARDLAW
• Rank and organization. Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near Revillon, France, 14 September 1918
• Entered service at: Princeton, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: Volunteered to lead his company in a hazardous attack on a commanding trench position near the Aisne Canal, which other troops had previously attempted to take without success. His company immediately met with intense machinegun fire, against which it had no artillery assistance, but Capt. Miles preceded the first wave and assisted in cutting a passage through the enemy’s wire entanglements. In so doing he was wounded 5 times by machinegun bullets, both legs and 1 arm being fractured, whereupon he ordered himself placed on a stretcher and had himself carried forward to the enemy trench in order that he might encourage and direct his company, which by this time had suffered numerous casualties. Under the inspiration of this officer’s indomitable spirit his men held the hostile position and consolidated the front line after an action lasting 2 hours, at the conclusion of which Capt. Miles was carried to the aid station against his will.

*MILLER, OSCAR F.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 361st Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Gesnes, France, 28 September 1918
• Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D. 1919
Citation: After 2 days of intense physical and mental strain, during which Maj. Miller had led his battalion in the front line of the advance through the forest of Argonne, the enemy was met in a prepared position south of Gesnes. Though almost exhausted, he energetically reorganized his battalion and ordered an attack. Upon reaching open ground the advancing line began to waver in the face of machinegun fire from the front and flanks and direct artillery fire. Personally leading his command group forward between his front-line companies, Maj. Miller inspired his men by his personal courage, and they again pressed on toward the hostile position. As this officer led the renewed attack he was shot in the right leg, but he nevertheless staggered forward at the head of his command. Soon afterwards he was again shot in the right arm, but he continued the charge, personally cheering his troops on through the heavy machinegun fire. Just before the objective was reached he received a wound in the abdomen, which forced him to the ground, but he continued to urge his men on, telling them to push on to the next ridge and leave him where he lay. He died from his wounds a few days later.

MORELOCK, STERLING
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company M, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Exermont, France, 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: Oquawka, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 43, W.D., 1922
Citation: While his company was being held up by heavy enemy fire, Pvt. Morelock, with 3 other men who were acting as runners at company headquarters, voluntarily led them as a patrol in advance of his company’s frontline through an intense rifle, artillery, and machinegun fire and penetrated a woods which formed the German frontline. Encountering a series of 5 hostile machinegun nests, containing from 1 to 5 machineguns each, with his patrol he cleaned them all out, gained and held complete mastery of the situation until the arrival of his company commander with reinforcements, even though his entire party had become casualties. He rendered first aid to the injured and evacuated them by using stretcher bearers 10 German prisoners whom he had captured. Soon thereafter his company commander was wounded and while dressing his wound Pvt. Morelock was very severely wounded in the hip, which forced his evacuation. His heroic action and devotion to duty were an inspiration to the entire regiment.

NEIBAUR, THOMAS C.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company M, 167th 1 Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 16 October 1918
• Entered service at: Sugar City, Idaho.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: On the afternoon of 16 October 1918, when the Cote-de-Chatillion had just been gained after bitter fighting and the summit of that strong bulwark in the Kriemhilde Stellung was being organized, Pvt. Neibaur was sent out on patrol with his automatic rifle squad to enfilade enemy machinegun nests. As he gained the ridge he set up his automatic rifle and was directly thereafter wounded in both legs by fire from a hostile machinegun on his flank. The advance wave of the enemy troops, counterattacking, had about gained the ridge, and although practically cut off and surrounded, the remainder of his detachment being killed or wounded, this gallant soldier kept his automatic rifle in operation to such effect that by his own efforts and by fire from the skirmish line of his company, at least 100 yards in his rear, the attack was checked. The enemy wave being halted and Iying prone, 4 of the enemy attacked Pvt. Neibaur at close quarters. These he killed. He then moved alone among the enemy Iying on the ground about him, in the midst of the fire from his own lines, and by coolness and gallantry captured 11 prisoners at the point of his pistol and, although painfully wounded, brought them back to our lines. The counterattack in full force was arrested to a large extent by the single efforts of this soldier, whose heroic exploits took place against the skyline in full view of his entire battalion.
Note1: The U.S. Senate report which is the source for these citations indicates that Private Niebaur’s service for this award was with the 107th Infantry, part of the 42d Division. The 107th Infantry Regiment, however, was not a part of the 42d Division. The award citation was originally published in War Department General Orders 118, 1918, and shows Private Niebaur’s unit as the 167th Infantry (which was an element of the 42d Division). Based on this evidence, it appears that the Senate report contains a typographical error, and the citation posted here has been changed to reflect the unit as the 107th Infantry, as listed in the General Orders. (CMH Website Operations)

O’NEILL, RICHARD W.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 165th Infantry, 42d Division
• Place and date: On the Ourcq River, France, 30 July 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 30, W.D., 1921
Citation: In advance of an assaulting line, he attacked a detachment of about 25 of the enemy. In the ensuing hand-to-hand encounter he sustained pistol wounds, but heroically continued in the advance, during which he received additional wounds: but, with great physical effort, he remained in active command of his detachment. Being again wounded, he was forced by weakness and loss of blood to be evacuated, but insisted upon being taken first to the battalion commander in order to transmit to him valuable information relative to enemy positions and the disposition of our men.

ORMSBEE, FRANCIS EDWARD, JR.
• Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Florida
• G.O. No.: 436, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., on 25 September 1918. While flying with Ens. J. A. Jova, Ormsbee saw a plane go into a tailspin and crash about three-quarters of a mile to the right. Having landed near by, Ormsbee lost no time in going overboard and made for the wreck, which was all under water except the 2 wing tips. He succeeded in partially extricating the gunner so that his head was out of water, and held him in this position until the speedboat arrived. Ormsbee then made a number of desperate attempts to rescue the pilot, diving into the midst of the tangled wreckage although cut about the hands, but was too late to save his life.

*OSBORNE, WEEDON E.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy
• Appointed from: Illinois
• Entered
• Other
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy and under fire during the advance on Bouresche, France, on 6 June 1918. In the hottest of the fighting when the marines made their famous advance on Bouresche at the southern edge of Belleau Wood, Lt (j.g.). Osborne threw himself zealously into the work of rescuing the wounded. Extremely courageous in the performance of this perilous task, he was killed while carrying a wounded officer to a place of safety.

*O’SHEA, THOMAS E.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Summit, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919
Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Cpl. O’Shea, with 2 other soldiers, took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled 30 yards from them, the 3 soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded and died of his wounds shortly afterwards.

PARKER, SAMUEL I.
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 28th Infantry, 1st Division
• Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18-19 July 1918
• Entered service at: Monroe, N.C.
• G.O. No.: 1, W.D. 1937
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. During the attack the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 28th Infantry were merged, and after several hours of severe fighting, successfully established a frontline position. In so doing, a gap was left between the right flank of the French 153d Division on their left and the left flank of the 28th Infantry, exposing the left flank to a terrific enfilade fire from several enemy machineguns located in a rock quarry on high ground. 2d Lt. Parker, observing this serious situation, ordered his depleted platoon to follow him in an attack upon the strong point. Meeting a disorganized group of French Colonials wandering leaderlessly about, he persuaded them to join his platoon. This consolidated group followed 2d Lt. Parker through direct enemy rifle and machinegun fire to the crest of the hill, and rushing forward, took the quarry by storm, capturing 6 machineguns and about 40 prisoners. The next day when the assault was continued, 2d Lt. Parker in command of the merged 2d and 3d Battalions was in support of the 1st Battalion. Although painfully wounded in the foot, he refused to be evacuated and continued to lead his command until the objective was reached. Seeing that the assault battalion was subjected to heavy enfilade fire due to a gap between it and the French on its left, 2d Lt. Parker led his battalion through this heavy fire up on the line to the left of the 1st Battalion and thereby closed the gap, remaining in command of his battalion until the newly established lines of the 28th Infantry were thoroughly consolidated. In supervising the consolidation of the new position, 2d Lt. Parker was compelled to crawl about on his hands and knees on account of his painful wound. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.

PECK, ARCHIE A.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 307th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: In the Argonne Forest, France, 6 October 1918
• Entered service at: Hornell, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While engaged with 2 other soldiers on patrol duty, he and his comrades were subjected to the direct fire of an enemy machinegun, at which time both his companions were wounded. Returning to his company, he obtained another soldier to accompany him to assist in bringing in the wounded men. His assistant was killed in the exploit, but he continued on, twice returning safely bringing in both men, being under terrific machinegun fire during the entire Journey.

*PERKINS, MICHAEL J.
• Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 101st Infantry, 26th Division
• Place and date: At Belieu Bois, France, 27 October 1918
• Entered service at: Boston, Mass.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D. 1919
Citation: He, voluntarily and alone, crawled to a German “pill box” machinegun emplacement, from which grenades were being thrown at his platoon. Awaiting his opportunity, when the door was again opened and another grenade thrown, he threw a bomb inside, bursting the door open, and then, drawing his trench knife, rushed into the emplacement. In a hand-to-hand struggle he killed or wounded several of the occupants and captured about 25 prisoners, at the same time silencing 7 machineguns.

PETTY, ORLANDO HENDERSON
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), USNRF
• Appointed from: Pennsylvania
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in France during the attack in the Boise de Belleau, 11 June 1918. While under heavy fire of high explosive and gas shells in the town of Lucy, where his dressing station was located, Lt. Petty attended to and evacuated the wounded under most trying conditions. Having been knocked to the ground by an exploding gas shell which tore his mask, Lt. Petty discarded the mask and courageously continued his work. His dressing station being hit and demolished, he personally helped carry Capt. Williams, wounded, through the shellfire to a place of safety.

*PIKE, EMORY J.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, Division Machinegun Officer, 82d Division
• Place and date: Near Vandieres, France, 15 September 1918
• Entered service at: Des Moines, Iowa
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Having gone forward to reconnoiter new machinegun positions, Lt. Col. Pike offered his assistance in reorganizing advance infantry units which had become disorganized during a heavy artillery shelling. He succeeded in locating only about 20 men, but with these he advanced and when later joined by several infantry platoons rendered inestimable service in establishing outposts, encouraging all by his cheeriness, in spite of the extreme danger of the situation. When a shell had wounded one of the men in the outpost, Lt. Col. Pike immediately went to his aid and was severely wounded himself when another shell burst in the same place. While waiting to be brought to the rear, Lt. Col. Pike continued in command, still retaining his jovial manner of encouragement, directing the reorganization until the position could be held. The entire operation was carried on under terrific bombardment, and the example of courage and devotion to duty, as set by Lt. Col. Pike, established the highest standard of morale and confidence to all under his charge. The wounds he received were the cause of his death.

POPE, THOMAS A.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company E, 131st Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Hamel, France, 4 July 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
• G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919
Citation: His company was advancing behind the tanks when it was halted by hostile machinegun fire. Going forward alone, he rushed a machinegun nest, killed several of the crew with his bayonet, and, standing astride his gun, held off the others until reinforcements arrived and captured them.

*PRUITT, JOHN HENRY
Army Medal
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918
• Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz.
• G.O. No.: 62, W.D., 1919
Citation: Cpl. Pruitt single-handed attacked 2 machineguns, capturing them and killing 2 of the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners in a dugout nearby. This gallant soldier was killed soon afterward by shellfire while he was sniping at the enemy.
Navy Medal
Citation: For extraordinary gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 78th Company, 6th Regiment, 2d Division, in action with the enemy at Blanc Mont Ridge, France, 3 October 1918. Cpl. Pruitt, single-handed attacked 2 machineguns, capturing them and killing 2 of the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners in a dugout nearby. This gallant soldier was killed soon afterward by shellfire while he was sniping the enemy.

REGAN, PATRICK
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 115th Infantry, 29th Division
• Place and date: Bois-de-Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: While leading his platoon against a strong enemy machinegun nest which had held up the advance of 2 companies, 2d Lt. Regan divided his men into 3 groups, sending 1 group to either flank, and he himself attacking with an automatic rifle team from the front. Two of the team were killed outright, while 2d Lt. Regan and the third man were seriously wounded, the latter unable to advance. Although severely wounded, 2d Lt. Regan dashed with empty pistol into the machinegun nest, capturing 30 Austrian gunners and 4 machineguns. This gallant deed permitted the companies to advance, avoiding a terrific enemy fire. Despite his wounds, he continued to lead his platoon forward until ordered to the rear by his commanding officer.

RICKENBACKER, EDWARD V. (Air Mission)
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 94th Aero Squadron, Air Service
• Place and date: Near Billy, France, 25 September 1918
• Entered service at: Columbus, Ohio.
• G.O. No.: 2, W.D., 1931
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy near Billy, France, 25 September 1918. While on a voluntary patrol over the lines, 1st Lt. Rickenbacker attacked 7 enemy planes (5 type Fokker, protecting two type Halberstadt). Disregarding the odds against him, he dived on them and shot down one of the Fokkers out of control. He then attacked one of the Halberstadts and sent it down also.

ROBB, GEORGE S.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 369th Infantry, 93d Division
• Place and date: Near Sechault, France, 29-30 September 1918
• Entered service at: Salina, Kans.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While leading his platoon in the assault 1st Lt. Robb was severely wounded by machinegun fire, but rather than go to the rear for proper treatment he remained with his platoon until ordered to the dressing station by his commanding officer. Returning within 45 minutes, he remained on duty throughout the entire night, inspecting his lines and establishing outposts. Early the next morning he was again wounded, once again displaying his remarkable devotion to duty by remaining in command of his platoon. Later the same day a bursting shell added 2 more wounds, the same shell killing his commanding officer and 2 officers of his company. He then assumed command of the company and organized its position in the trenches. Displaying wonderful courage and tenacity at the critical times, he was the only officer of his battalion who advanced beyond the town, and by clearing machinegun and sniping posts contributed largely to the aid of his battalion in holding their objective. His example of bravery and fortitude and his eagerness to continue with his mission despite severe wounds set before the enlisted men of his command a most wonderful standard of morale and self-sacrifice.

*ROBERTS, HAROLD W.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company A, 344th Battalion, Tank Corps
• Place and date: In the Montrebeau Woods France 4 October 1918
• Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Cpl. Roberts, a tank driver, was moving his tank into a clump of bushes to afford protection to another tank which had become disabled. The tank slid into a shell hole, 10 feet deep, filled with water, and was immediately submerged. Knowing that only 1 of the 2 men in the tank could escape, Cpl. Roberts said to the gunner, “Well, only one of us can get out, and out you go,” whereupon he pushed his companion through the back door of the tank and was himself drowned.

ROBINSON, ROBERT GUY
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 1st Marine Aviation Force
• Place and date: Pittham, Belgium, 14 October 1918
• Entered service at: Chicago, Ill.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as observer in the 1st Marine Aviation Force at the front in France. In company with planes from Squadron 218, Royal Air Force, conducting an air raid on 8 October 1918, G/Sgt. Robinson’s plane was attacked by 9 enemy scouts. In the fight which followed, he shot down 1 of the enemy planes. In a later air raid over Pittham, Belgium, on 14 October 1918, his plane and 1 other became separated from their formation on account of motor trouble and were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. Acting with conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in the fight which ensued, G/Sgt. Robinson, after shooting down 1 of the enemy planes, was struck by a bullet which carried away most of his elbow. At the same time his gun jammed. While his pilot maneuvered for position, he cleared the jam with one hand and returned to the fight. Although his left arm was useless, he fought off the enemy scouts until he collapsed after receiving 2 more bullet wounds, one in the stomach and one in the thigh.

SAMPLER, SAMUEL M.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 142d Infantry, 36th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Etienne, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Altus, Okla.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: His company having suffered severe casualties during an advance under machinegun fire, was finally stopped. Cpl. Sampler detected the position of the enemy machineguns on an elevation. Armed with German handgrenades, which he had picked up, he left the line and rushed forward in the face of heavy fire until he was near the hostile nest, where he grenaded the position. His third grenade landed among the enemy, killing 2, silencing the machineguns, and causing the surrender of 28 Germans, whom he sent to the rear as prisoners. As a result of his act the company was immediately enabled to resume the advance.

SANDLIN, WILLIE
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 132d Infantry, 33d Division
• Place and date: At Bois-de-Forges, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Hyden, Ky.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: He showed conspicuous gallantry in action by advancing alone directly on a machinegun nest which was holding up the line with its fire. He killed the crew with a grenade and enabled the line to advance. Later in the day he attacked alone and put out of action 2 other machinegun nests, setting a splendid example of bravery and coolness to his men.

*SAWELSON, WILLIAM
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division
• Place and date: At Grand-Pre, France, 26 October, 1918
• Entered service at: Harrison, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.

SCHAFFNER, DWITE H.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 306th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Hubert’s Pavillion, Boureuilles, France, 28 September 1918
• Entered service at: Falls Creek, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 15, W.D., 1923
Citation: He led his men in an attack on St. Hubert’s Pavillion through terrific enemy machinegun, rifle, and artillery fire and drove the enemy from a strongly held entrenched position after hand-to-hand fighting. His bravery and contempt for danger inspired his men, enabling them to hold fast in the face of 3 determined enemy counterattacks. His company’s position being exposed to enemy fire from both flanks, he made 3 efforts to locate an enemy machinegun which had caused heavy casualties. On his third reconnaissance he discovered the gun position and personally silenced the gun, killing or wounding the crew. The third counterattack made by the enemy was initiated by the appearance of a small detachment in advance of the enemy attacking wave. When almost within reach of the American front line the enemy appeared behind them, attacking vigorously with pistols, rifles, and handgrenades, causing heavy casualties in the American platoon. 1st Lt. Schaffner mounted the parapet of the trench and used his pistol and grenades killing a number of enemy soldiers, finally reaching the enemy officer leading the attacking forces, a captain, shooting and mortally wounding the latter with his pistol, and dragging the captured officer back to the company’s trench, securing from him valuable information as to the enemy’s strength and position. The information enabled 1st Lt. Schaffner to maintain for S hours the advanced position of his company despite the fact that it was surrounded on 3 sides by strong enemy forces. The undaunted bravery, gallant soldierly conduct, and leadership displayed by 1st Lt. Schaffner undoubtedly saved the survivors of the company from death or capture.

SCHMIDT, OSCAR, JR.
• Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy
• Place and date: At sea, 9 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pennsylvania
• G.O. No.: 450, 1919
Citation: For gallant conduct and extraordinary heroism while attached to the U.S.S. Chestnut Hill, on the occasion of the explosion and subsequent fire on board the U.S. submarine chaser 219. Schmidt, seeing a man, whose legs were partly blown off, hanging on a line from the bow of the 219, jumped overboard, swam to the sub chaser and carried him from the bow to the stern where a member of the 219’s crew helped him land the man on the afterdeck of the submarine. Schmidt then endeavored to pass through the flames amidships to get another man who was seriously burned. This he was unable to do, but when the injured man fell overboard and drifted to the stern of the chaser Schmidt helped him aboard.

SEIBERT, LLOYD M.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 364th Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Epinonville, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Salinas, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 445, W.D., 1919
Citation. Suffering from illness, Sgt. Seibert remained with his platoon and led his men with the highest courage and leadership under heavy shell and machinegun fire. With 2 other soldiers he charged a machinegun emplacement in advance of their company, he himself killing one of the enemy with a shotgun and capturing 2 others. In this encounter he was wounded, but he nevertheless continued in action, and when a withdrawal was ordered he returned with the last unit, assisting a wounded comrade. Later in the evening he volunteered and carried in wounded until he fainted from exhaustion.

SHEMIN, WILLIAM
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 47th Infantry, 4th Division, American Expeditionary Force
• Place and date: Vesle River, South East of Bazoches, France | August 7-9, 1918
Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:Sergeant Shemin distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Rifleman with G Company, 2d Battalion, 47th Infantry Regiment, 4th Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy on the Vesle River, near Bazoches, France from August 7 to August 9, 1918. Sergeant Shemin left cover and crossed open space, repeatedly exposing himself to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, to rescue wounded. After Officers and Senior Noncommissioned Officers had become casualties, Sergeant Shemin took command of the platoon and displayed great initiative under fire until wounded on August 9. Sergeant Shemin�s extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.

SIEGEL, JOHN OTTO
• Rank and organization Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: New Jersey
Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the Mohawk in performing a rescue mission aboard the schooner Hjeltenaes which was in flames on 1 November 1918. Going aboard the blazing vessel, Siegel rescued 2 men from the crew’s quarters and went back the third time. Immediately after he had entered the crew’s quarters, a steam pipe over the door bursted, making it impossible for him to escape. Siegel was overcome with smoke and fell to the deck, being finally rescued by some of the crew of the Mohawk who carried him out and rendered first aid.

*SKINKER, ALEXANDER R.
• Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 138th Infantry, 35th Division
• Place and date: At Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo.
• G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919
Citation: Unwilling to sacrifice his men when his company was held up by terrific machinegun fire from iron pill boxes in the Hindenburg Line, Capt. Skinker personally led an automatic rifleman and a carrier in an attack on the machineguns. The carrier was killed instantly, but Capt. Skinker seized the ammunition and continued through an opening in the barbed wire, feeding the automatic rifle until he, too, was killed.

SLACK, CLAYTON K.
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 124th Machine Gun Battalion, 33d Division
• Place and date: Near Consenvoye, France, 8 October 1918.
• Entered service at: Madison, Wis.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Observing German soldiers under cover 50 yards away on the left flank, Pvt. Slack, upon his own initiative, rushed them with his rifle and, single-handed, captured 10 prisoners and 2 heavy-type machineguns, thus saving his company and neighboring organizations from heavy casualties.

*SMITH, FRED E.
• Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Near Binarville, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Bartlett, N. Dak.
• G.O. NO.: 49, W.D., 1922
Citation: When communication from the forward regimental post of command to the battalion leading the advance had been interrupted temporarily by the infiltration of small parties of the enemy armed with machineguns, Lt. Col. Smith personally led a party of 2 other officers and 10 soldiers, and went forward to reestablish runner posts and carry ammunition to the front line. The guide became confused and the party strayed to the left flank beyond the outposts of supporting troops, suddenly coming under fire from a group of enemy machineguns only 50 yards away. Shouting to the other members of his party to take cover this officer, in disregard of his danger, drew his pistol and opened fire on the German guncrew. About this time he fell, severely wounded in the side, but regaining his footing, he continued to fire on the enemy until most of the men in his party were out of danger. Refusing first-aid treatment he then made his way in plain view of the enemy to a handgrenade dump and returned under continued heavy machinegun fire for the purpose of making another attack on the enemy emplacements. As he was attempting to ascertain the exact location of the nearest nest, he again fell, mortally wounded.

*STOCKHAM, FRED W. (Army Medal)
• Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 96th Company, 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment
• Place and date: In Bois-de-Belleau, France, 13-14 June 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
Citation: During an intense enemy bombardment with high explosive and gas shells which wounded or killed many members of the company, G/Sgt. Stockham, upon noticing that the gas mask of a wounded comrade was shot away, without hesitation, removed his own gas mask and insisted upon giving it to the wounded man, well knowing that the effects of the gas would be fatal to himself. He continued with undaunted courage and valor to direct and assist in the evacuation of the wounded, until he himself collapsed from the effects of gas, dying as a result thereof a few days later. His courageous conduct undoubtedly saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades and his conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to all who served with him.

*STOWERS, FREDDIE
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division
Citation: Corporal Stowers, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism on 28 September 1918 while serving as a squad leader in Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division. His company was the lead company during the attack on Hill 188, Champagne Marne Sector, France, during World War I. A few minutes after the attack began, the enemy ceased firing and began climbing up onto the parapets of the trenches, holding up their arms as if wishing to surrender. The enemy’s actions caused the American forces to cease fire and to come out into the open. As the company started forward and when within about 100 meters of the trench line, the enemy jumped back into their trenches and greeted Corporal Stowers’ company with interlocking bands of machine gun fire and mortar fire causing well over fifty percent casualties. Faced with incredible enemy resistance, Corporal Stowers took charge, setting such a courageous example of personal bravery and leadership that he inspired his men to follow him in the attack. With extraordinary heroism and complete disregard of personal danger under devastating fire, he crawled forward leading his squad toward an enemy machine gun nest, which was causing heavy casualties to his company. After fierce fighting, the machine gun position was destroyed and the enemy soldiers were killed. Displaying great courage and intrepidity Corporal Stowers continued to press the attack against a determined enemy. While crawling forward and urging his men to continue the attack on a second trench line, he was gravely wounded by machine gun fire. Although Corporal Stowers was mortally wounded, he pressed forward, urging on the members of his squad, until he died. Inspired by the heroism and display of bravery of Corporal Stowers, his company continued the attack against incredible odds, contributing to the capture of Hill 188 and causing heavy enemy casualties. Corporal Stowers’ conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and supreme devotion to his men were well above and beyond the call of duty, follow the finest traditions of military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army.

SULLIVAN, DANIEL AUGUSTUS JOSEPH
• Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Force
• Appointed from: South Carolina
Citation: For extraordinary heroism as an officer of the U.S.S. Cristabel in conflict with an enemy submarine on 21 May 1918. As a result of the explosion of a depth bomb dropped near the submarine, the Christabel was so badly shaken that a number of depth charges which had been set for firing were thrown about the deck and there was imminent danger that they would explode. Ens. Sullivan immediately fell on the depth charges and succeeded in securing them, thus saving the ship from disaster, which would inevitably have caused great loss of life.

*TALBOT, RALPH
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps
• Appointed from: Connecticut
Citation: For exceptionally meritorious service and extraordinary heroism while attached to Squadron C, 1st Marine Aviation Force, in France. 2d Lt. Talbot participated in numerous air raids into enemy territory. On 8 October 1918, while on such a raid, he was attacked by 9 enemy scouts, and in the fight that followed shot down an enemy plane. Also, on 14 October 1918, while on a raid over Pittham, Belgium, 2d Lt. Talbot and another plane became detached from the formation on account of motor trouble and were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. During the severe fight that followed, his plane shot down 1 of the enemy scouts. His observer was shot through the elbow and his gun jammed. 2d Lt. Talbot maneuvered to gain time for his observer to clear the jam with one hand, and then returned to the fight. The observer fought until shot twice, once in the stomach and once in the hip and then collapsed, 2d Lt. Talbot attacked the nearest enemy scout with his front guns and shot him down. With his observer unconscious and his motor failing, he dived to escape the balance of the enemy and crossed the German trenches at an altitude of 50 feet, landing at the nearest hospital to leave his observer, and then returning to his aerodrome.

TALLEY, EDWARD R.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company L, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Ponchaux, France, 7 October 1918
• Entered service at: Russellville, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919
Citation: Undeterred by seeing several comrades killed in attempting to put a hostile machinegun nest out of action, Sgt. Talley attacked the position single-handed. Armed only with a rifle, he rushed the nest in the face of intense enemy fire, killed or wounded at least 6 of the crew, and silenced the gun. When the enemy attempted to bring forward another gun and ammunition he drove them back by effective fire from his rifle.

THOMPSON, JOSEPH H.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 110th Infantry, 28th Division
• Place and date: Near Apremont, France, 1 October 1918
• Entered service at: Beaver Falls, Pa.
• G.O. No.: 21, W.D., 1925
Citation: Counterattacked by 2 regiments of the enemy, Maj. Thompson encouraged his battalion in the front line of constantly braving the hazardous fire of machineguns and artillery. His courage was mainly responsible for the heavy repulse of the enemy. Later in the action, when the advance of his assaulting companies was held up by fire from a hostile machinegun nest and all but 1 of the 6 assaulting tanks were disabled, Maj. Thompson, with great gallantry and coolness, rushed forward on foot 3 separate times in advance of the assaulting line, under heavy machinegun and antitank-gun fire, and led the 1 remaining tank to within a few yards of the enemy machinegun nest, which succeeded in reducing it, thereby making it possible for the infantry to advance.

TURNER, HAROLD L.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company F, 142d Infantry, 36th Division
• Place and date: Near St. Etienne, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Seminole, Okla.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his platoon had started the attack Cpl. Turner assisted in organizing a platoon consisting of the battalion scouts, runners, and a detachment of Signal Corps. As second in command of this platoon he fearlessly led them forward through heavy enemy fire, continually encouraging the men. Later he encountered deadly machinegun fire which reduced the strength of his command to but 4 men, and these were obliged to take shelter. The enemy machinegun emplacement, 25 yards distant, kept up a continual fire from 4 machineguns. After the fire had shifted momentarily, Cpl. Turner rushed forward with fixed bayonet and charged the position alone capturing the strong point with a complement of 50 Germans and 1 machineguns. His remarkable display of courage and fearlessness was instrumental in destroying the strong point, the fire from which had blocked the advance of his company.

*TURNER, WILLIAM B.
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 105th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 27 September 1918
• Entered service at: Garden City, N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 81, W.D., 1919
Citation: He led a small group of men to the attack, under terrific artillery and machinegun fire, after they had become separated from the rest of the company in the darkness. Single-handed he rushed an enemy machinegun which had suddenly opened fire on his group and killed the crew with his pistol. He then pressed forward to another machinegun post 25 yards away and had killed 1 gunner himself by the time the remainder of his detachment arrived and put the gun out of action. With the utmost bravery he continued to lead his men over 3 lines of hostile trenches, cleaning up each one as they advanced, regardless of the fact that he had been wounded 3 times, and killed several of the enemy in hand-to-hand encounters. After his pistol ammunition was exhausted, this gallant officer seized the rifle of a dead soldier, bayoneted several members of a machinegun crew, and shot the other. Upon reaching the fourth-line trench, which was his objective, 1st Lt. Turner captured it with the 9 men remaining in his group and resisted a hostile counterattack until he was finally surrounded and killed.

UPTON, FRANK MONROE
• Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy
• Accredited to: Colorado
• G.O. No.: 403, 1918
Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H, on 17 April 1918. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Frank M. Upton, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself. Fully realizing the danger from continual explosion of similar powder boxes in the vicinity, he risked his life to save the life of this man.

VALENTE, MICHAEL
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 107th Infantry, 27th Division
• Place and date: East of Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918
• Entered service at: Ogdensburg N.Y.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1929
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy during the operations against the Hindenburg line, east of Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918. Finding the advance of his organization held up by a withering enemy machinegun fire, Pvt. Valente volunteered to go forward. With utter disregard of his own personal danger, accompanied by another soldier, Pvt. Valente rushed forward through an intense machinegun fire directly upon the enemy nest, killing 2 and capturing 5 of the enemy and silencing the gun. Discovering another machinegun nest close by which was pouring a deadly fire on the American forces, preventing their advance, Pvt. Valente and his companion charged upon this strong point, killing the gunner and putting this machinegun out of action. Without hesitation they jumped into the enemy’s trench, killed 2 and captured 16 German soldiers. Pvt. Valente was later wounded and sent to the rear.

VAN IERSEL, LUDOVICUS M. M.
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 9th Infantry, 2d Division
• Place and date: At Mouzon, France, 9 November 1918
• Entered service at: Glen Rock, N.J.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: While a member of the reconnaissance patrol, sent out at night to ascertain the condition of a damaged bridge, Sgt. Van Iersel volunteered to lead a party across the bridge in the face of heavy machinegun and rifle fire from a range of only 75 yards. Crawling alone along the debris of the ruined bridge he came upon a trap, which gave away and precipitated him into the water. In spite of the swift current he succeeded in swimming across the stream and found a lodging place among the timbers on the opposite bank. Disregarding the enemy fire, he made a careful investigation of the hostile position by which the bridge was defended and then returned to the other bank of the river, reporting this valuable information to the battalion commander.

VILLEPIGUE, JOHN C.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company M, 118th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, 15 October 1918
• Entered service at. Camden, S.C.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Having been sent out with 2 other soldiers to scout through the village of Vaux-Andigny, he met with strong resistance from enemy machinegun fire, which killed 1 of his men and wounded the other. Continuing his advance without aid 500 yards in advance of his platoon and in the face of machinegun and artillery fire he encountered 4 of the enemy in a dugout, whom he attacked and killed with a handgrenade. Crawling forward to a point 150 yards in advance of his first encounter, he rushed a machinegun nest, killing 4 and capturing 6 of the enemy and taking 2 light machineguns. After being joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm.

WAALER, REIDAR
• Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Machine-Gun Battalion, 27th Division
• Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, 27 September 1918
• Entered service at: New York, N.Y.
• G.O. No.. 5, W.D., 1920
Citation: In the face of heavy artillery and machinegun fire, he crawled forward to a burning British tank, in which some of the crew were imprisoned, and succeeded in rescuing 2 men. Although the tank was then burning fiercely and contained ammunition which was likely to explode at any time, this soldier immediately returned to the tank and, entering it, made a search for the other occupants, remaining until he satisfied himself that there were no more living men in the tank.

WARD, CALVIN JOHN
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 117th Infantry, 30th Division
• Place and date: Near Estrees, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Morristown, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: During an advance, Pvt. Ward’s company was held up by a machinegun, which was enfilading the line. Accompanied by a noncommissioned officer, he advanced against this post and succeeded in reducing the nest by killing 3 and capturing 7 of the enemy and their guns.

WEST, CHESTER H.
• Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 363d Infantry, 91st Division
• Place and date: Near Bois-de-Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Los Banos, Calif.
• G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919
Citation: While making his way through a thick fog with his automatic rifle section, his advance was halted by direct and unusual machinegun fire from 2 guns. Without aid, he at once dashed through the fire and, attacking the nest, killed 2 of the gunners, 1 of whom was an officer. This prompt and decisive hand-to-hand encounter on his part enabled his company to advance farther without the loss of a man.

WHITTLESEY, CHARLES W.
• Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division
• Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne France, 2-7 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pittsfield, Mass.
• G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918
Citation: Although cut off for 5 days from the remainder of his division, Maj. Whittlesey maintained his position, which he had reached under orders received for an advance, and held his command, consisting originally of 46 officers and men of the 308th Infantry and of Company K of the 307th Infantry, together in the face of superior numbers of the enemy during the 5 days. Maj. Whittlesey and his command were thus cut off, and no rations or other supplies reached him, in spite of determined efforts which were made by his division. On the 4th day Maj. Whittlesey received from the enemy a written proposition to surrender, which he treated with contempt, although he was at the time out of rations and had suffered a loss of about 50 percent in killed and wounded of his command and was surrounded by the enemy.

*WICKERSHAM, J. HUNTER
• Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 353d Infantry, 89th Division
• Place and date. Near Limey, France, 12 September 1918
• Entered service at: Denver, Colo.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: Advancing with his platoon during the St. Mihiel offensive, he was severely wounded in 4 places by the bursting of a high-explosive shell. Before receiving any aid for himself he dressed the wounds of his orderly, who was wounded at the same time. He then ordered and accompanied the further advance of his platoon, although weakened by the loss of blood. His right hand and arm being disabled by wounds, he continued to fire his revolver with his left hand until, exhausted by loss of blood, he fell and died from his wounds before aid could be administered.

*WOLD, NELS
• Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 138th Infantry, 35th Division
• Place and date: Near Cheppy, France, 26 September 1918
• Entered service at: Minnewaukan, N. Dak.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: He rendered most gallant service in aiding the advance of his company, which had been held up by machinegun nests, advancing, with 1 other soldier, and silencing the guns, bringing with him, upon his return, 11 prisoners. Later the same day he jumped from a trench and rescued a comrade who was about to be shot by a German officer, killing the officer during the exploit. His actions were entirely voluntary, and it was while attempting to rush a 5th machinegun nest that he was killed. The advance of his company was mainly due to his great courage and devotion to duty.

WOODFILL, SAMUEL
• Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division
• Place and date: At Cunel, France, 12 October 1918
• Entered service at: Bryantsburg, Ind.
• G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919
Citation: While he was leading his company against the enemy, his line came under heavy machinegun fire, which threatened to hold up the advance. Followed by 2 soldiers at 25 yards, this officer went out ahead of his first line toward a machinegun nest and worked his way around its flank, leaving the 2 soldiers in front. When he got within 10 yards of the gun it ceased firing, and 4 of the enemy appeared, 3 of whom were shot by 1st Lt. Woodfill. The fourth, an officer, rushed at 1st Lt. Woodfill, who attempted to club the officer with his rifle. After a hand-to-hand struggle, 1st Lt. Woodfill killed the officer with his pistol. His company thereupon continued to advance, until shortly afterwards another machinegun nest was encountered. Calling on his men to follow, 1st Lt. Woodfill rushed ahead of his line in the face of heavy fire from the nest, and when several of the enemy appeared above the nest he shot them, capturing 3 other members of the crew and silencing the gun. A few minutes later this officer for the third time demonstrated conspicuous daring by charging another machinegun position, killing 5 men in one machinegun pit with his rifle. He then drew his revolver and started to jump into the pit, when 2 other gunners only a few yards away turned their gun on him. Failing to kill them with his revolver, he grabbed a pick lying nearby and killed both of them. Inspired by the exceptional courage displayed by this officer, his men pressed on to their objective under severe shell and machinegun fire.

YORK, ALVIN C.
• Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company G, 328th Infantry, 82d Division
• Place and date: Near Chatel-Chehery, France, 8 October 1918
• Entered service at: Pall Mall, Tenn.
• G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919
Citation: After his platoon had suffered heavy casualties and 3 other noncommissioned officers had become casualties, Cpl. York assumed command. Fearlessly leading 7 men, he charged with great daring a machinegun nest which was pouring deadly and incessant fire upon his platoon. In this heroic feat the machinegun nest was taken, together with 4 officers and 128 men and several guns.

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE

Remember the names of all those who guarded your freedoms: Eddy Toorall

SOURCE:U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY

Eleventh Hour Eleventh Day Eleventh Month

At the 11th hour in the 11th day of the 11th month of the year One thousand Nine hundred and Eighteen of the Common Era; the guns of the greatest slaughter of humanity by force of arms up until that time, went silent. Only the horrible memories of a tragedy which began in the late summer of 1914 remained, along with the emptiness left behind of the dead, and the suffering of the wounded.

What had begun as a misguided attempt to garner territory and prestige by the “Nobile elite” of Europe, who in the detachments from the reality of not only the plight of their own peoples but of the stability of the world in general, initiated a wholesale slaughter of epic proportions, consuming generations of the youth of the world. Producing economic disasters and global chaos, tens of millions died, hundreds of million injured, empires fell; and the misery inflicted upon the world would eventually produce an even greater devastating war.

One Hundred years have passed, seemingly an overly long amount of time, and true all that had participated in that great conflagration are now passed, yet we cannot forget, we dare not forget that unbelievable nightmare. We should never forget those that faced that challenge and gave their all, or those that suffered countless years after with agonizing wounds both physical and mental.

We must remember that the suffering was not confined to the individuals who endured the rigors of that “Great War” but also the families they either left behind or who bore witness to their suffering.

The American Expeditionary Forces arrived in France in June 1917, they would eventually total more than Two Million personnel culminating in 40 combat divisions with support. Of that number over 255, 000 would become casualties of war, with 52,997 battle deaths and over 50,000 non-battle.

Now a Hundred years later we can do little more than pay homage to dead, speak their name so that they shall always be remembered. Adorn their final place of rest and honor with bits of cloth the colors of which they so gallantly marched, fought and died to preserve.

AEF Strength (30 November 1918):
Total: 1,929,760 (80,004 officers; 1,849,756 enlisted)
Logistics Organization: Services of Supply (SOS)
Location: Tours, France
Strength (11 November 1918):
Officers: 30,593
Nurses: 5,586
Enlisted: 602,910
Total: 644,540

Casualties: AEF Casualties:
Killed in action: 37,171 (1,648 officers; 35,523 enlisted)
Died of wounds: 12,934 (559 officers; 12,375 enlisted)
Wounds not mortal: 193,602 (6,904 officers; 186,698 enlisted)
Total casualties: 243,707 (9,111 officers; 234,596 enlisted)
Troops at Sea: Killed in action:
370 (7 officers; 363 enlisted)
Dies of wounds: 0
Wounds not mortal: 5 (1 officer; 4 enlisted)
Total casualties: 375 (8 officers; 367 enlisted)
U.S. Army Non-Battle Deaths: 55,868

American Expeditionary Forces, Siberia:
Commander: Maj. Gen. William S. Graves
Approximate Size of Force: 8,400 (300 officers; 8,100 enlisted)
Length of Campaign: July 1918–April 1920
Purpose: To aid Russian and Czech-Slovak forces and protect war materiel
American Expeditionary Forces, North Russia:
Commander: Col. George E. Stewart (September 1918–April 1919) Brig. Gen. Wilds P. Richardson (April–August 1919) Approximate Size of Force: 4,500 (150 officers; 4,350 enlisted) Length of Campaign: September 1918–August 1919 Purpose: To support Czech-Slovak forces in Russia and protect war materiel
North Russia & Siberia:
Killed in action: 27 (1 officer; 26 enlisted) Died of wounds: 8 (0 officers; 8 enlisted)
Wounds not mortal: 52 (4 officers; 48 enlisted)
Total casualties: 87 (5 officers; 82 enlisted)

SOURCE: United States Army Center of Military History

I leave only this small token of my thanks and gratitude for their deeds with this poem from one of those heroes who fell for my freedoms. (E. T.)

Rouge Bouquet
There is a new-made grave to-day,
Built by never a spade nor pick
Yet covered with earth ten metres thick.
There lie many fighting men,
Dead in their youthful prime,
Never to laugh nor love again
Nor taste the Summertime.

For Death came flying through the air
And stopped his flight at the dugout stair,
Touched his prey and left them there,
Clay to clay.
He hid their bodies stealthily
In the soil of the land they fought to free
And fled away.
Now over the grave abrupt and clear
Three volleys ring;
And perhaps their brave young spirits hear
The bugle sing:
“Go to sleep!
Go to sleep!”

Slumber well where the shell screamed and fell.
Let your rifles rest on the muddy floor,
You will not need them anymore.
Danger’s past;
Now at last,
Go to sleep!”

There is on earth no worthier grave
To hold the bodies of the brave
Than this place of pain and pride
Where they nobly fought and nobly died.
Never fear but in the skies
Saints and angels stand
Smiling with their holy eyes
On this new-come band.

St. Michael’s sword darts through the air
And touches the aureole on his hair
As he sees them stand saluting there,
His stalwart sons; And Patrick, Brigid, Columkill
Rejoice that in veins of warriors still
The Gael’s blood runs.
And up to Heaven’s doorway floats,
From the wood called Rouge Bouquet
A delicate cloud of bugle notes
That softly say: “Farewell! Farewell!

Comrades true, born anew, peace to you!
Your souls shall be where the heroes are
And your memory shine like the morning-star.
Brave and dear,
Shield us here.
Farewell!”
Author: Sargent Joyce Kilmer “Fighting 69th” Infantry Regiment U.S. Army (W.W. I-France) Killed in Action 30 July 1918; Second Battle of the Marne

IN FLANDERS FIELDS
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
AUTHOR: LT. Colonel John McCrea: Canadian Expeditionary Forces (W.W. I-France)

THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE®

CONTRIBUTOR: Eddy Toorall

The Old Farmer’s Almanac for Nov. 11: Sky Watch for November

SKY MAP (STAR CHART): NOVEMBER 2018

VENUS AT ITS BRIGHTEST
Jeff DeTray from AstronomyBoy.com
The ancient Romans worshiped her as the goddess of love and beauty. Frankie Avalon recorded a #1 hit song about her. She is the brightest thing in the sky after the Sun and Moon. We’re talking about Venus, once thought to be Earth’s planetary twin.

In the second half of November, Venus will be as bright as it ever gets. To see the Venus show, you’ll need to wake up before sunrise and look toward the east-southeast. Venus will be—by far – the brightest object in the sky. Venus never ventures very far from the Sun, so it’s best viewed only a few times a year, when the planetary geometry is just right and then only shortly after sunset or shortly before sunrise. On these occasions, Venus is known as either the Evening Star or the Morning Star.

Venus and Earth DO have some things in common, though not as much as once thought. They are the second and third closest planets to the Sun. Being closer to the Sun means a year on Venus—the time it takes to revolve once around the Sun—lasts 224.7 days compared to Earth’s 365 days. The two planets are composed mainly of rocky material and are nearly the same size, with Venus just slightly smaller. If you weigh 125 pounds on Earth you would weigh about 113 pounds on Venus. Venus comes closer to Earth than any other planet, a mere 24 million miles, and that’s the main reason why it’s so bright.

Because of its similarities to Earth, Venus became the subject of some very fanciful (and quite incorrect) theories. Among the most popular was the supposed existence of complex life on Venus. It was imagined that because it is closer to the Sun than Earth, Venus might simply a warmer, wetter version of our planet. Some believed Venus to be a world of rain forests and jungles, replete with giant trees, dinosaurs, and even intelligent Venusians.

As our scientific knowledge advanced, astronomers learned that Venus is not just warm, it’s excruciatingly hot. The surface temperature reaches 872 degrees Fahrenheit, hot enough to melt lead. Venus is also a world of volcanoes, and the whole planet is wrapped in a thick atmosphere comprised mostly of carbon dioxide. This dense atmosphere insulates the planet, preventing heat from escaping and resulting in a runaway greenhouse effect. Venus is an intensely inhospitable place. So much for the rain forest theory!

When the age of space exploration began, Venus’ close proximity meant it became the very first target for interplanetary spacecraft. America’s Mariner 2 was the first successful probe, flying past Venus in 1962. The first successful landing did not come until 1970 when the Soviet Venera 7 spacecraft touched down. Due to the extreme conditions on the planet, it is highly unlikely that a manned landing on Venus will ever be attempted.

This month’s sky map shows Venus where it appears early on Thanksgiving morning, blazing near the bright star Spica in the constellation Virgo the Virgin. The map is accurate any time during the last two weeks of November, so bundle up if necessary and enjoy Venus at its best!

In the words of Frankie Avalon’s “Venus” from 1959:
  Hey, Venus! Oh, Venus!
Make my dreams come true
!

 

VENUS, PLANET OF PARADOX

Bob Berman
Sister planet. Nearest neighbor. Goddess of love. How appealing the planet Venus sounds!

VENUS’ ODDITIES

Few who gaze longingly at Venus are aware of the planet’s oddities.

  • Venus’ surface never budges from about 850°F, day and night.
  • The air is suffocatingly dense, packed with 50 times greater pressure than a pressure cooker.
  • Its atmosphere provides no oxygen whatsoever.
  • Venus’ day is longer than its year. Venus spins on its axis in 243 Earth-days but orbits the Sun in 225 Earth-days.
  • Its clouds are made of white sulfuric acid. Because of this, Venus is deceivingly reflective as a mirror; fully 76 percent of the sunlight gets bounced away from the shiniest planet in our solar system.
  • Beneath clouds of concentrated acid droplets lies clear compressed air that distorts everything into fun-house-mirror images.

Interestingly, the Venusian surface is brightly lit despite being eternally overcast. With illumination that equals Earth’s on a cloudy day, even inexpensive disposable cameras would take correctly exposed photos there, a situation encountered on no other planet.

Of course, no budding photographer or human being is likely to go to Venus. Ever. It’s touching that we named the most luminous “star” after the love goddess. For all eternity, our nearest planet—that dazzling beacon in the western sky—will tantalize with a warning label: Look but don’t touch.

Source

The Old Farmer’s Almanac

This Day In History: Veteran’s Day

Veteran’s Day

Veterans Day (originally known as Armistice Day) is an official United States public holiday, observed annually on November 11, that honors military veterans; that is, persons who served in the United States Armed Forces. It coincides with other holidays, including Armistice Day and Remembrance Day, celebrated in other countries that mark the anniversary of the end of World War I; major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, when the Armistice with Germany went into effect. At the urging of major veteran organizations, Armistice Day was renamed Veterans Day in 1954.

Veterans Day should not be confused with Memorial Day, a U.S. public holiday in May; Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans, while Memorial Day honors those who died while in military service.[1] It is also not to be confused with Armed Forces Day, a minor U.S. remembrance that also occurs in May, which specifically honors those currently serving in the U.S. military.

 

History

On November 11, 1919, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issued a message to his countrymen on the first Armistice Day, in which he expressed what he felt the day meant to Americans:

ADDRESS TO FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN
The White House, November 11, 1919.

A year ago today our enemies laid down their arms in accordance with an armistice which rendered them impotent to renew hostilities, and gave to the world an assured opportunity to reconstruct its shattered order and to work out in peace a new and juster set of international relations. The soldiers and people of the European Allies had fought and endured for more than four years to uphold the barrier of civilization against the aggressions of armed force. We ourselves had been in the conflict something more than a year and a half.

With splendid forgetfulness of mere personal concerns, we remodeled our industries, concentrated our financial resources, increased our agricultural output, and assembled a great army, so that at the last our power was a decisive factor in the victory. We were able to bring the vast resources, material and moral, of a great and free people to the assistance of our associates in Europe who had suffered and sacrificed without limit in the cause for which we fought.

Out of this victory there arose new possibilities of political freedom and economic concert. The war showed us the strength of great nations acting together for high purposes, and the victory of arms foretells the enduring conquests which can be made in peace when nations act justly and in furtherance of the common interests of men.

To us in America the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service, and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of nations.

WOODROW WILSON[2]

The United States Congress adopted a resolution on June 4, 1926, requesting that President Calvin Coolidge issue annual proclamations calling for the observance of November 11 with appropriate ceremonies.[2] A Congressional Act (52 Stat. 351; 5 U.S. Code, Sec. 87a) approved May 13, 1938, made November 11 in each year a legal holiday: “a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be thereafter celebrated and known as ‘Armistice Day’.”[3]

In 1945, World War II veteran Raymond Weeks from Birmingham, Alabama, had the idea to expand Armistice Day to celebrate all veterans, not just those who died in World War I. Weeks led a delegation to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, who supported the idea of National Veterans Day. Weeks led the first national celebration in 1947 in Alabama and annually until his death in 1985. President Reagan honored Weeks at the White House with the Presidential Citizenship Medal in 1982 as the driving force for the national holiday. Elizabeth Dole, who prepared the briefing for President Reagan, determined Weeks as the “Father of Veterans Day.”[4]

U.S. Representative Ed Rees from Emporia, Kansas, presented a bill establishing the holiday through Congress. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, also from Kansas, signed the bill into law on May 26, 1954. It had been eight and a half years since Weeks held his first Armistice Day celebration for all veterans.[5]

Congress amended the bill on June 1, 1954, replacing “Armistice” with “Veterans,” and it has been known as Veterans Day since.[6][7]

The National Veterans Award was also created in 1954. Congressman Rees of Kansas received the first National Veterans Award in Birmingham, Alabama, for his support offering legislation to make Veterans Day a federal holiday.[citation needed]

Although originally scheduled for celebration on November 11 of every year, starting in 1971 in accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, Veterans Day was moved to the fourth Monday of October (October 25, 1971; October 23, 1972; October 22, 1973; October 28, 1974; October 27, 1975; October 25, 1976, and October 24, 1977). In 1978, it was moved back to its original celebration on November 11. While the legal holiday remains on November 11, if that date happens to be on a Saturday or Sunday, then organizations that formally observe the holiday will normally be closed on the adjacent Friday or Monday, respectively.[citation needed]

Observance

Because it is a federal holiday, some American workers and many students have Veterans Day off from work or school. When Veterans Day falls on a Saturday then either Saturday or the preceding Friday may be designated as the holiday, whereas if it falls on a Sunday it is typically observed on the following Monday. When it falls on weekend many private companies offer it as a floating holiday where employee can choose some other day. A Society for Human Resource Management poll in 2010 found that 21 percent of employers planned to observe the holiday in 2011.[8]

Non-essential federal government offices are closed. No mail is delivered. All federal workers are paid for the holiday; those who are required to work on the holiday sometimes receive holiday pay for that day in addition to their wages.

In his Armistice Day address to Congress, Wilson was sensitive to the psychological toll of the lean War years: “Hunger does not breed reform; it breeds madness,” he remarked.[9] As Veterans Day and the birthday of the United States Marine Corps (November 10, 1775) are only one day apart, that branch of the Armed Forces customarily observes both occasions as a 96-hour liberty period.

Election Day is a regular working day, while Veterans Day, which typically falls the following week, is a federal holiday. The National Commission on Federal Election Reform called for the holidays to be merged, so citizens can have a day off to vote. They state this as a way to honor voting by exercising democratic rights.[10]

Spelling of Veterans Day

While the holiday is commonly printed as Veteran’s Day or Veterans’ Day in calendars and advertisements (spellings that are grammatically acceptable), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs website states that the attributive (no apostrophe) rather than the possessive case is the official spelling “because it is not a day that ‘belongs’ to veterans, it is a day for honoring all veterans.”[11]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Kelber, Sarah Kickler (May 28, 2012). “Today is not Veterans Day”Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Supplement to the Messages and Papers of the Presidents: Covering the Second Term of Woodrow Wilson, March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1921”. Bureau of National Literature. 11 November 2015.
  3. Jump up^ “Veterans Day History”. Veteran’s Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
  4. Jump up^ Zurski, Ken (November 11, 2016). “Raymond Weeks: The Father of Veterans Day”. Unremembered History. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  5. Jump up^ Carter, Julie (November 2003). “Where Veterans Day began”VFW Magazine. Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012.
  6. Jump up^ “History of Veterans Day”. United States Department of Veterans Affairs. November 26, 2007. Archived from the original on July 28, 2006. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
  7. Jump up^ “The History of Veterans Day”. United States Army Center of Military History (CMH). October 3, 2003. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
  8. Jump up^ Society for Human Resource Management (November 4, 2010). “2011 Holiday Schedules SHRM Poll”. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010.
  9. Jump up^ Smith, Andrew F. (2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 290. ISBN 0-19-530796-8. Retrieved November 12,2010.
  10. Jump up^ Sutter, John D. (November 12, 2012). “Election Day should be a federal holiday”CNN. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  11. Jump up^ Veterans Day Frequently Asked Questions, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Updated July 20, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.

Inspiration for the Day, Nov. 11: Feeling Fed Up With Humanity

Feeling Fed Up With Humanity

BY MADISYN TAYLOR

It is natural to feel let down when we see our fellow humans behaving badly, return the focus to your own life.

From time to time, we may all feel fed up with humanity, whether it’s from learning about what’s going on around the world, or what’s going on next door. There are always situations that leave us feeling as if people are simply not capable of behaving in a way that is coming from a place of awareness. Often it seems as if people are actually geared to handle things in the worst possible way, repeatedly. At the same time, none of us wants to linger in a judgmental mood about our own species. As a result, we might tend to repress the feelings coming up as we take in the news from the world and the neighborhood.

It is natural to feel let down and disappointed when we see our fellow humans behaving in ways that are greedy, selfish, violent, or uncaring, but there are also ways to process that disappointment without sinking into despondency. As with any emotional response, we honor our feelings by feeling them fully, without judging or acting on them. Once we’ve done that – and we may need to do it every day, as part of our daily self-care – we can begin to consider ways that we might help the situation in which humanity finds itself.

As always, we start with ourselves, utilizing our awareness of the failings of others to renew our own commitment to be more conscious human beings. We are all capable of the best and the worst that humanity has to offer, and remembering this keeps us in check, as well as allowing us to find compassion for others. We may find ourselves feeling compelled to serve people who are suffering injustices at the hands of other people, or we may begin to speak out when we see something that we don’t think is right. Whatever the case, the only thing we can do is pledge to serve the best, rather than the worst, of what humanity has to offer, both in the world, and in ourselves.

 

Source

Daily OM